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1.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 29(2): 137-146, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043398

RESUMO

Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids are abused in spite of possible adverse health consequences. The current study investigated the reinforcing effects of an ecologically relevant mode of administration (inhalation) of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, and three synthetic cannabinoids detected in synthetic cannabinoid products (JWH-018, JWH-073, and HU-210) in non-human primates (NHPs). Male and female (N = 4 each) rhesus macaques were trained to inhale warm air via a metal stem to receive a candy reinforcer, an alcohol aerosol vehicle was then paired with the candy. Dose-dependent responding for inhaled aerosols of THC (2.0-16.0 µg/kg/inhalation), JWH-018 (0.2-1.6 µg/kg/inhalation), JWH-073 (2.0-8.0 µg/kg/inhalation), and HU-210 (1.0-8.0 µg/kg/inhalation) was established using a fixed-ratio five schedule of reinforcement and compared to vehicle (alcohol) self-administration. Dose-dependent responding for inhaled heroin (25.0-100.0 µg/kg/inhalation), a known reinforcer in NHPs, was also established. Responding approximated vehicle levels for many drug doses tested, but at least half of the monkeys responded for ≥ one dose of each cannabinoid and heroin above vehicle, with the exception of THC. Drug deliveries calculated as percent vehicle followed a prototypical inverted-U shaped dose-response curve for cannabinoids and heroin except for THC and JWH-018 (in males). Grouped data according to sex demonstrated that peak percent of vehicle reinforcers earned for THC was greater in males than females, whereas peak percent of vehicle reinforcers earned for JWH-018, HU-210, and heroin were greater in females than males. These findings indicate minimal reinforcing effects of CB1 receptor agonists when self-administered by NHPs via aerosol inhalation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Dronabinol/análogos & derivados , Dronabinol/administração & dosagem , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Heroína/administração & dosagem , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Reforço Psicológico , Autoadministração
2.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804535

RESUMO

Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and imaging combined with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied to analyse biochemical properties of Early Middle Ages hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) bast fibres collected from lake bottom sediment of lake Slone. The examined plant macrofossil material constitutes residues of the hemp retting process that took place in the 7th-8th century. By comparison of three samples: untreated isolated bast fibres, and fibres incubated overnight at 4 and 37 °C, we were able to mimic the retting conditions. Using FT-IR qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of the primary polysaccharides content, total protein content, and their spatial distribution was performed within the hemp fibres. The concentration of cellulose remained vastly unchanged, while the concentration of lignin and pectin was the highest in the untreated sample. The spatial distributions of compounds were heterogeneous in the untreated and 4 °C-incubated samples, and homogenous in the specimen processed at 37 °C. Interestingly, a higher amide content was detected in the latter sample indicating the highest degree of enzymatic degradation. In this study, we show that the spectroscopic methods allow for a non-destructive evaluation of biochemical composition of plant fibres without preparation, which can be an appropriate approach for studying ancient plant remains.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Celulose/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/química , Lignina/análise , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Caules de Planta/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804243

RESUMO

A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that certain cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD) and synthetic derivatives, may play a role in the myelinating processes and are promising small molecules to be developed as drug candidates for management of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI), which are three of the most prevalent demyelinating disorders. Thanks to the properties described for CBD and its interesting profile in humans, both the phytocannabinoid and derivatives could be considered as potential candidates for clinical use. In this review we will summarize current advances in the use of CBD and other cannabinoids as future potential treatments. While new research is accelerating the process for the generation of novel drug candidates and identification of druggable targets, the collaboration of key players such as basic researchers, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies is required to bring novel therapies to the patients.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Cannabis/química , Doenças Desmielinizantes/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1645: 462097, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848664

