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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(5): 3447-3452, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary function of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-induced pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 137 patients with COVID-19-induced pneumonia who were discharged from the Enze Hospital, Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) from January 31 2020 to March 11 2020 was conducted. Follow-up occurred 2 weeks after hospital discharge, during which patients underwent a pulmonary function test. RESULTS: Of the 137 patients who underwent a pulmonary function test 2 weeks after discharge, 51.8% were male, and the mean age was 47 years. Only 19.7% of the patients were identified as having severe COVID-19-induced pneumonia. The pulmonary function tests showed that for a small number of patients the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC)/% values were <70%, and the mean forced inspiratory volume (IVC) and FVC values were 2.4±0.7 and 3.2±0.8 L, respectively. In severe cases, 88.9% of patients had an IVC <80% of the predicted value, and 55.6% of patients had an FVC <80% of the predicted value. The proportion of patients with maximum expiratory flow rate at 25%, 50% and 75% of the vital capacity (MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75) values <70% were 55.6%, 40.7%, and 25.9%, respectively. In the non-severe group, 79.1% of patients had an IVC <80% of the predicted value, and 16.4% of patients had an FVC <80% of the predicted value. The mean MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75 <70% values were 57.3%, 30%, and 13.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the pulmonary function of patients with COVID-19-induced pneumonia predominantly manifested as restrictive ventilation disorder and small airway obstruction, which was increased in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Capacidade Inspiratória , Masculino , Fluxo Expiratório Máximo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Capacidade Vital
2.
JAMA ; 324(15): 1571, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079147
3.
JAMA ; 324(15): 1572, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079150
4.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 516-519, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880483

RESUMO

This paper describes the process involved in conducting an online spirometry practical through Zoom. The teacher demonstrated the practical from the medical school, and the students observed the procedure from the comfort of their own homes. Students were able to analyze the graphs captured in the teacher's laptop by remotely controlling the teacher's laptop. This method may be useful for places where face-to-face classes are suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espirometria , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Capacidade Vital
5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 963-974, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A phase 2 trial of tocilizumab showed preliminary evidence of efficacy in systemic sclerosis. We assessed skin fibrosis and systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) in a phase 3 trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, in the treatment of systemic sclerosis. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, participants were recruited from 75 sites in 20 countries across Europe, North America, Latin America, and Japan. Adults with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis for 60 months or less and a modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) of 10-35 at screening were randomly assigned (1:1) with a voice-web-response system to receive subcutaneous tocilizumab 162 mg or placebo weekly for 48 weeks, stratified by IL-6 levels; participants and investigators were masked to treatment group. The primary endpoint was the difference in change from baseline to week 48 in mRSS. Percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC% predicted) at week 48, time to treatment failure, and patient-reported and physician-reported outcomes were secondary endpoints. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT02453256) and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Nov 20, 2015, and Feb 14, 2017, 210 individuals were randomly assigned to receive tocilizumab (n=104) or placebo (n=106). In the intention-to-treat population, least squares mean [LSM] change from baseline to week 48 in mRSS was -6·14 for tocilizumab and -4·41 for placebo (adjusted difference -1·73 [95% CI -3·78 to 0·32]; p=0·10). The shift in distribution of change from baseline in FVC% predicted at week 48 favoured tocilizumab (van Elteren nominal p=0·002 vs placebo), with a difference in LSM of 4·2 (95% CI 2·0-6·4; nominal p=0·0002), as did time to treatment failure (hazard ratio 0·63 [95% CI 0·37-1·06]; nominal p=0·08). Change in LSM from baseline to week 48 in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index and in patient-global and physician-global visual analogue scale assessments did not differ between tocilizumab and placebo. In the safety set, infections were the most common adverse events (54 [52%] of 104 participants in the tocilizumab group, 53 [50%] of 106 in the placebo group). Serious adverse events were reported in 13 participants treated with tocilizumab and 18 with placebo, primarily infections (three events, eight events) and cardiac events (two events, seven events). INTERPRETATION: The primary skin fibrosis endpoint was not met. Findings for the secondary endpoint of FVC% predicted indicate that tocilizumab might preserve lung function in people with early SSc-ILD and elevated acute-phase reactants. Safety was consistent with the known profile of tocilizumab. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236935, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nintedanib is a multi-kinase inhibitor approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); however, its efficacy and safety for patients with IPF and restricted pulmonary function remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of nintedanib for patients with IPF and forced vital capacity (FVC) ≤ 50%. METHODS: This was a multi-center retrospective study performed by the Okayama Respiratory Disease Study Group. Patients were allocated into FVC ≤ 50% and FVC > 50% groups based on their predicted FVC. The primary endpoints were FVC changes from baseline after 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: 45 patients were eligible for the study. 18 patients had FVC ≤ 50%, and 27 patients had FVC > 50%. Overall, 31 and 19 patients underwent pulmonary function tests at 6 and 12 months after initiating nintedanib, respectively. FVC changes from baseline at 6 and 12 months after initiating nintedanib were comparable between the two groups. Adverse events were seen in all patients, and the rates of patients who discontinued nintedanib were also comparable (38.9% vs. 37.0%, p = 1.000). Multiple regression analysis showed that age and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/FVC were negatively correlated with changes in FVC at 6 months after initiating nintedanib. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that nintedanib can be a useful agent for IPF patients, including those with a low FVC, and that age and FEV1/FVC are predictive markers for changes in FVC following nintedanib treatment.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Segurança , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Capacidade Vital
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764779

