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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 5-8, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604586

RESUMO

We applied social network analysis (SNA) to Tweets mentioning cannabis or opioid-related terms to publicly available COVID-19 related Tweets collected from Jan 21st to May 3rd, 2020 (n= 2,558,474 Tweets). We randomly extracted 16,154 Tweets mentioning cannabis and 4,670 Tweets mentioning opioids from the COVID-19 Tweet corpora for our analysis. The cannabis related Tweets created by 6,144 users were disseminated to 280,042,783 users and retweeted 11 times the number of original messages while opioid-related Tweets created by 3,412 users were disseminated to smaller number of users. The opioids Twitter network showed more cohesive online group activities and a cleaner online environment with less disinformation. The cannabis Twitter network showed a less desirable online environment with more disinformation (false information to mislead the public) and stakeholders lacking strong science knowledge. Application of SNA to Tweets provides insights for future online-based drug abuse research during the outbreak.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cannabis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Rede Social
2.
S Afr Med J ; 110(3): 192-196, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657695

RESUMO

The South African (SA) Constitutional Court recently decriminalised the private cultivation, possession and use of cannabis by adults. Cannabis contains varying amounts of the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), depending on various cultivation factors. No commercial plant-derived cannabis products are currently registered by the SA Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA) for medical use. Such products are therefore unregulated, but are freely available in SA, and may be of inadequate quality and unverified composition, and not guaranteed to be safe or effective. SAHPRA has to date approved only one synthetic medical cannabis product, dronabinol. Evidence supporting benefit from medical cannabis exists for two drug-resistant childhood forms of epilepsy, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Adjuvant therapy with medical cannabis can reduce seizure frequency for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome by 18.8% and 22.8%, respectively, and may be beneficial for other rare forms of epilepsy. There is moderate evidence for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with the synthetic cannabinoids. Multiple sclerosis-associated spasticity showed a small clinical improvement in self-reported spasticity when a purified form of THC/CBD was added to existing therapy. Currently, low-level or no convincing evidence exists for the use of medical cannabis for chronic pain, sleep and weight disorders, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabis is associated with a greater risk of adverse effects than active and placebo controls, and may be involved in clinically significant drug-drug interactions. The evolving regulatory and legal landscape on the use of medical cannabis will guide prescription and recreational use in the coming years.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Médicos
3.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 102-105, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657678

RESUMO

The compounds present in cannabis have been in use for both recreational and medicinal purposes for many centuries. Changes in the legislation in South Africa have led to an increase in the number of people interested in using these compounds for self-medication. Many of them may approach their general practitioner as the first source of information about possible therapeutic effects. It is important that medical professionals are able to give patients the correct information. Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main compounds in cannabis plants, and there is evidence that it can successfully treat certain patients with epilepsy. This review looks at the most recent evidence on the use of CBD in the treatment of epilepsy and explores the mechanisms behind these beneficial effects.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Canabidiol/isolamento & purificação , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , África do Sul
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(700): 1363-1366, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672015

RESUMO

Democratization of the cannabis consumption and its derivatives incite patients to ask ever more for medical cannabinoid prescriptions, especially in the context of chronic pain. Its use is only validated in certain limited cases, in particular spasticity linked to multiple sclerosis and refractory epilepsies. All other prescriptions require a special request to the OFSP. Moreover, cannabinoid intake may produce several dose-dependent side effects that require a close monitoring with a slow and gradual initiation of its dosage. In the absence of clear medical evidence, many other mechanisms of action need to be investigated with ongoing and future studies to clarify their indication.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Dor Crônica , Esclerose Múltipla , Analgésicos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(7): 570-571, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605450
7.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(7): 312-317, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600509

RESUMO

Studies have reported changes in the endocannabinoid system in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), playing a role in the pathophysiology of AD. Cannabinoids have been shown to have neuroprotective properties, reduce neuroinflammation, and enhance neurogenesis. Evidence suggests that the utilization of marijuana products containing both tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) or CBD alone have been effective and safe for use in older people with agitation associated with dementia. A review in 2017 summarized positive findings for therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids in agitation of AD and dementia, but there was no definitive conclusion because of varying cannabinoid products. Cannabinoids were shown to be well tolerated, with few short-term side effects. This differs from first-line medications utilized for dementia behaviors, which can have unwanted side effects. Further research regarding the safety, efficacy, and variability of these products in older people is needed.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Dronabinol , Alucinógenos , Humanos
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661188