RESUMO

Hemp has been an agricultural commodity for millennia, and it has been undergoing a resurgence in interest and production due to its high content of cannabinoids, protein, fiber and other ingredients. For legal possession and use throughout the USA, hemp and hemp products must have delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration < 0.3%. As with most crops, pesticides may be applied when farming hemp, which need to be monitored in food, feed, and medicinal products. The aim of this work was to evaluate and validate the recently developed "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe, efficient, and robust" (QuEChERSER) sample preparation mega-method to determine pesticide residues in hemp plants, flowers, powders, oils, and pellets. High-throughput analysis of final extracts for 106 targeted pesticides and metabolites from North American monitoring lists entailed: 1) ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with column back-flushing, and 2) instrument-top sample preparation + low-pressure gas chromatography (ITSP+LPGC-MS/MS). In QuEChERSER, 2 g sample is extracted with 10 mL 4/1 (v/v) acetonitrile/water by mechanical shaking for 10 min, followed by 3 min centrifugation. For LC, 0.2 mL of extract is taken and solvent exchanged into initial mobile phase followed by 5 min ultra-centrifugation prior to the 10 min analysis. For GC-amenable pesticides, the remaining initial extract is partitioned with 4/1 (w/w) anh. MgSO4/NaCl, and 1 mL is taken for automated ITSP cleanup in parallel with 10 min LPGC analysis. In the former case, the UHPLC column is back-flushed with 1/1 (v/v) methanol/acetonitrile for 3 min between each injection to keep the system clean and avoid ghost peaks. Multi-level, multi-day validation results achieved 70-120% recoveries with RSDs < 20% for more than 80% of the analytes in hemp protein powder, oil, pellets, and fresh plant (dried hemp plant and flower were too complex). Limits of quantification (LOQs) were < 10 ng/g were achieved for nearly all pesticides, yielding 2.8% false negatives among >13,000 analyte results in the spiked samples. The QuEChERSER method was demonstrated to meet the challenge for several complex hemp matrices.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
5.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805665

RESUMO

A microwave distillation method was optimized for the extraction and isolation of cannabis essential oil from fresh and dried hemp inflorescences. The developed method enabled us to obtain a distilled product rich in terpenes and terpenoid compounds, responsible of the typical and unique smell of the cannabis plant. The distillate from different hemp cultivars, including Kompolti, Futura 75, Carmagnola, Felina 32 and Finola were characterized by using a gas chromatograph equipped with both mass spectrometer and flame ionization detectors. In a single chromatographic run, the identity and absolute amounts of distilled compounds were determined. Peak assignment was established using a reliable approach based on the usage of two identification parameters, named reverse match, and linear retention index filter. Absolute quantification (mg g-1) of the analytes was performed using an internal standard method applying the flame ionization detector (FID) response factors according to each chemical family. An enantio-GC-MS method was also developed in order to evaluate the enantiomeric distribution of chiral compounds, an analytical approach commonly utilized for establishing the authenticity of suspicious samples.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Destilação/métodos , Ionização de Chama , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Inflorescência/química , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Estereoisomerismo , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/química
6.
J Med Chem ; 64(10): 6937-6948, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887904

RESUMO

The activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main component of Cannabis sativa, induces analgesia. CB1R activation, however, also causes cognitive impairment via the serotonin 5HT2A receptor (5HT2AR), a component of a CB1R-5HT2AR heteromer, posing a serious drawback for cannabinoid therapeutic use. We have shown that peptides reproducing CB1R transmembrane (TM) helices 5 and 6, fused to a cell-penetrating sequence (CPP), can alter the structure of the CB1R-5HT2AR heteromer and avert THC cognitive impairment while preserving analgesia. Here, we report the optimization of these prototypes into drug-like leads by (i) shortening the TM5, TM6, and CPP sequences, without losing the ability to disturb the CB1R-5HT2AR heteromer, and (ii) extensive sequence remodeling to achieve protease resistance and blood-brain barrier penetration. Our efforts have culminated in the identification of an ideal candidate for cannabis-based pain management, an orally active 16-residue peptide preserving THC-induced analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/química , Cannabis/química , Peptídeos/química , Administração Oral , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Analgésicos/metabolismo , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Canabinoides/química , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis/metabolismo , Dimerização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/química , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809348