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated corticosteroid administration on the neonatal intensive care unit was associated with reduced lung function at 11 to 14 years of age in children born very prematurely. The objective of this observational study was to assess if lung function remained impaired at 16 to 19 years of age in those who had received postnatal corticosteroids and whether the trajectory of lung function with increasing age differed between those who had and had not received corticosteroids. One hundred and fifty-nine children born prior to 29 weeks of gestational age had comprehensive lung function measurements; 49 had received postnatal dexamethasone. Lung function outcomes were compared between those who had and had not received postnatal dexamethasone after adjustment for neonatal factors. Forced expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, 25% and 25-75% of the expired vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow and forced vital capacity and lung volumes (total lung capacity and residual volume) were assessed. The majority of results were significantly lower in those who received dexamethasone (between 0.61 to 0.78 standard deviations). Lung function reduced as the number of courses of dexamethasone increased. Between 11 and 14 years and 16 to 19 years, lung function improved in the unexposed group, but forced expiratory flow at 75% of the expired vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second deteriorated in those who had received postnatal corticosteroids (p = 0.0006). These results suggest that prematurely born young people who received postnatal corticosteroids may be at risk of premature onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Criança , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817718

RESUMO

Concerns exist that the positive association of physical activity with better lung function, which has been suggested in previous longitudinal studies in smokers, is due to reverse causation. To investigate this, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM), an exploratory approach, and marginal structural modeling (MSM), an approach from the causal inference framework that corrects for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding and estimates causal effects, on data from participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, a multicentre European cohort study initiated in 1991-1993 with ECRHS I, and with two follow-ups: ECRHS II in 1999-2003, and ECRHS III in 2010-2014). 753 subjects who reported current smoking at ECRHS II, with repeated data on lung function at ECRHS I, II and III, physical activity at ECRHS II and III, and potential confounders at ECRHS I and II, were included in the analyses. SEM showed positive associations between physical activity and lung function in both directions. MSM suggested a protective causal effect of physical activity on lung function (overall difference in mean ß (95% CI), comparing active versus non-active individuals: 58 mL (21-95) for forced expiratory volume in one second and 83 mL (36-130) for forced vital capacity). Our results suggest bi-directional causation and support a true protective effect of physical activity on lung function in smokers, after accounting for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Exercício Físico , Pulmão/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1712-1719, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spirometry is the cornerstone of monitoring allograft function after lung transplantation (LT). We sought to determine the association of variables on best spirometry during the first year after bilateral LT with 3-year posttransplant survival. METHODS: We reviewed charts of patients who survived at least 3 months after bilateral LT (n = 157; age ± SD: 54 ± 13 y, male:female = 91:66). Best spirometry was calculated as the average of 2 highest measurements at least 3 weeks apart during the first year. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio <0.7. Survival was compared based on the ventilatory defect and among groups based on the best FEV1 and FVC measurements (>80%, 60%-80%, and <60% predicted). Primary outcome was 3-year survival. RESULTS: Overall, 3-year survival was 67% (n = 106). Obstructive defect was uncommon (7%) and did not have an association with 3-year survival (72% versus 67%, P = 0.7). Although one-half patients achieved an FVC>80% predicted (49%), 1 in 5 (19%) remained below 60% predicted. Irrespective of the type of ventilatory defect, survival worsened as the best FVC (% predicted) got lower (>80: 80.8%; 60-80: 63.3%; <60: 40%; P < 0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, transplant indication, and annual bronchoscopy findings, best FVC (% predicted) during the first year after LT was independently associated with 3-year survival. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of bilateral LT patients do not achieve FVC>80% predicted. Although the type of ventilatory defect on best spirometry does not predict survival, failure to achieve FVC>80% predicted during the first year was independently associated with 3-year mortality.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Espirometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Espirometria/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
11.
N Engl J Med ; 383(2): 109-119, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tofersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that mediates the degradation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) messenger RNA to reduce SOD1 protein synthesis. Intrathecal administration of tofersen is being studied for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to SOD1 mutations. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1-2 ascending-dose trial evaluating tofersen in adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations. In each dose cohort (20, 40, 60, or 100 mg), participants were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive five doses of tofersen or placebo, administered intrathecally for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were safety and pharmacokinetics. The secondary outcome was the change from baseline in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SOD1 concentration at day 85. Clinical function and vital capacity were measured. RESULTS: A total of 50 participants underwent randomization and were included in the analyses; 48 participants received all five planned doses. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were observed in most participants. Elevations in CSF white-cell count and protein were reported as adverse events in 4 and 5 participants, respectively, who received tofersen. Among participants who received tofersen, one died from pulmonary embolus on day 137, and one from respiratory failure on day 152; one participant in the placebo group died from respiratory failure on day 52. The difference at day 85 in the change from baseline in the CSF SOD1 concentration between the tofersen groups and the placebo group was 2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -18 to 27) for the 20-mg dose, -25 percentage points (95% CI, -40 to -5) for the 40-mg dose, -19 percentage points (95% CI, -35 to 2) for the 60-mg dose, and -33 percentage points (95% CI, -47 to -16) for the 100-mg dose. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations, CSF SOD1 concentrations decreased at the highest concentration of tofersen administered intrathecally over a period of 12 weeks. CSF pleocytosis occurred in some participants receiving tofersen. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were observed in most participants. (Funded by Biogen; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02623699; EudraCT number, 2015-004098-33.).


