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1.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 789, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distant metastasis has been the main failure pattern for locoregionally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients, and intensified neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become a popular research topic. The present study aimed to compare the survival outcomes, acute toxicities and surgical complications in LARC patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy with triweekly oxaliplatin and capecitabine (triweekly XELOX) or capecitabine. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2017, patients with clinically staged II-III rectal cancer who were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy using either triweekly XELOX (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 plus capecitabine 825 mg/m2) or capecitabine were included. Variables potentially influencing chemotherapy treatment selection were used to generate propensity scores (PS). The association between chemotherapy regimens and survival endpoints, including distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), were evaluated and adjusted with PS. The acute toxicities and surgical complications were also compared. RESULTS: A total of 810 patients were included in the analysis; 277 (34.2%) patients received triweekly XELOX, and 533 (65.8%) received capecitabine. The pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 20.2 and 19.9% (P = 0.912) for the groups treated with triweekly XELOX and capecitabine, respectively. The 5-year DMFS, OS and DFS with triweekly XELOX versus capecitabine were 75.6% vs. 77.6% (P = 0.555), 79.2% vs. 83.3% (P = 0.101), and 69.9% vs. 73.7% (P = 0.283), respectively. Triweekly XELOX was not associated with an increased risk of severe toxicity during chemoradiotherapy, but it increased the risk of postoperative complications compared to capecitabine. After PS adjustment, the differences between the two groups remained insignificant in pCR rate, survival outcomes, and acute toxicities, and the difference in surgical complications disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Triweekly XELOX or capecitabine concurrent with neoadjuvant radiotherapy leads to similar long-term survival outcomes, acute toxicities and surgical complications in LARC patients.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Oxaliplatina , Pontuação de Propensão , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia
2.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(7): e13178, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854663

RESUMO

Evidence-based recommendations for the optimal duration and sequencing of temozolomide-based treatments in advanced neuroendocrine neoplasms are lacking. Here, we conducted a systematic review of the literature for a descriptive analysis of temozolomide-associated myelodysplasias and leukemias to guide treatment planning. A database search of PubMed and Embase was conducted to identify case reports and/or case series reporting secondary myelodysplasias or leukemias in the setting of temozolomide therapy. Key data items extracted from the studies were the temozolomide dose and duration, latency to hematological disorder, type of secondary malignancy and cytogenetics. Reported cases were summarized graphically. A total of 16 studies with 27 patient cases of therapy-related hematologic neoplasms were identified, all of which were case reports or case series. The median treatment duration and cumulative dose were 19 months and 18,000 mg/m2 , respectively. Most patients (21/27) were diagnosed on, or after, 12 months, while only one patient was diagnosed before 6 months of treatment. Most of the patients were diagnosed, while still on treatment with temozolomide. Graphically, cases clustered around a cumulative dose of 10,000 to 30,000 mg/m2 and a latency period of 10 to 40 months which translates to an approximate treatment duration of 12.5 to 37.5 months. Taken together, most reported treatment-related hematological neoplasms appear to develop on or beyond the 12-month mark, while patients are still on treatment with temozolomide. For patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms, where sequencing of multiple therapies is important, we suggest an approach to optimizing treatment duration by establishing disease response at 6 months before continuing further treatment and restricting treatment to or establishing closer vigilance beyond 12 months.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Leucemia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/induzido quimicamente , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
3.
ESMO Open ; 7(3): 100427, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capecitabine- or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is widely used in many solid tumours, but is associated with cardiotoxicity. S-1 is a fluoropyrimidine with low rates of cardiotoxicity, but evidence regarding the safety of switching to S-1 after 5-FU- or capecitabine-associated cardiotoxicity is scarce. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study (NCT04260269) was conducted at 13 centres in 6 countries. The primary endpoint was recurrence of cardiotoxicity after switch to S-1-based treatment due to 5-FU- or capecitabine-related cardiotoxicity: clinically meaningful if the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval (CI; by competing risk) is not including 15%. Secondary endpoints included cardiac risk factors, diagnostic work-up, treatments, outcomes, and timelines of cardiotoxicity. RESULTS: Per protocol, 200 patients, treated between 2011 and 2020 [median age 66 years (range 19-86); 118 (59%) males], were included. Treatment intent was curative in 145 (73%). Initial cardiotoxicity was due to capecitabine (n = 170), continuous infusion 5-FU (n = 22), or bolus 5-FU (n = 8), which was administered in combination with other chemotherapy, targeted agents, or radiotherapy in 133 patients. Previous cardiovascular comorbidities were present in 99 (50%) patients. Cardiotoxic events (n = 228/200) included chest pain (n = 125), coronary syndrome/infarction (n = 69), arrhythmia (n = 22), heart failure/cardiomyopathy (n = 7), cardiac arrest (n = 4), and malignant hypertension (n = 1). Cardiotoxicity was severe or life-threatening in 112 (56%) patients and led to permanent capecitabine/5-FU discontinuation in 192 (96%). After switch to S-1, recurrent cardiotoxicity was observed in eight (4%) patients (95% CI 2.02-7.89, primary endpoint met). Events were limited to grade 1-2 and occurred at a median of 16 days (interquartile range 7-67) from therapy switch. Baseline ischemic heart disease was a risk factor for recurrent cardiotoxicity (odds ratio 6.18, 95% CI 1.36-28.11). CONCLUSION: Switching to S-1-based therapy is safe and feasible after development of cardiotoxicity on 5-FU- or capecitabine-based therapy and allows patients to continue their pivotal fluoropyrimidine-based treatment.