RESUMO

Consumer demand for both plant products and meat products enriched with plant raw materials is constantly increasing. Therefore, new versatile and reliable methods are needed to find and combat fraudulent practices in processed foods. The objective of this study was to identify oilseed species-specific peptide markers and meat-specific markers that were resistant to processing, for multispecies authentication of different meat and vegan food products using the proteomic LC-MS/MS method. To assess the limit of detection (LOD) for hemp proteins, cooked meatballs consisting of three meat species and hemp cake at a final concentration of up to 7.4% were examined. Hemp addition at a low concentration of below 1% was detected. The LOD for edestin subunits and albumin was 0.9% (w/w), whereas for 7S vicilin-like protein it was 4.2% (w/w). Specific heat-stable peptides unique to hemp seeds, flaxseed, nigella, pumpkin, sesame, and sunflower seeds, as well as guinea fowl, rabbit, pork, and chicken meat, were detected in different meat and vegan foods. Most of the oilseed-specific peptides were identified as processing-resistant markers belonging to 11S globulin subunits, namely conlinin, edestin, helianthinin, pumpkin vicilin-like or late embryogenesis proteins, and sesame legumin-like as well as 2S albumins and oleosin isoforms or selected enzymic proteins.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas de Carne/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Cannabis/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fraude , Temperatura Alta , Peptídeos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteômica/métodos , Sementes/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805001

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa L. is an herbaceous plant belonging to the family of Cannabaceae. It is classified into three different chemotypes based on the different cannabinoids profile. In particular, fiber-type cannabis (hemp) is rich in cannabidiol (CBD) content. In the present work, a rapid nano liquid chromatographic method (nano-LC) was proposed for the determination of the main cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) inflorescences belonging to different varieties. The nano-LC experiments were carried out in a 100 µm internal diameter capillary column packed with a C18 stationary phase for 15 cm with a mobile phase composed of ACN/H2O/formic acid, 80/19/1% (v/v/v). The reverse-phase nano-LC method allowed the complete separation of four standard cannabinoids in less than 12 min under isocratic elution mode. The nano-LC method coupled to ultraviolet (UV) detection was validated and applied to the quantification of the target analytes in cannabis extracts. The nano-LC system was also coupled to an electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detector to confirm the identity of the cannabinoids present in hemp samples. For the extraction of the cannabinoids, three different approaches, including dynamic maceration (DM), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and an extraction procedure adapted from the French Pharmacopeia's protocol on medicinal plants, were carried out, and the results achieved were compared.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/análise , Cannabis/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1642: 462035, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725496

RESUMO

In this study, cerumen, a non-conventional biological secretion, was examined as an alternative matrix for forensic analyzis. A fully validated analytical UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the detection and quantification of the most prevalent psychoactive illicit drug globe wide, Δ9-tethrahydrocannabinol, commonly known as THC, and four major cannabinoids found in cannabis Sativa. The method was validated, and standard external calibration curves were established with correlation coefficients > 0.99. A validated experimental procedure, along with a direct extraction of cannabinoids with acidified acetonitrile resulted in a short total analyzis time and a good extraction efficiency for all the analytes under study. LOD and LOQ values were determined to be 0.01-0.08 pg/mg and 0.04-0.23 pg/mg, respectively. To prove applicability of the proposed assay, volunteers were selected, and cerumen samples were examined for cannabis. The analyzis by use of UPLC-MS/MS indicated that all samples were positive, reporting recent cannabis abuse. Surprisingly, both THC and Cannabinol (CBN) were detected, and quantification was possible in 75% of the cases.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/análise , Cerume/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Calibragem , Canabinoides/química , Cannabis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Food Chem ; 350: 129188, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588280

RESUMO

Hempseed meal after protein isolation (HM-PI) is a co-product obtained from hempseed. The objectives were to characterize and determine the effect of drying on HM-PI. HM-PI was produced using three drying methods: freeze (FD), vacuum oven (VOD), and oven drying (OD). HM-PI contained over 70% protein and had similar or higher level of essential amino acids than recommended values for human adults. Osborne fractionation indicated that glutelin was the most dominant fraction in HM-PI. FD HMPI has a significant lower surface hydrophobicity and higher in vitro protein digestibility than OD and VOD HM-PI. FD HM-PI demonstrated better functional properties than OD and VOD HM-PI. Pepsin-pancreatin digestion of VOD, FD and OD resulted in comparable and considerable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This is the first report on the characterization of HM-PI, a co-product of hempseed processing. HM-PI could serve as a novel food protein ingredient resulting in increase utilization of hempseed.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Dessecação/métodos , Resinas Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Liofilização , Humanos , Pancreatina/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Resinas Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resinas Vegetais/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572507