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/administração & dosagem , Oligonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Superóxido Dismutase-1/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais/efeitos adversos , Filamentos Intermediários , Leucocitose/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oligonucleotídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacocinética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/efeitos adversos , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacocinética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Capacidade Vital
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory system diseases are some of the most common pathologies worldwide. Although osteopathic manual therapy (OMT) is used predominantly to treat other pathologies, certain OMT techniques have been shown to improve patients' respiratory function. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of osteopathic techniques on breathing. METHODS: Tests were performed with the use of a spirometer and the results were expressed as Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1), and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Thirty healthy males and females between the age of 18 and 50 took part in the research. Fifteen individuals were randomly assigned to the experimental group and fifteen persons were assigned to the placebo group. The participants from the experimental group were treated with such osteopathic techniques aimed at the pulmonary system as the thoracic thrust (manipulations of vertebral joints and ribs), the sternal pump technique and stretching of the diaphragm. The placebo group was treated with soft tissue therapy (STT) techniques for the masseter muscle. RESULTS: The described set of osteopathic techniques exerts an influence on PEF in healthy individuals; however, it does not affect FVC and FEV1. CONCLUSION: Osteopathic techniques do not seem to improve lung health, as reflected in FEV1 and FVC, but they improve the respiratory function aspects reflected by PEF in the participants without any history of lung disease.


Assuntos
Manipulação Osteopática/métodos , Respiração , Adulto , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina Osteopática , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(2): 151-158, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640133