Assuntos
Fluoruracila , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 341, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836104

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Clinical evidence of the preventive effectiveness of medium-class topical corticosteroids for capecitabine-induced hand foot syndrome (HFS) is limited. Although the pathogenesis and mechanism of HFS are unclear, inflammatory reactions are thought to be involved in HFS development. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of medium-class topical corticosteroids (hydrocortisone butyrate 0.1% topical therapy) for capecitabine-induced HFS in patients with colorectal cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin. METHODS: This is a single-center, single-arm, phase 2 study. Patients with colorectal cancer scheduled to receive adjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin are enrolled, and topical hydrocortisone butyrate 0.1% is applied prophylactically in addition to standard moisturizing therapy. The primary endpoint is the incidence of grade ≥ 2 HFS within three months. The secondary endpoints are the time to onset of HFS, rates of dose reduction, schedule delay, discontinuation caused by capecitabine-induced HFS, and other adverse events. All adverse events are evaluated by clinical pharmacists and attending physicians. DISCUSSION: This study is expected to contribute to the establishment of new supportive care for preventing HFS, not only for colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for various cancer patients receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) as jRCTs031220002. Registered 5 April 2022, https://jrct.niph.go.jp/search Protocol version V.1.0, 16 February 2022.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Síndrome Mão-Pé , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Mão-Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Mão-Pé/etiologia , Síndrome Mão-Pé/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos
5.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2200180, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Around 20%-30% of patients treated with fluoropyrimidines develop severe treatment-related adverse events (AEs). These are mainly caused by deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, its main metabolizing enzyme. The DPYD*7 variant allele contains a frameshift mutation that leads to absence of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. Clinical studies on this variant in patients treated with fluoropyrimidines are lacking because of its low minor allelic frequency. However, the DPYD*7 minor allelic frequency is 56-times higher in the Dutch compared with the global population. This allowed us to evaluate fluoropyrimidine tolerability in DPYD*7 variant allele carriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated with standard-of-care fluoropyrimidine who were pretreatment DPYD genotyped for DPYD*2A, *13, 2846A>T, and 1236G>A single-nucleotide polymorphisms were included for analyses. Patients were additionally screened for the DPYD*7 allele (rs72549309, 295-298delTCAT). AEs were graded if they worsened from baseline, according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. AEs ≥ grade 3 were considered severe. RESULTS: From 3,748 patients, we found 13 patients carrying heterozygous DPYD*7. Relevant clinical data were available for 11 patients. All patients developed fluoropyrimidine-related AEs, of which five patients developed severe AEs (46%). From these five patients, three patients were started with 65% or 50% of standard dose, but apparently still developed severe toxicity. Because of severe AEs, three patients discontinued treatment prematurely (one patient already started with 50% of standard dose) and one patient who started with 50% of standard dose was further reduced to 35% of standard dose. CONCLUSION: In this study, the clinical consequences of carrying the DPYD*7 variant allele were confirmed as 46% of the patients developed severe AEs, even in the presence of initial dose reductions. This underlines the need for prospective studies investigating the required fluoropyrimidine dose for DPYD*7 carriers.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP) , Fluoruracila , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 807, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Five-fluorouracil, folinic acid, oxaliplatin and irinotecan (FOLFOXIRI) regimen is used as the first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The use of capecitabine, an oral fluoropyrimidine pro-drug, is feasible and safe; hence, it provides an interesting alternative to 5-fluorouracil in the abovementioned regimen. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (XELOXIRI) regimen use with or without targeted drugs in Chinese patients with mCRC. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with mCRC who received XELOXIRI regimen with or without targeted drugs (bevacizumab or cetuximab) every 2 weeks between January 2017 and November 2019 at the National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College. Treatment efficacy was assessed by investigators by evaluating the objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR). Overall survival (OS) was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. The adverse events were also analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-one consecutive patients were examined and followed up for survival. As of November 8, 2021, the median follow-up time was 35.4 months. Disease progression and death occurred in 50 (82%) and 38 (62%) patients, respectively. The median treatment duration of XELOXIRI with or without bevacizumab or cetuximab was 10 cycles (range, 1-12 cycles). The median OS and PFS were 32.2 months (95%CI [24.8-39.6]) and 9.3 months (95% CI [8.1-10.5]), respectively. The ORR of 48 patients with measurable lesions was 70.8%, and the DCR was 89.6%. RAS/BRAF wild-type (HR 0.39; 95% CI [0.16-0.96], p = 0.04) and metastatic organs > 2 (HR 3.25; 95% CI [1.34-7.87], p = 0.009) were independent prognostic factors for OS. The incidence of any grade of adverse events (AEs) was 96.7% (59/61). Grade ≥ 3 AEs included neutropenia (19.7%), leukopenia (9.8%), diarrhea (3.3%), vomiting (3.3%), febrile neutropenia (1.6%), and thrombocytopenia (1.6%). No treatment-related death occurred. CONCLUSION: The use of the XELOXIRI regimen with or without a targeted drug was effective, with a manageable toxicity profile in Chinese patients with mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina , Estudos Longitudinais , Compostos Organoplatínicos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 21: 15347354221105485, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced adverse effects (CIAEs) remain a challenging problem due to their high incidences and negative impacts on treatment in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We aimed to identify risk factors and predictive markers for CIAEs using food/nutrition data in CRC patients receiving post-operative capecitabine-based chemotherapy. METHODS: Food/nutrition data from 130 Chinese CRC patients were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify CIAE-related food/nutrition factors. Prediction models were constructed based on the combination of these factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the discrimination ability of models. RESULTS: A total of 20 food/nutrition factors associated with CIAEs were identified in the univariate analysis after adjustments for total energy and potential confounding factors. Based on multivariate analysis, we found that, among these factors, dessert, eggs, poultry, and milk were associated with several CIAEs. Most importantly, poultry was an overall protective factor; milk and egg were risk factors for hand-foot syndrome (HFS) and bone marrow suppression (BMS), respectively. Developed multivariate models in predicting grade 1 to 3 CIAEs and grade 2/3 CIAEs both had good discrimination (AUROC values from 0.671 to 0.778, 0.750 to 0.946 respectively), which had potential clinical application value in the early prediction of CIAEs, especially for more severe CIAEs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that patients with high milk and egg intakes should be clinically instructed to control their corresponding dietary intake to reduce the likelihood of developing HFS and BMS during capecitabine-based chemotherapy, respectively. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03030508.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos , Capecitabina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Ovos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Mão-Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Mão-Pé/etiologia , Humanos , Leite , Fatores de Risco
8.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(7): 1657-1668, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716183