RESUMO

In the current study, by-product seed pastes (VSPs) from Vitis vinifera, Foeniculum vulgare, Cannabis sativa and Punica granatum, generated during the oil production process, were investigated for their potential exploitation as dermo-cosmetic agent. The extraction pipeline of all the raw materials was developed with emphasis on green methodologies and employed on laboratory scale based on industry-adopted techniques. Two different protocols were applied, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE); the by-product pastes were defatted with supercritical CO2 and n-Hexane, respectively. Then, two SFE extracts (CO2 with 10% and 20% of ethanol as co-solvent) and two UAE extracts (with ethanol and ethanol/water 1:1 v/v) were obtained from each raw material. The providing yield range was between 2.6 to 76.3 mg/g raw material. The extracts were analyzed with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometer (LC-HRMS), and the major compounds, were identified. All the extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant and inhibition activity against collagenase, elastase and tyrosinase enzymes. Grapevine by-product extracts found rich in proanthocyanidins and presented the higher inhibition activity. A holistic green experimental methodology is proposed for the obtainment of extracts from significant medicinal plants by-products that provides us with promising results concerning dermo-cosmetic properties, especially for grape seeds extracts.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Cosméticos/farmacologia , Foeniculum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Sementes/química
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639334

RESUMO

The pharmaceutical importance of cannabis is growing due to the natural non-psychoactive and psychoactive cannabinoids. For medicinal and forensic purposes, the effective extraction and quantification are essential to fully utilise the natural cannabinoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process has gained increasing interest due to its selective extraction, short processing time (partly due to the efficient solvent removal process - supercritical fluid to vapour - leaving a solvent free product), low running cost, and low impact on the environment, compared to that of most conventional extraction methods. In this review, the extraction of cannabinoids through SFE methods have been summarised. The advantages of SFE of cannabinoids over conventional extraction procedures; such as microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase microextraction, hard-cap espresso, soxhlet extraction, high-throughput homogenization, ultrasound-assisted extraction, vacuum distillation of lipid-based extract, and liquid-liquid extraction are discussed. Furthermore, this review examines the importance of the SFE of cannabinoids by coupling with various conventional extraction methods, separation techniques, selection of a suitable co-solvent/modifier, and appropriate sample preparation. Additionally, the applications of using SFE technology and cannabinoids are reviewed with a focus on industrial, pharmaceutical, waste by-products, and purification.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Canabinoides/análise , Canabinoides/química , Canabinoides/isolamento & purificação , Cannabis/química
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 152: 105987, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549974

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to reanalyze data collected from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Drug and Alcohol Crash Risk Study to investigate whether driving under the influence of cannabis (THC-positive) was associated with elevated crash risk for younger and older drivers. The data came from a case-control relative risk study collected from Virginia Beach, VA, over a 20-month period. Data collectors gathered driver information from the scene of vehicle crashes and, in some cases, from hospitals. Non-crash controls were sampled from the same locations, days, and times as crashes. Key data items included driver demographics and oral fluid and blood samples, which were assayed for licit and illicit drugs. We found no overall association between cannabis use and risk of crash involvement. However, when age and age2 were allowed to interact with THC, significant interaction effects emerged. THC was associated with increased risk of crash involvement for older drivers. Difference between THC-positive and sober drivers emerged as significant at age 64. The research underscores the value of examining drugged driving in the context of driver age. Age-related declines in neurocognitive and psychomotor functioning were not measured but might be important in explaining the results.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Envelhecimento , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cannabis/química , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Virginia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 874-880, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559225

