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1.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 5410611, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398032

RESUMO

Background: There are limited studies on food security, physical activity, and social capital in the Iranian population. This study aimed to evaluate the social capital's associations with physical inactivity and food insecurity in a large-scale study in Iran, Urban HEART-2. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 22 districts of Tehran, the capital of Iran. Residents of Tehran who were 15 years or older were selected by a multi-stage, stratified, and random sampling method. Food insecurity and physical activity were evaluated using Household Food Security Scale and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively, and their associations with social capital were evaluated. Results: A total of 5030 individuals were included in this study, with 3139 (62.4%) males. The mean age of participants was 44.08 years (SD = 16.33, range = 15-90). Participation in social events (OR = 0.893, 95% CI = 0.819-0.974, P = 0.011), social network (OR = 0.849, 95% CI = 0.786, P < 0.001), and voluntary activities (OR = 0.865, 95% CI = 0.812-0.921, P < 0.001) were all negatively associated with food insecurity. Also, voluntary activities (OR = 0.823, 95% CI = 0.776-0.872, P < 0.001) and participation in the associations activities (OR = 0.665, 95% CI = 0.582-0.759, P < 0.001) were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusion: The prevalence of food insecurity and physical inactivity is relatively high among Tehran residents. As a factor affecting the physical activity and food security, social capital can be targeted in interventions to improve physical activity and food security among Iranians.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamento Sedentário , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Insegurança Alimentar
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361471

RESUMO

Although absolute poverty has been eliminated in rural China, multidimensional poverty has an unstoppable impact on the self-rated health of rural households through multiple dimensions. This study constructed a moderated mediation model with multidimensional poverty as the independent variable to explore the impact on rural households' self-rated health, social capital as a mediating variable, and family care as a moderating variable. We used the survey data of 382 sample out-of-poverty rural households in Jiangxi, China, in 2020. Our results indicated that multidimensional poverty had a detrimental impact on the self-rated health and social capital of rural households, both of which were significant at the 1% level (ß = -0.751, t = -4.775, and ß = -0.197, t = -7.08). A test of the mediating effect of social capital using the mediation model found the mediating effect accounting for 84.95% of the entire effect of multidimensional poverty on rural households' self-rated health. Further, the interaction term between family care and multidimensional poverty and its beneficial effect on social capital as well as the interaction term between family care and social capital and its negative effect on rural household' self-rated health are both statistically significant at the 1% level (ß = 0.558, t = -5.221 and ß = -2.100, t = -3.304). It is revealed that multidimensional poverty affects rural households' self-rated health through social capital and that family care moderates the mediating pathway. Family care exacerbates the negative effect of multidimensional poverty on rural households' self-rated health and weakens the beneficial effect of social capital on rural households' self-rated health. The lower (higher) the level of family care, the more significant the positive (negative) effect of social capital on rural households' health. Therefore, rural households should prioritize building social capital and shifting the responsibility for family care. First, through enhancing housing infrastructure and establishing cultural and educational initiatives, households can improve their viability. Second, increasing engagement in group activities will enhance social networks and boost interpersonal connections. Finally, to lessen the stress on family caregivers, building socialized care services can cover the gap in family care.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Humanos , Características da Família , Pobreza , População Rural , China
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 871, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under the global aging trend, health issues of the elderly have received more and more attention. Among them, older adults' obesity is one of the common health problems of the elderly. The association between social capital and obesity in the older adults has been analysed and discussed in previous studies but remains controversial. There are few studies on the association between social capital and obesity in the older adults in China. We examined whether social capital was associated with obesity in Chinese older adults. METHODS: The data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) -wave 8 (2017-2018) was used in this study. Totally, 10,164 respondents were included in the final analysis. Generalized trust, social participation (informal social interaction and participation of organized social activities), and social support was used as measures of social capital. Obesity status was defined by body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between the social capital and obesity, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: We found that the older adults who did not trust people around had greater odds of being overweighted/obese compared to those who trust [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.155, 95% CI 1.045 to 1.265]. The older adults having formal participation (participating in organized social activities) registered considerably higher BMI (AOR 1.155, 95% CI 1.041 to 1.269). The older adults who did not trust people around them had greater odds of being overweighted/obese both in males (AOR 1.172, 95% CI 1.012-1.333) and in females (AOR 1.155, 95% CI 1.004-1.306). Males having formal social participation were more likely to be overweighted/obese (AOR 1.181, 95% CI 1.024 to 1.337), but not in females. CONCLUSIONS: Generalized trust and formal social participation was associated with overweight/obesity among older adults in China. Targeted obesity interventions for older adults are needed by developing public health policies for social capital optimization.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Participação Social , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 685, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, the empty nest phenomenon is becoming more and more serious in the world, especially in China, and its health problems deserve attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the impact of community social capital on the health-related quality of life of empty-nest elderly. METHODS: The study used data collected from a survey study conducted between 2018 and 2019 in Sichuan province, China, with 638 empty-nest elderly meeting our criteria. SF-12 scale and self-made social capital scale were used to evaluate the health-related quality of life and community social capital of empty-nest elderly. Through descriptive statistical analysis, bivariate analysis and hierarchical multiple regression model, this study analyzes the relationship between community social capital and health-related quality of life of empty-nest elderly. Considering the role of living arrangements, this study further uses the simple effect analysis method to explore the moderating role of living arrangements. RESULTS: After controlling the relevant variables, the cognitive social capital (CSC) of empty-nest elderly had a positive relationship with the physical health summary (PCS) (ß = 0.188, p<0.001) and mental health summary (MCS) (ß = 0.205, p<0.001). No effect of structural social capital on quality of life was found as a result. Living arrangements played a moderation effect on the relationship between CSC and MCS (ß=-2.018, p<0.05). The MCS score of high CSC group (55.516 ± 0.757) was significantly higher than that of low CSC group (49.383 ± 0.722). CONCLUSION: The results suggest empty-nest elderly has poorer physical health and weaker structural social capital, while the cognitive social capital has a greater positive impact on their quality of life. Targeted interventions to enhance community social capital may be beneficial to improve health status of this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Capital Social , Humanos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nível de Saúde
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360898