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective was to compare disease-free survival (DFS) and distant metastasis in patients with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with cT3-4N0M0 or cTxN1-2M0 rectal cancer were included in this retrospective study. Patients who received NCRT (radiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine) or TNT (radiotherapy with two concurrent cycles of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) followed by another two cycles of CAPOX) during January 2011 and November 2016 at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University were included. All patients had received radical surgery. Adverse events, pathological response and survival outcomes in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-two patients were enrolled, 120 in the TNT and 62 in the NCRT groups. No significant between-group differences in neoadjuvant therapy-associated adverse events or surgical complications were found. TNT achieved a higher pathological complete response (pCR) rate (25.8%) compared with NCRT (12.9%, P = 0.044). Patients in the TNT group had a higher 3-year DFS rate (82.8% versus 75.7%, P = 0.041) and lower distant metastasis rate (19.2% versus 33.1%, P = 0.049) than those in the NCRT group. Multivariate analysis showed that NCRT was an independent risk factor for DFS (95%CI 2.023-13.415, P = 0.001) and distant metastasis (95% CI 2.149-20.082, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: With similar adverse events and a higher pCR rate when compared with NCRT, TNT might be considered as a safe and effective therapeutic strategy to improve prognosis in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Oxaliplatina , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682716

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer deaths around the world. Chemotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for cancer patients, and has remarkably enhanced survival rates. However, it has many side effects. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been intensively studied as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. However, definitive biomarkers in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) are still lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the factors significant for neurological adverse events in GC patients receiving XELOX (oxaliplatin and capecitabine) chemotherapy. The results show that XELOX chemotherapy induces changes in the expression of hsa-miR-200c-3p, hsa-miR-885-5p, and hsa-miR-378f. Validation by qRT-PCR demonstrated that hsa-miR-378f was significantly downregulated in CIPN. Hsa-miR-378f was identified as showing a statistically significant correlation in GC patients receiving XELOX chemotherapy according to the analysis of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs. Furthermore, 34 potential target genes were predicted using a web-based database for miRNA target prognostication and functional annotations. The identified genes are related to the peptidyl-serine phosphorylation and regulation of alternative mRNA splicing with enrichment in the gastric cancer, neurotrophin, MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways. Collectively, these results provide information useful for developing promising strategies for the treatment of XELOX-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , MicroRNA Circulante , MicroRNAs , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Neoplasias Gástricas , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Biomarcadores , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oxaloacetatos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
10.
Trials ; 23(1): 420, 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a common cutaneous side effect of capecitabine therapy. Apart from oral cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (celecoxib), there are no proven strategies for the prevention of HFS. However, celecoxib is associated with significant cardiotoxicity. To date, no study has evaluated the role of topical COX inhibitor, diclofenac. In this study, we aim to compare topical 1% diclofenac gel with placebo in the prevention of capecitabine-induced HFS. METHODS: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group superiority trial: the Diclofenac Topical in Reducing Capecitabine induced HFS (D-TORCH) study. A total of 264 patients with breast and gastrointestinal malignancies will be randomly allocated (stratified by sex and type of therapy [monotherapy or combination regimen with capecitabine]) to receive either 1% topical diclofenac or placebo that will be applied over the palmar and dorsal surface of the hands twice daily whilst taking capecitabine for 12 weeks. The patients will be followed up until the end of four cycles. The primary objective of this study is to compare the effect of topical diclofenac with placebo in preventing HFS (incidence of NCI CTCAEv5.0 grade 2 or higher HFS). The secondary objective is to compare the effect of topical diclofenac with placebo on preventing all grades of HFS (incidence of NCI CTCv5.0 all grade HFS), time to develop HFS (from the start of capecitabine), patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (HF-HRQoL questionnaire), adherence with the application (self-reported), capecitabine dose changes (number of patients with dose modifications due to HFS) and safety profile (NCICTCv5.0 all grade HFS) DISCUSSION: The D-TORCH study aims to determine if 1% topical diclofenac reduces the incidence of grade 2 or higher HFS in patients receiving capecitabine. To date, there have been a lot of trials for hand-foot syndrome prevention using agents like pyridoxine, vitamin E, carvedilol, and various polyherbal formulations, but none has been found successful. If the trial meets the primary end point, 1% topical diclofenac will be the new standard of care for HFS prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registry of India  CTRI/2021/01/030592 . Prospectively registered on January 19, 2021.