RESUMO

Mead, one of the oldest existing drinks, is a fermented product based on honey, water, and the possible addition of spices and selected yeasts. In this work, various parts (inflorescences, leaves, and steams) of Cannabis sativa L. at different concentrations and Saccharomyces cerevisiae biotype M3/5 were added during mead fermentation. The physicochemical parameters (pH, alcoholic content, sugar content, titratable acidity, and organic acids) of the mead were assessed at the beginning and end of fermentation. Moreover, polyphenols, cannabidiol and volatile organic compounds were identified at the end of fermentation and compared with the control sample prepared without hemp and with only indigenous yeasts. The mead fermented with hemp showed the highest quantity of polyphenols (227 to 256 mg GAE/L) and a level of cannabidiol ranging from 0.26 to 0.49 mg/kg. The volatile organic compounds found were mainly alcohols, esters and terpenes, which were present at higher concentrations in the mead prepared with C. sativa L. than in the control mead and conferred freshness and "hemp aroma" characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Inflorescences, leaves, and steams of Cannabis sativa L. were added at different concentrations during mead fermentation. This type of mead showed high quantity of polyphenols (227 to 256 mg GAE/L) and a level of cannabidiol ranging from 0.26 to 0.49 mg/kg which have anxiolytic and neuro-protective properties. Moreover the volatile organic compounds found (mainly alcohols, esters, and terpenes) conferred freshness and "hemp aroma" characteristics.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Cannabis/química , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Álcoois/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Canabidiol/análise , Mel/análise , Inflorescência/química , Odorantes/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Terpenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557174

RESUMO

The skin is an organ that is constantly exposed to many external factors that can affect its structure and function. Due to the presence of different cannabinoid receptors on many types of skin cells, cannabinoids can interact directly with them. Therefore, as part of this work, the impact of two types of Cannabis sativa L. herb extracts on keratinocytes and fibroblasts was assessed. The content of biologically active compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, chlorophylls and cannabinoids was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of prepared extracts using the DPPH radical, H2DCFDA probe and measurement of superoxide dismutase activity was also assessed. The cytotoxicity of hemp extracts was determined using the Alamar Blue, Neutral Red and LDH assays. The ability of the extracts to inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases, collagenase and elastase, was assessed. Preparations of model hydrogels were also prepared and their effect on transepidermal water loss and skin hydration was measured. The obtained results indicate that hemp extracts can be a valuable source of biologically active substances that reduce oxidative stress, inhibit skin aging processes and positively affect the viability of skin cells. The analysis also showed that hydrogels based on cannabis extracts have a positive effect on skin hydration.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Hidrogéis/química , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Canabinoides/análise , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/química , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
16.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(6): 1437-1447, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635384

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The medical uses of cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of the Cannabis sativa, have accelerated the legal and social acceptance for CBD-based medications but has also given the momentum for questioning whether the long-term use of CBD during the early years of life may induce adverse neurobiological effects in adulthood, including sleep disturbances. Given the critical window for neuroplasticity and neuro-functional changes that occur during stages of adolescence, we hypothesized that CBD might influence the sleep-wake cycle in adult rats after their exposure to CBD during the adolescence. OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigated the effects upon behavior and neural activity in adulthood after long-term administrations of CBD in juvenile rats. METHODS: We pre-treated juvenile rats with CBD (5 or 30 mg/Kg, daily) from post-natal day (PND) 30 and during 2 weeks. Following the treatments, the sleep-wake cycle and NeuN expression was analyzed at PND 80. RESULTS: We found that systemic injections of CBD (5 or 30 mg/Kg, i.p.) given to adolescent rats (post-natal day 30) for 14 days increased in adulthood the wakefulness and decreased rapid eye movement sleep during the lights-on period whereas across the lights-off period, wakefulness was diminished and slow wave sleep was enhanced. In addition, we found that adult animals that received CBD during the adolescence displayed disruptions in sleep rebound period after total sleep deprivation. Finally, we determined how the chronic administrations of CBD during the adolescence affected in the adulthood the NeuN expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a sleep-related brain region. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are relevant for interpreting results of adult rats that were chronically exposed to CBD during the adolescence and provide new insights into how CBD may impact the sleep-wake cycle and neuronal activity during developmental stages.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cannabis/química , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Privação do Sono , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465140