RESUMO

Social capital is positively associated with self-rated health; however, this association among workers is still unclear. Thus, this study examined the relationship between social capital and self-rated health with special attention to the employment type. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 6160 workers aged 20-64 years from two towns in Mie Prefecture in January-March 2013. Social capital was assessed using five items in 4816 income-earning workers. The social capital scores were summed and then divided into three groups. The self-rated health responses were dichotomised into 'poor' and 'good'. The association was examined using a stepwise binomial logistic regression stratified by employment type and adjusted for potential confounders. Regular employees with low social capital had a higher significant odds ratio of poor self-rated health than medium (OR 0.58 95% CIs 0.39-0.87) and high (OR 0.39; 95% CIs 0.26-0.59) social capital levels after controlling for all potential confounders. Similar patterns were observed for non-regular employees with medium and high social capital. There was a significant relationship between some indicators of social capital and poor self-rated health among self-employees. These results highlight that social capital acts as an unequal health resource for different types of workers.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Japão , População Rural , Renda , Nível de Saúde , Apoio Social
6.
Lancet ; 400 Suppl 1: S7, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A decade of cuts to public services and the COVID pandemic have impacted the social infrastructure supporting connection and networking among communities. Although UK Levelling Up agendas advocate investment in physical infrastructure for economic prosperity, there are calls for a greater focus on the creation of community-led social infrastructure to address growing public health concerns, such as social isolation and loneliness. This paper explores the role of community-led organisations in creating social infrastructure and its impacts on the health and wellbeing of disadvantaged populations. METHODS: Interviews took place with 130 members of 12 community-led third sector organisations in Scotland with different spatial and social disadvantages. Interviewees were recruited through targeted and snowballing techniques, and included 25 staff, 27 volunteers, 11 board members, and 67 service users who commented on the effects of the organisations' activities on their health and wellbeing. To identify types of sociality created through social infrastructure, data was analysed and mapped through thematic coding techniques using social capital theory. Written and verbal consent was gained from all research participants and Ethical approval was granted by Glasgow Caledonian Ethics Committee. FINDINGS: Findings showed that the activities of organisations had the most prominent effect on the social wellbeing of service users, including increased social networks, sense of belonging, and decreased instances of social isolation and loneliness. These led to wider positive mental and physical health impacts, such as decreased depression and increased mobility. Community organisations created key social infrastructures that were found to facilitate bonding, bridging, and linking capital as a result of increased opportunity to form meaningful social connections and relationships. INTERPRETATION: This study shows the importance of community-led organisations in creating and maintaining vital social infrastructure for populations facing social and spatial disadvantage. Such information is important to inform policy and practice of ways in which third sector organisations can be supported to provide alternative or complementary provision that exists alongside formal public healthcare in a time where finding social as well as economic solutions for post COVID recovery is a strategic priority. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Economic and Social Research Council, National Lottery Community Fund.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Capital Social , Humanos , Populações Vulneráveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2137, 2022 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: What leads healthy people to enter in a volunteer register for clinical trials? This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the decision to volunteer in clinical trials for a COVID-19 vaccine and social capital, in a sample of healthy volunteers in Italy. Since social capital is characterized by trust, reciprocity, and social and political participation, we claim that it is key in leading individuals to actively take action to protect public health, and to take a risk for the (potential) benefit not only of themselves but for the entire community. METHODS: This study was conducted through the administration of a questionnaire to healthy volunteers registered for a phase 1 clinical trial for a COVID-19 vaccine in the Unit Research Centre of ASST-Monza, in September 2020. The primary purpose of a phase 1 study is to evaluate the safety of a new drug candidate before it proceeds to further clinical studies. To approximate a case-control study, we randomly matched the 318 respondents to healthy volunteers (cases) with 318 people randomly selected by Round 9 of the European Social Survey (controls), using three variables, which we considered to be associated with the decision to volunteer: gender, age, and education level. To execute this matching procedure, we used the "ccmatch" module in STATA. RESULTS: The findings highlight the positive impact of social capital in the choice of healthy individuals to volunteer in COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials. Controlling for possible confounding factors, some exemplary results show that people with a high level of general trust have a greater likelihood of volunteering compared to people with low trust (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.58-4.77); we also found that it is more probable that volunteers are people who have actively taken action to improve things compared with people who have not (for individuals who did three or more actions: OR = 7.54, CI = 4.10-13.86). People who reported voting (OR = 3.91, CI = 1.70-8.99) and participating in social activities more than other people of their age (OR = 2.89, CI = 1.82-4.60) showed a higher probability to volunteer. CONCLUSIONS: Together with the adoption of urgent health measures in response to COVID-19, government policymakers should also promote social capital initiatives to encourage individuals to actively engage in actions aimed at protecting collective health. Our findings make an empirical contribution to the research on vaccines and its intersection with social behaviour, and they provide useful insights for policymakers to manage current and future disease outbreaks and to enhance the enrolment in vaccine trials.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Capital Social , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Confiança
8.
J Med Life ; 15(10): 1212-1217, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420290