RESUMO

Cannabinoids, the psychoactive compounds in marijuana, are one of the most commonly used substances in the United States. In this review, we summarize the impact of marijuana on child and adolescent health and discuss the implications of marijuana use for pediatric practice. We review the changing epidemiology of cannabis use and provide an update on medical use, routes of administration, synthetic marijuana and other novel products, the effect of cannabis on the developing brain, other health and social consequences of use, and issues related to marijuana legalization.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/síntese química , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Cannabis/química , Cannabis/envenenamento , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Medicamentosas , Endocanabinoides/fisiologia , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/terapia , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Leite Humano/química , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Receptores de Canabinoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Canabinoides/fisiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
9.
Gene ; 759: 144987, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immune response is influenced by the administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are affected by PUFA. The combination of evening primrose/hemp seed oil (EPO/HSO) has essential fatty acids (EFAs) for human optimal health due to the favorable ratio of omega-6/omega-3 and antioxidantal properties. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of EPO/HSO on improving the membrane fatty acids composition of spleen and blood cells and immunologic factors in compared to rapamycin (RAPA) in the EAE model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Chronic-EAE was induced by induction of MOG in C57BL/6J mice (female, age: 6-8 weeks, weight 18-21). Mice were assigned to 5 groups (6/group) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of EPO/HSO supplement in comparison with rapamycin: A group; EPO/HSO + RAPA, B group; RAPA, C group; EPO/HSO. Results were compared to two control groups (EAE and naive). The fatty acid profile of the spleen and blood cell membrane was evaluated. Real-time-polymerase chain reaction was used for the evaluate the genes expression levels of interleukin (IL) -4, IL-5, and IL-13 in lymphocytes. Also, IL-4 of serum was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Our findings indicated that EPO/HSO therapy significantly increased the percentage of essential fatty acids in cell membrane of the spleen and blood. The relative expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 genes in lymphocytes and serum level of IL-4 was significantly increased in the HSO/EPO treated group versus other groups. CONCLUSION: These results point to potential therapeutic effects on the repair of the structure of cell membranes and suppression of inflammation by EPO/HSO in EAE.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Primula/química , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem
10.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 110955, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677619

RESUMO

There is growing concern over the impacts of cannabis farms on the environment and water resources in particular, yet data on cultivation practices and water use patterns have been limited. Estimates of water use for cannabis cultivation have previously relied on extrapolated values of plant water demand, which do not account for differences in cultivation practices, variation across the growing season, or the role of water storage in altering seasonal extraction patterns. The current study uses data reported by enrollees in California's North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board Cannabis Program to model how variation in cultivation practices and the use of stored water affect the timing and amount of water extracted from the environment. We found that the supplemental use of stored water resulted in a seasonal pattern of water extraction (water withdrawals from the environment) that was distinct from water demand (water applied to plants). Although water input to storage in the off-season months (November through March) reduced water extraction in the growing season (April through October), farms generally did not have sufficient storage to completely forbear from surface water extraction during the growing season. The most important predictors of storage sufficiency were type of storage infrastructure, type of water source, and farm size, with the likelihood of sufficiency decreasing with increasing cultivation area. As of 2019, state cannabis regulations require forbearance from surface water diversions from April through October. To comply, farms relying on surface water must either develop storage, reduce water demand, or seek alternative water sources, such as groundwater. Our findings indicate that water extraction from farms using groundwater wells generally occurs during the summer dry season and highlight the need to assess their potential impacts to connected surface water in streams. Finally, given that the current study was based on data exclusively from permitted cannabis farms, additional data from unpermitted operations would enhance our overall understanding of cannabis water-use practices and consequences for the environment.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Água Subterrânea , Agricultura , California , Estações do Ano , Água
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 311: 123558, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485603

RESUMO

Dew retting of fiber crops, such as hemp or flax, in the field after harvest promotes the microbial biodegradation of the tissues surrounding cellulosic fibers, which helps preserve the quality of fibers during their extraction and valorization for industry. This bioprocess is currently the bottleneck for plant fiber valorization because it is empirically managed and its controlling factors have not been properly quantified. A novel multiscale model representing tissue and polymer biodegradation was developed to simulate microbial growth on the stem during retting. The model was evaluated against experimental hemp retting data. It consistently simulated the mass loss of eight plant polymers belonging to two tissues of the stem outer layer, i.e., parenchyma and fiber bundles. Microbial growth was modeled by Monod equations and modulated by the functions of temperature and moisture. This work provides a tool for gaining more insights into microorganism behavior during retting under local climate conditions.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Linho , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fibras na Dieta , Têxteis
12.
Orv Hetil ; 161(25): 1035-1041, 2020 06.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516121