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa), commonly used for industrial purposes, is now being consumed by the public for various health promoting effects. As popularity of hemp research and claims of beneficial effects rises, a systematic collection of current scientific evidence on hemp's health effects and pharmacological properties is needed to guide future research, clinical, and policy decision making. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview and identify the present landscape of hemp research topics, trends, and gaps. METHODS: A systematic search and analysis strategy according to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis-ScR (PRISMA-ScR) checklist on electronic databases including MEDLINE, OVID (OVFT, APC Journal Club, EBM Reviews), Cochrane Library Central and Clinicaltrials.gov was conducted to include and analyse hemp research articles from 2009 to 2019. RESULTS: 65 primary articles (18 clinical, 47 pre-clinical) were reviewed. Several randomised controlled trials showed hempseed pills (in Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation MaZiRenWan) improving spontaneous bowel movement in functional constipation. There was also evidence suggesting benefits in cannabis dependence, epilepsy, and anxiety disorders. Pre-clinically, hemp derivatives showed potential anti-oxidative, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-neuroinflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-acne, and anti-microbial activities. Renal protective effects and estrogenic properties were also exhibited in vitro. CONCLUSION: Current evidence on hemp-specific interventions are still preliminary, with limited high quality clinical evidence for any specific therapeutic indication. This is mainly due to the wide variation in test item formulation, as the multiple variants of this plant differ in their phytochemical and bioactive compounds. Future empirical research should focus on standardising the hemp plant for pharmaceutical use, and uniformity in experimental designs to strengthen the premise of using hemp in medicine.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Saúde , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos
18.
Food Chem ; 346: 128606, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388667

RESUMO

The impact of extrusion at different barrel temperature and screw speed on the hempseed hull was investigated. The extrusion treatments showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in total phenolic content, proportion of free phenolic compounds, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. At low screw speed (150 rpm), significantly (p < 0.05) higher α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were observed in the extruded samples. The full factorial model revealed a significant interaction between extrusion parameters on total phenolic/flavonoid content and antioxidant activities for free fraction, and α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition for whole fraction. A total of 26 phenylpropionamides, including hydroxycinnamic acid amides and lignanamides, were identified by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a 25-78% increase in total phenylpropionamide content in hempseed hull after extrusion. Pearson's correlation displayed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation of N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, the most abundant phenylpropionamide, with all biological activities (r = 0.832-0.940).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cannabis/química , Fenóis/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Food Chem ; 346: 128898, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453579

RESUMO

In 2016, the European Commission recommended the Member States to monitor the content of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids in food and feed derived from hemp and in food of animal origin for possible transfer from feed. Thus, the Italian Ministry of Health implemented a monitoring plan. To this aim, nine cannabinoids in beverages and food for human consumption and in feed were determined. The method applied, based on rapid clean-up and LC-MS/MS determination, was previously developed and in-house validated, evaluating the analytical performance in the concentration ranges 2-50 µg/L for beverages, 0.020-0.500 mg/kg for food and 0.100-10.0 mg/kg for feed. Then, it was applied to determine the cannabinoids in 78 food, 16 beverage and 6 feed samples, collected from the Italian market since 2017. The results are herein reported, for evaluation of both product characteristics and compliance to national maximum limits. Some study cases are also described.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Dronabinol/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cannabis/química , Humanos , Itália
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1462, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446817

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa is widely used for medical purposes and has anti-inflammatory activity. This study intended to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of cannabis on immune response markers associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inflammation. An extract fraction from C. sativa Arbel strain (FCBD) substantially reduced (dose dependently) interleukin (IL)-6 and -8 levels in an alveolar epithelial (A549) cell line. FCBD contained cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and multiple terpenes. Treatments with FCBD and a FCBD formulation using phytocannabinoid standards (FCBD:std) reduced IL-6, IL-8, C-C Motif Chemokine Ligands (CCLs) 2 and 7, and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in the A549 cell line. Treatment with FCBD induced macrophage (differentiated KG1 cell line) polarization and phagocytosis in vitro, and increased CD36 and type II receptor for the Fc region of IgG (FcγRII) expression. FCBD treatment also substantially increased IL-6 and IL-8 expression in macrophages. FCBD:std, while maintaining anti-inflammatory activity in alveolar epithelial cells, led to reduced phagocytosis and pro-inflammatory IL secretion in macrophages in comparison to FCBD. The phytocannabinoid formulation may show superior activity versus the cannabis-derived fraction for reduction of lung inflammation, yet there is a need of caution proposing cannabis as treatment for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Células A549 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , Canabinoides/química , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Receptores de IgG/imunologia
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