RESUMO

Two patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were treated with a single intrathecal infusion of adeno-associated virus encoding a microRNA targeting SOD1. In Patient 1, SOD1 levels in spinal cord tissue as analyzed on autopsy were lower than corresponding levels in untreated patients with SOD1-mediated ALS and in healthy controls. Levels of SOD1 in cerebrospinal fluid were transiently and only slightly lower in Patient 1 but were not affected in Patient 2. In Patient 1, meningoradiculitis developed after the infusion; Patient 2 was pretreated with immunosuppressive drugs and did not have this complication. Patient 1 had transient improvement in the strength of his right leg, a measure that had been relatively stable throughout his disease course, but there was no change in his vital capacity. Patient 2 had stable scores on a composite measure of ALS function and a stable vital capacity during a 12-month period. This study showed that intrathecal microRNA can be used as a potential treatment for SOD1-mediated ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase-1/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Dependovirus , Evolução Fatal , Inativação Gênica , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Meningoencefalite , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Medula Espinal/química , Medula Espinal/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/análise , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
14.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 163, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence phase. METHODS: A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were conducted, with serial assessments including lung volumes (TLC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO),respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and high resolution CT being collected at 30 days after discharged. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients completed the serial assessments. There were 40 non-severe cases and 17 severe cases. Thirty-one patients (54.3%) had abnormal CT findings. Abnormalities were detected in the pulmonary function tests in 43 (75.4%) of the patients. Six (10.5%), 5(8.7%), 25(43.8%) 7(12.3%), and 30 (52.6%) patients had FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, TLC, and DLCO values less than 80% of predicted values, respectively. 28 (49.1%) and 13 (22.8%) patients had PImax and PEmax values less than 80% of the corresponding predicted values. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients showed higher incidence of DLCO impairment (75.6%vs42.5%, p = 0.019), higher lung total severity score (TSS) and R20, and significantly lower percentage of predicted TLC and 6MWD. No significant correlation between TSS and pulmonary function parameters was found during follow-up visit. CONCLUSION: Impaired diffusing-capacity, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients had a higher incidence of DLCO impairment and encountered more TLC decrease and 6MWD decline.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Convalescença , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Espirometria/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235624, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a complication that occurs in patients with connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD); however, few studies on the clinical implications of pneumothorax for patients with CTD-ILD have been performed. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and prognostic significance of pneumothorax and the risk factors for its onset in patients with CTD-ILD. METHODS: This study included 140 consecutive patients with CTD-ILD. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, pulmonary function test results, and chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients (12.9%) developed pneumothorax during their clinical course. The cumulative incidence of pneumothorax from the time of CTD-ILD diagnosis was 6.5%, 8.7%, and 11.3% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The 10-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients with pneumothorax (29.6%) than that in those without pneumothorax (81.3%). The development of pneumothorax was significantly associated with poor prognosis (HR 22.0; p < 0.010). Furthermore, a lower body mass index, greater extent of reticular abnormalities on HRCT, and administration of methylprednisolone pulse therapy were significantly associated with the development of pneumothorax. CONCLUSION: Pneumothorax is a serious complication in the clinical course of patients with CTD-ILD and the onset of pneumothorax predicts a poor outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/complicações , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599726

RESUMO

Background: Local spirometric prediction equations are of great importance for interpreting lung function results and deciding on the management strategies for respiratory patients, yet available data from African countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to collect lung function data using spirometry in healthy adults living in Maputo, Mozambique and to derive first spirometric prediction equations for this population. Methods: We applied a cross-sectional study design. Participants, who met the inclusion criteria, underwent a short interview, anthropometric measurements, and lung function testing. Different modelling approaches were followed for generating new, Mozambican, prediction equations and for comparison with the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) and South African equations. The pulmonary function performance of participants was assessed against the different reference standards. Results: A total of 212 males and females were recruited, from whom 155 usable spirometry results were obtained. The mean age of participants was 35.20 years (SD 10.99) and 93 of 155 (59.35%) were females. The predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the FEV1/FVC ratio based on the Mozambican equations were lower than the South African-and the GLI-based predictions. Conclusions: This study provides first data on pulmonary function in healthy Mozambican adults and describes how they compare to GLI and South African reference values for spirometry.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado , Pulmão , Espirometria , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Moçambique , Valores de Referência , Capacidade Vital
17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(9): 1210-1217, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate whether differences in pulmonary vasculature exist in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and how they are distributed in patients with different pulmonary function. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with SSc undergoing chest CT scan for interstitial lung disease (ILD) screening or follow-up were prospectively enrolled. A thorough clinical, laboratory and functional evaluation was performed the same day. Chest CT was spirometry gated at total lung capacity and images were analysed by two automated software programs to quantify emphysema, ILD patterns (ground-glass, reticular, honeycombing), and pulmonary vascular volume (PVV). Patients were divided in restricted (FVC% <80, DLco%<80), isolated DLco% reduction (iDLco- FVC%≥80, DLco%<80) and normals (FVC%≥80, DLco%≥80). Spearman ρ, Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regressions were used to assess for correlations, differences among groups and relationships between continuous variables. RESULTS: Absolute and lung volume normalised PVV (PVV/LV) correlated inversely with functional parameters and positively with all ILD patterns (ρ=0.75 with ground glass, ρ=0.68 with reticular). PVV/LV was the only predictor of DLco at multivariate analysis (p=0.007). Meanwhile, the reticular pattern prevailed in peripheral regions and lower lung thirds, PVV/LV prevailed in central regions and middle lung thirds. iDLco group had a significantly higher PVV/LV (2.2%) than normal (1.6%), but lower than restricted ones (3.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Chest CT in SSc detects a progressive increase in PVV/LV as DLco decreases. Redistribution of perfusion to less affected lung regions rather than angiogenesis nearby fibrotic lung may explain the results. Further studies to ascertain whether the increase in PVV/LV reflects a real increase in blood volume are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Espirometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Espirometria/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Capacidade Vital
18.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [7], jul. 2020. ilus.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118888