Assuntos
Síndrome Mão-Pé , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Mão-Pé/diagnóstico , Síndrome Mão-Pé/etiologia , Síndrome Mão-Pé/prevenção & controle , Humanos
11.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(6): e13112, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of capecitabine combined with temozolomide (CapTem) for metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) remains controversial. The present study aimed to assess the activity and safety of prolonged CapTem and Cap maintenance therapy in patients with metastatic PanNETs. METHODS: Retrospective real-world data of 94 patients with metastatic PanNETs were obtained from one cancer centre. Fifteen patients were treated with Cap maintenance therapy after fixed 12-13 cycles of CapTem (group I), 44 patients were treated with prolonged CapTem until disease progression (group II), and 35 patients were treated with fixed 12-13 cycles of CapTem (group III). RESULTS: The mean ± SE follow-up period was 41.79 ± 26.31 months. The median CapTem treatment duration was 12 months in group I and 14 months in group II. The median time to best partial response was 12 months both in groups I and group II. The objective response rates of groups I and II were significantly higher than those of group III (73.3%, 41.9%, and 20%, respectively, p = .002). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) of group I and group II was significantly higher than that of group III (35 months, 26 months vs. 19 months, p < .001). Safety analysis of the three groups indicated rare events of grade 3-4 toxicities, with nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and anaemia being the most common adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PanNETs who responded well to CapTem treatment may benefit from prolonged CapTem and Cap maintenance therapy after fixed cycles. Prospective studies are encouraged to further explore the prolonged CapTem treatment and maintenance therapy.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/etiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
12.
Int J Cancer ; 151(6): 957-966, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467766

RESUMO

Cancer patients treated with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) often develop hand-foot syndrome (HFS) or palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia. Genetic variation in ST6GAL1 is a risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D), a disease also associated with HFS. We analysed genome-wide association data for 10 toxicities in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from the COIN and COIN-B trials. One thousand and fifty-five patients were treated with XELOX ± cetuximab and 745 with folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin ± cetuximab. We also analysed rs6783836 in ST6GAL1 with HFS in CRC patients from QUASAR2. Using UK Biobank data, we sought to confirm an association between ST6GAL1 and T2D (17 384 cases, 317 887 controls) and analysed rs6783836 against markers of diabetes, inflammation and psoriasis. We found that 68% of patients from COIN and COIN-B with grade 2-3 HFS responded to treatment as compared to 58% with grade 0-1 HFS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.2, P = 2.0 × 10-4 ). HFS was also associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.84-0.99, P = 4.6 × 10-2 ). rs6783836 at ST6GAL1 was associated with HFS in patients treated with XELOX (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.1-4.6, P = 4.3 × 10-8 ) and was borderline significant in patients receiving capecitabine from QUASAR2, but with an opposite allele effect (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.42-1.03, P = .05). ST6GAL1 was associated with T2D (lead SNP rs3887925, OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.92-0.96, P = 1.2 × 10-8 ) and the rs6783836-T allele was associated with lowered HbA1c levels (P = 5.9 × 10-3 ) and lymphocyte count (P = 2.7 × 10-3 ), and psoriasis (P = 7.5 × 10-3 ) beyond thresholds for multiple testing. In conclusion, HFS is a biomarker of treatment outcome and rs6783836 in ST6GAL1 is a potential biomarker for HFS with links to T2D and inflammation.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD , Capecitabina , Síndrome Mão-Pé , Oxaliplatina , Sialiltransferases , Antígenos CD/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Fluoruracila , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Síndrome Mão-Pé/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Psoríase/genética , Sialiltransferases/genética
13.