RESUMO

Cannabis belongs to the highly prominent soft drugs; after coffee, tobacco and alcohol, it is considered to be the fourth most consumed psychoactive substance. The two most common cannabinoids are the strictly regulated psychotropic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and the dietary supplement cannabidiol, which is non-psychoactive, only subject to reporting obligation and accessible in Hungary since 2004. In relation to the application of medical cannabis, especially in oncological indications, many misconceptions have arisen. In our review, we summarize the history of cannabis, the mechanism of action, the current evidences for application in oncological indications, the legal regulations, and highlight the potential concerns regarding cannabis administration. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(25): 1035-1041.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Maconha Medicinal , Neoplasias/terapia , Humanos , Hungria , Oncologia
13.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(9): 900-915, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538143

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) in soil, air, and water environments effect human health. These HMs cannot be degraded in soil and they can only be transformed from one state to another. Food and energy resources such as coal, oil, petrol, etc. are gradually diminishing due to ever increasing demand and consumption, world faces crisis. There is an urgent need to address these problems by reclaiming the waste/polluted land for food and energy production. Various physicochemical remediation strategies are being proposed, developed, and tested but they are all very costly and only applicable to small contaminated sites. During the past two decades or so, plant-based phytoremediation technology is rapidly evolving as a promising new tool to address the issue with the potential to remediate HM contaminated soils in a sustainable manner. Plants, labeled as phyto-tolerant or phyto-accumulators, surviving on such contaminated soils reduce the toxicity by preventing their translocation or destroying the contaminants by sequestration by synthesizing thiol-containing HM-binding proteins (nano-molecules) and peptides (phytochelators or PCs) which modulate internal levels of metal concentration between deficient and toxic levels. But such plants are very slow growing, producing small biomass, and the process taking a long time to effectively remediate such soils. To overcome limitations of using such plants, plants capable of high biomass production and tolerating multiple HMs, such as non-food bioenergy crops (Vetiver and Hamp), are required. This plant-based remediation strategy can further be enhanced with the use of both plants and rhizosphere microbes like arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting bacteria. The combination of three components, i.e. high biomass producing plant, soil, and its rhizosphere harboring plant growth-promoting rhizobial (PGPR) microbiota, particularly AMF, will further improve the process of nano-phytoremediation of HM contaminated soils. This mini review focuses on how phytoremediation, nanotechnology, AMF and PGPR technologies can be merged together to form an integrated nano-mycorrhizo-phytoremediation (NMPR) strategy which synergistically achieve the goal of remediation of soil contaminants and improve the phytoremediation performance of bioenergy plants grown on HM polluted soils. This review also identifies the urgent need to conduct field-scale application of this strategy and use it as potential tool for reestablishing plant cover and population diversity during restoration of derelict land post-industrial/mining activities.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo
14.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(3): 541-546, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the epidemic situation of cannabis use among drug users with compulsory detained detoxification treatment in China. METHODS: Using the data from the Drug Abuse Population Estimation in the Key Cities of the Ministry of Public Security, we analyzed the sociodemographic characteristics and substance use of cannabis abusers with compulsory detained detoxification treatment in 55 provincial capital cities and key cities of China. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test were used to compare the prevalence of cannabis, heroin, synthetic and mixed drug use among patients with detoxification treatment, as well as the differences in polydrug use and areas among cannabis users. RESULTS: In the study, 25 366 drug users with compulsory detained detoxification treatment were recruited, of whom 2.2% (546/25 366) used cannabis in the previous year before the treatment. The proportion of males was 83.5%, and the proportion of ethnic minorities was 41.0%. Those who received junior high school education or above accounted for 30.8%, and the unemployed accounted for 44.1%. The average age was (33.3±8.2) years, the average age of beginning drug use was (24.8±7.7) years, and the average duration between the first drug abuse and first detoxification treatment was (5.4±4.6) years. The prevalence of cannabis use was higher among those drug users who were 35-year-old and younger, ethnic minorities, employees and residents in Xinjiang. Of the cannabis users, 91.4% used polydrug, 13.6% combined with heroin alone, 42.1% combined with synthetic drugs alone and 35.7% combined with both of heroin and synthetic drugs. Of the cannabis users, 49.6% came from 3 regions: Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Jiangsu Province and Shanghai City. The cannabis users in Xinjiang had a high proportion of ethnic minorities who received junior high school education and below. Moreover, 79.6% of them combined cannabis use with heroin. The cannabis users in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai areas had a higher proportion of ethnic Han who received better education (high school and above). Moreover, 92.7% of them combined cannabis use with methamphe-tamine. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cannabis use among the population with compulsory detained detoxification treatment is higher than that among drug users under surveillance, but there are obvious regional cluster effect and high possibility of polydrug abuse. Thus, it's important to strengthen the monitoring of cannabis use, to increase the control of cannabis and to formulate China's anti-cannabis policy among different population.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Dependência de Heroína , Adolescente , Adulto , Cannabis , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Addiction ; 115(7): 1222-1223, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472597
17.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 35-45, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438375