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: el objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si los puntos de corte fijos y el límite inferior de lo normal (LLN) para el volumen espiratorio forzado en un segundo (FEV1) y el volumen espiratorio forzado en 6 segundos (FEV6) FEV1/FEV6 y el FEV6 son una medida alternativa para el FEV1 y la capacidad vital forzada (FVC), FEV1/FVC y la FVC en la detección de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC), en una muestra de pacientes del oriente boliviano. MÉTODOS: se analizaron un total de 92 pruebas espirométricas, 66 varones y 26 mujeres con riesgo de EPOC. La población del estudio incluyó a residentes de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de la Sierra-Bolivia (ciudad cosmopolita) de 35 a 90 años de edad. RESULTADOS: la sensibilidad y la especificidad fueron del 97,0% y el 96,9%, respectivamente, cuando se compararon los valores de corte fijos de FEV1/FEV6 de 0,73 con los de FEV1/FVC < 0,7 como regla estándar, según las recomendaciones del global obstructive lung diseases (GOLD) para detectar la obstrucción de las vías respiratorias. La sensibilidad y la especificidad fueron de 93,4% y 81,2%, respectivamente, cuando el LLN de FEV1/FVC y FEV1/FEV6 fueron utilizados. CONCLUSIONES: en conclusión, el FEV6 es un sustituto válido de la CVF para detectar la obstrucción de las vías respiratorias, ya sea utilizando puntos de corte fijos o el LLN. Se necesitan más estudios para verificar estos resultados en una población más grande y para establecer los valores predictivos espirométricos locales.


INTRODUCTION: the aim of this study was to verify if fixed cut-off points and lower limit of normal (LLN) for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/FEV6 and FEV6 as an alternative for FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and FVC are valid for the detection of obstructive lung disease in a sample of Bolivian subjects. METHODS: a total of 92 spirometric consecutive tests from subjects, 66 males and 26 females at risk for COPD were analyzed. The study population included residents of city Santa Cruz de la Sierra, (Bolivia) aged from 35 to 90 yrs., from various ethnical origins (cosmopolitan city). RESULTS: sensibility and specificity were 97.0% and 96.9%, respectively when fixed cut-off values of FEV1/FEV6 of 0.73 was compared to FEV1/FVC<0.7 as standard, according to GOLD recommendations to detect airway obstruction. Sensibility and specificity were 100% and 89.5%, respectively when LLN of FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6 were used. CONCLUSIONS: in conclusion, FEV6 is a valid surrogate for FVC to detect airway obstruction, either using fixed cut-off points or LLN. Further study is needed to verify these results in a larger population and to establish local spirometric predicted values


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Mulheres , Capacidade Vital
19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
20.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1113): 20190121, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse delayed contrast dynamics of fibrotic lesions in interstitial lung disease (ILD) using five dimensional (5D) MRI and to correlate contrast dynamics with disease severity. METHODS: 20 patients (mean age: 71 years; M:F, 13:7), with chronic fibrosing ILD: n = 12 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and n = 8 non-IPF, underwent thin-section multislice CT as part of the standard diagnostic workup and additionally MRI of the lung. 2 min after contrast injection, a radial gradient echo sequence with golden-angle spacing was acquired during 5 min of free-breathing, followed by 5D image reconstruction. Disease was categorized as severe or non-severe according to CT morphological regional severity. For each patient, 10 lesions were analysed. RESULTS: IPF lesions showed later peak enhancement compared to non-IPF (severe: p = 0.01, non-severe: p = 0.003). Severe lesions showed later peak enhancement compared to non-severe lesions, in non-IPF (p = 0.04), but not in IPF (p = 0.35). There was a tendency towards higher accumulation and washout rates in IPF compared to non-IPF in non-severe disease. Severe lesions had lower washout rate than non-severe ones in both IPF (p = 0.003) and non-IPF (p = 0.005). Continuous contrast agent accumulation, without washout, was found only in IPF lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast agent dynamics are influenced by type and severity of pulmonary fibrosis, which might enable a more thorough characterisation of disease burden. The regional impairment is of particular interest in the context of antifibrotic treatments and was characterised using a non-invasive, non-irradiating, free-breathing method. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Delayed contrast enhancement patterns allow the assessment of regional lung impairment which could represent different disease stages or phenotypes in ILD.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacocinética , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/metabolismo , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/metabolismo , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Respiração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Capacidade Vital
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