Oncologist ; 27(4): 251-e304, 2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported the good feasibility and favorable efficacy of perioperative capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CapeOx) in patients (pts) with clinical T3(SS)/T4a(SE) N1-3 M0 gastric cancer (GC) in a phase II study in which the pathological response rate, the primary endpoint, of 54.1% was demonstrated. Here, we report 3-year follow-up data. METHODS: The eligibility criteria included clinical T3(SS)/T4a(SE) N1-3 M0 GC according to the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma-3rd English Edition (JCGC). Three cycles of neoadjuvant CapeOx (capecitabine, 2000mg/m2 for 14 days; oxaliplatin, 130mg/m2 on day 1, every 3 weeks) were administered, followed by 5 cycles of adjuvant CapeOx after D2 gastrectomy. Three-year overall survival and relapse-free survival are presented here, and analyzed by cohorts based on pathologic response rate (pRR). RESULTS: Thirty-seven pts were enrolled from July 2016 to May 2017, and fully evaluated for efficacy and toxicity. Thirty-three pts (89.2%) completed the planned three cycles of neoadjuvant CapeOx and underwent gastrectomy, with an R0 resection rate of 78.4% (n = 29). The overall survival (OS) rate and relapse-free survival (RFS) rate at 3 years was 83.8% (95% CI, 72.7-96.5%) and 73.0% (95% CI, 60.0-88.8%), respectively. Further, the 3-year OS rate in pts with pathological response of grade 1a (n = 13) and grade 1b or higher (n = 20) was 69.2% (95% CI: 48.2-99.5%) and 100.0%, respectively, based on JCGC. Pathological response rate was classified according to JCGC as follows: grade 0, the tumor was not affected; grade 1a, less than one-third of the tumor was affected; grade 1b, one to two thirds of the tumor was affected; grade 2, greater than or equal to two thirds was affected; and grade 3, no residual tumor. A pathological response was defined as grade 1b or greater. CONCLUSION: Perioperative CapeOx showed good feasibility and favorable prognosis, especially in pts with pathological response of grade 1b or higher and was found to be useful in predicting prognosis. The data obtained using this novel approach warrant further investigation (Trial ID: UMIN000021641, jRCTs051180109).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
14.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 107, 2022 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adding anti-angiogenics to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for localized gastric cancer is recognized as a promising strategy, but its clinical value remains to be defined. METHODS: This single-center, single-arm, phase 2 trial included patients with locally advanced (cT3/4aN+M0) adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) who received three cycles of intravenous oxaliplatin (135 mg/m2 on day 1), oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1 to 14), and oral apatinib for 21 days (250 mg once daily in the first two cycles, and further increased to 500 mg daily in the third cycle based on whether any adverse event of grade 3 or worse occurred), and an additional cycle of oxaliplatin plus capecitabine, followed by gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an objective response according to RECIST version 1.1. RESULTS: Between April 28, 2017, and October 23, 2019, 37 patients were screened and 35 participants were included. Of the 32 patients assessable for efficacy and safety, objective responses were achieved in 25 (78.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 60.0% to 90.7%) patients. Thirty-one (96.9%) patients received R0 resection, two (6.3%) patients achieved pathological complete response, and 11 (34.4%) patients achieved pathological response. At the data cutoff date (September 30, 2021), the median event-free survival was 42.6 (95% CI, 16.2 to not reached) months, and the median overall survival was not reached. The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were hypertension (9/32, 28.1%), thrombocytopenia (7/32, 21.9%), and neutropenia (5/32, 15.6%). Seven (21.9%) patients developed surgical complications, and the most common one was intra-abdominal abscess (4/32, 12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The concomitant use of apatinib, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine as neoadjuvant therapy showed promising efficacy and manageable safety profile in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach or GEJ, and further phase 3 study is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with ClinicalTrial.gov ( NCT03229096 ).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Humanos , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Piridinas
15.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 458, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473510