RESUMO

AIMS: The changing medicolegal climate regarding the medicinal use of cannabinoids in New Zealand will increase the likelihood of patients consulting general practitioners (GPs) about these products. Arthritis is a common medical condition for which cannabis-based products are promoted and used; however, doctors' knowledge about the efficacy and safety of these products in the setting of arthritis may be limited. METHODS: We undertook a rapid review of the medical literature on cannabis-based medicinal products in arthritis. RESULTS: Animal studies have identified endocannabinoid pathways in arthritis that are potentially amenable to interventions. One randomised placebo-controlled trial of Sativex® in adults with rheumatoid arthritis has shown some improvements in pain but not in comparison with a standardised pharmacological treatment regimen. Systematic reviews of cannabis-based products in arthritis have determined that there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend cannabis-based medicines for routine clinical use. There were five ongoing registered clinical trials of cannabis-based products in arthritis, the results of which are yet to be reported. CONCLUSIONS: While animal models have identified possible endocannabinoid pathways in arthritis, there is no clear evidence of benefit in humans or comparative efficacy with current treatments. At this stage, there is little evidence to support GPs prescribing cannabis-based medicinal products for arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Cannabis , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
18.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 54-69, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438377

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore patterns of medicinal cannabis use prior to implementation of the new Medicinal Cannabis Scheme (MCS) in New Zealand. METHODS: An anonymous online convenience survey of 3,634 last-year medicinal users of cannabis promoted via Facebook™ from May to August 2019. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the sample were female, 18% were Maori and the median age was 38 years. The medical conditions for which cannabis was most often used were pain (81%), sleep (66%) and mental health conditions (64%). Respondents perceived cannabis to be an effective therapy and reported reducing use of other pharmaceutical medicines. Fifty-two percent reported side effects from cannabis use, including increased appetite (29%), drowsiness (12%), eye irritation (11%), dependency (10%), memory impairment (10%) and lack of energy (9%). Smoking was the dominant route of administration. Nearly half (47%) had discussed their use of cannabis with a medical professional in the previous year, while 14% had requested a prescription and 5% accessed a prescribed cannabis-based product (mostly oral CBD). CONCLUSION: Respondents self-medicated with cannabis to treat a wide range of health complaints. Only half discussed medicinal cannabis use with their medical professional, and a minority requested a prescription and used a prescribed cannabis-based product.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/economia , Maconha Medicinal/provisão & distribução , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/economia , Extratos Vegetais/provisão & distribução , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 79-88, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438379

RESUMO

AIMS: Personal cannabis use is common across New Zealand, and an upcoming referendum will enable the public to vote on whether this should be legalised. The present research aimed to examine the attitudes of midlife New Zealand adults on cannabis use and legalisation, and to identify potential predictors of those attitudes. METHODS: At age 40, 899 participants drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study were interviewed about the perceived harmfulness of cannabis use, opinions on legalisation for recreational use and supply, and the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. In addition, a range of potential predictors of legislative attitudes were examined. RESULTS: We identified a wide range of attitudes across the cohort, however the majority tended to hold a neutral view. More than 80% of the cohort expressed support for medicinal cannabis, while 47.8% supported decriminalisation, and 26.8% expressed support for legalisation for recreational use. The strongest predictors of support for legalisation were prior use of cannabis and other drugs, while additional positive predictors included a history of depression, Maori ancestry, parental drug use, novelty seeking and higher educational attainment. Predictors of more negative attitudes were also identified, and included female gender and having dependent children. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide insight into cannabis-related views within the New Zealand context, and may help to predict voting behaviour during the 2020 Cannabis Referendum.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cannabis , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude/etnologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Nova Zelândia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0229389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469882

RESUMO

Links between crystalline methamphetamine (CM) use and criminal offending are often drawn in the media; however, there has been little scientific research into this relationship. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and correlates of lifetime CM use among a sample of young people in detention in Australia and to examine whether an association exists between lifetime CM use and recidivism in this population.The sample included 202 young people (164 males) in youth detention in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were administered questionnaires related to lifetime substance use and socio-environmental experiences. Lifetime mental health data and offending data were obtained for each participant from public mental health and policing databases. More than one third (38%) of the sample reported lifetime CM use. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, older age, male gender, polysubstance use, and high levels of community disorganisation were associated with CM use. The presence of a psychiatric diagnosis over the lifetime was not significantly associated with CM use. CM use was also not significantly associated with violent recidivism. Efforts to address CM use and related harm in detained youth should include community-based strategies to reduce CM use among this vulnerable population following their release from detention. However, the findings suggest that CM use on its own is unlikely to be an important consideration for professionals concerned with determining which young people should be selected for treatment designed to reduce the risk of violent recidivism.


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Criminoso/fisiologia , Feminino , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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