RESUMO

AIM: To independently assess the impact of mandatory testing using an extended DPYD variant panel (ToxNav®) and consequent dose adjustment of Capecitabine/5-FU on recorded quantitative toxicity, symptoms of depression, and hospital costs. METHODS: We used propensity score matching (PSM) to match 466 patients tested with ToxNav® with 1556 patients from a historical cohort, and performed regression analysis to estimate the impact of ToxNav®on toxicity, depression, and hospital costs. RESULTS: ToxNav® appeared to reduce the likelihood of experiencing moderate (OR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.45-0.77) and severe anaemia (OR: 0.55; 95%CI: 0.33-0.90), and experience of pain for more than 4 days a week (OR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.30-0.83), while it increased the likelihood of mild neutropenia (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.27-2.35). It also reduced the cost of chemotherapy by 12% (95%CI: 3-31) or £9765, the cost of non-elective hospitalisation by 23% (95%CI: 8-36) or £2331, and the cost of critical care by 21% (95%CI: 2-36) or £1219 per patient. For the DPYD variant associated with critical risk of toxicity (rs3918290), the improved non-elective hospital costs were > £20,000, whereas variants associated with hand-foot syndrome toxicity had no detectable cost improvement. CONCLUSION: Upfront testing of DPYD variants appears to reduce the toxicity burden of Capecitabine and 5-FU in cancer patients and can lead to substantial hospital cost savings, only if the dose management of the drugs in response to variants detected is standardised and regulated.


Assuntos
Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP) , Custos Hospitalares , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pontuação de Propensão , Reino Unido
16.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 163, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capecitabine is widely used in chemotherapy for breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. The frequent adverse reactions of capecitabine mainly include gastrointestinal side effects, anemia, and cardiovascular toxicity. Here, we report a rare case of severe hyperglycemia and hypokalemia during long-term treatment with capecitabine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 48-year-old Chinese female was hospitalized with the complaint of breathlessness and weakness after activity, for 1 month. Her past history is significant for a diagnosis of right-sided breast cancer 7 years ago. She underwent right mastectomy, following which capecitabine was started 1.5 years prior to the current admission as part of her primary treatment at the discovery of systemic osseous metastasis. Her fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were quite normal 7 months ago but increased to 15.3 mmol/L and 11.2%, respectively, at the present admission. Her serum potassium level was as low as 2.5 mmol/L. Plasma autoantibodies related to islets and insulin were all negative. Capecitabine was discontinued, and an insulin pump and potassium supplement were given after admission. Her blood sugar and potassium levels returned to their normal ranges soon. Self-injection of insulin was withdrawn completely at 2 months after discharge, and no oral hypoglycemic agents were added. Her plasma glucose and electrolyte levels were at normal levels at her 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Glucose intolerance and hypokalemia may be rare but serious adverse effects during long-term chemotherapy with capecitabine.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipopotassemia , Glicemia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Insulina , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio
17.
Br J Cancer ; 127(1): 126-136, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serious and potentially life-threatening toxicities can occur following 5-fluorouracil/capecitabine exposure. Patients carrying Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPYD) variant alleles associated with decreased enzymatic function are at a greater risk of early/severe 5-fluorouracil/capecitabine toxicity. The objective of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to evaluate treatment outcomes between Pharmacogenetics Guided Dosing (PGD) versus non-PGD and within PGD (DPYD variant allele carriers versus wild type). METHODS: A systematic review/meta-analysis of original publications indexed in Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, and the Cochrane CENTRAL (Wiley) library from inception to 7-Dec-2020. Eligible studies evaluated at least one pre-defined treatment outcome measures (toxicity/hospitalisations/survival/overall response/quality of life). RESULTS: Of 1090 identified publications, 17 met predefined eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis observed reduced incidence of grade 3/4 overall toxicity (Risk Ratio [RR] 0.32 [95% Cl 0.27-0.39], p < 0.00001) and grade 3/4 diarrhoea (RR 0.38 [95% Cl 0.24-0.61], p < 0.0001) among PGD versus non-PGD cohorts. Within PGD cohorts, there was no statistical differences for overall response rates (complete/partial) (RR 1.31 [95% Cl 0.93-1.85], p = 0.12). Similar results were found with stable disease (RR 1.27 [95% Cl 0.66-2.44], p = 0.47). CONCLUSION: PGD improves patient outcomes in terms of grade 3/4 toxicity, in particular overall toxicity and diarrhoea, without impacting on treatment response. REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42020223768.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética , Qualidade de Vida , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Daru ; 30(1): 117-125, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320555

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this clinical trial, we evaluated Alpha® ointment efficacy in prevention of capecitabine induced hand-foot syndrome (HFS) in patients with gastrointestinal or breast cancers, for the first time. METHODS: During this pilot, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effect of Alpha® ointment (Lawsonia inermis 3 g and Curcuma longa 0.15 g/ 30 g) was assessed. It was applied on the palms and the soles, two times daily starting at the first day of chemotherapy for 4 consecutive courses. The severity of HFS was assessed at the end of the chemotherapy courses based on World Health Organization (WHO) scale and scored between 0-4. RESULTS: Ninety eligible patients were included randomly in the treatment or placebo group. Median WHO HFS grade was not significantly different between the two groups, during the follow-up period (P > 0.05). In the weekly assessment, the scores increased meaningfully in both the placebo and treatment groups, but there was a delay in HFS occurrence and deterioration in Alpha ointment group based on post hoc analysis. CONCLUSION: Administration of Alpha® ointment containing henna and curcumin could not significantly prevent capecitabine induced HFS during 4 courses of treatment, but can somewhat delay its occurrence in patients with gastrointestinal or breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Curcumina , Síndrome Mão-Pé , Lawsonia (Planta) , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Síndrome Mão-Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Mão-Pé/etiologia , Síndrome Mão-Pé/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pomadas/uso terapêutico
19.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(5): 706-714, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323856

RESUMO

Importance: Induction chemotherapy added to concurrent chemoradiotherapy significantly improves survival for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but the optimal induction regimen remains unclear. Objective: To determine whether induction chemotherapy with paclitaxel, cisplatin, and capecitabine (TPC) improves survival vs cisplatin and fluorouracil (PF) prior to chemoradiotherapy for patients with stage IVA to IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, open-label, phase 3 clinical trial recruited 238 patients at 4 hospitals in China from October 20, 2016, to August 29, 2019. Patients were 18 to 65 years of age with treatment-naive, nonkeratinizing stage IVA to IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive induction chemotherapy with two 21-day cycles of TPC (intravenous paclitaxel [150 mg/m2, day 1], intravenous cisplatin [60 mg/m2, day 1], and oral capecitabine [1000 mg/m2 orally twice daily, days 1-14]) or PF (intravenous cisplatin [100 mg/m2, day 1] and fluorouracil [800 mg/m2 daily, days 1-5]), followed by chemoradiotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was failure-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary end points included distant metastasis-free survival, locoregional relapse-free survival, overall survival, tumor response, and safety. Results: Overall, 238 eligible patients (187 men [78.6%]; median age, 45 years [range, 18-65 years]) were randomly assigned to receive TPC (n = 118) or PF (n = 120). The median follow-up duration was 48.4 months (IQR, 39.6-53.3 months). Failure-free survival at 3 years was 83.5% (95% CI, 77.0%-90.6%) in the TPC group and 68.9% (95% CI, 61.1%-77.8%) in the PF group (stratified hazard ratio [HR] for recurrence or death, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.79; P = .004). Induction with the TPC regimen resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of distant metastases (stratified HR, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.24-0.98]; P = .04) and locoregional recurrence (stratified HR, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.18-0.93]; P = .03) compared with the PF regimen. However, there was no effect on early overall survival (stratified HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.17-1.18]; P = .10). The incidences of grade 3 to 4 acute adverse events and late-onset toxicities were 57.6% (n = 68) and 13.6% (16 of 118), respectively, in the TPC group and 65.8% (n = 79) and 17.9% (21 of 117), respectively, in the PF group. One treatment-related death occurred in the PF group. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that induction chemotherapy with 2 cycles of TPC for patients with stage IVA to IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved failure-free survival compared with 2 cycles of PF, with no increase in the toxicity profile. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02940925.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Indução , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos
20.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 18(6): e958-e965, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients who carry reduced-activity DPYD polymorphisms have increased fluoropyrimidine (FP) toxicity risk. Although pretreatment DPYD testing is recommended throughout most of Europe, it is not recommended in the United States, and adoption has been limited. The objective of this survey was to describe the current practice in the United States regarding pretreatment DPYD testing and understand the factors deterring oncologists from ordering testing. METHODS: Survey invitations were e-mailed to 325 medical oncologists practicing in the United States who are members of the SWOG Cancer Research Network Gastrointestinal Cancer, Breast Cancer, or Early Therapeutics Committees. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate survey responses. RESULTS: Responses were collected from 59 (18.2%) US medical oncologists, of whom 98% strongly or somewhat agree that patients with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency have increased toxicity risk and 96% would modify FP dosing for a patient with known DPD deficiency. However, only 32% strongly or somewhat agree that pretreatment DPYD testing is useful to inform FP treatment, 20% have ever ordered pretreatment testing, and 3% order testing for at least 10% of their FP-treated patients. The most important factors that deter oncologists from ordering testing were low prevalence of DPD deficiency (54%) and lack of clinical practice guideline recommendations (48%). CONCLUSION: Clinical adoption of pretreatment DPYD testing is extremely limited in the United States. Utilization may be substantially increased by inclusion in the oncology clinical practice guideline recommendations, coverage through health insurance, and potentially education of medical oncologists regarding available treatment modification guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase , Oncologistas , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase/tratamento farmacológico , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos
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