RESUMO

HIV/AIDS is one of the sexually transmitted diseases that cause death worldwide. Its prevalence increases due to low prevention behaviour. The study aimed to estimate the effect of social capital on HIV/AIDS preventive efforts. This study was a meta-analysis and systematic analysis. We retrieved articles from PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar from 2008-2021. The inclusion criteria were full-text articles with observational design and articles published in English. We focused on the problems of the PICO study, namely: population=men and women who were sexually active; intervention=high social capital; comparison=low social capital; outcome=HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. The articles were collected using the PRISMA flow diagram. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 with a random effect model. The study included 12 articles. The likelihood of sexually active men and women with high social capital to perform HIV/AIDS prevention efforts was 1.55 times higher than those with low social capital (aOR=1.55; CI 95%=1.11 to 2.16; p=0.009).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Capital Social , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 987579, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36249221

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate whether social capital played a mediating role in the relationship between negative life events (NLE) and quality of life (QoL) among adults in China after proposed a conceptual model based on stress buffering theory. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on baseline survey from the Chinese Multi-ethnic Cohort (CMEC) in Yunnan province. A total of 22,866 adults were recruited by multistage stratified cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the general demographic characteristics and the occurrence of NLE. A self-developed brief social capital scale was utilized to assess the social capital and the EQ-5D-5L scale was used to measure the QoL. The relationships among NLE, social capital and QoL were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. Structural equation models were used to evaluate whether social capital had a mediating effect on the relationship between NLE and QoL. The standardize coefficient (ß) and it's 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in this process. Results: The mean age of participants was 52.70 years old. The mean of EQ-5D index value was 0.92 (SD = 0.12) and the mean of EQ-VAS score was 71.77 (SD = 13.80). NLE not only directly affected EQ-5D index value [ß = -0.127, 95% CI (-0.144, -0.110)] but also indirectly negatively affected EQ-5D index value through social capital [ß = -0.019, 95% CI (-0.023, -0.015)]. Social capital had a direct positive effect on EQ-5D index value [ß = 0.114, 95% CI (0.097, 0.133)]. A similar pattern was identified for the association between NLE and EQ-VAS score. The direct effect of NLE on EQ-VAS score was negatively significant [ß = -0.132, 95% CI (-0.146, -0.118)]. Moreover, the indirect effect through social capital was also negatively significant [ß = -0.022, 95% CI (-0.026, -0.019)]. There was a positive direct effect of social capital on EQ-VAS score [ß = 0.135, 95% CI (0.117, 0.151)]. Conclusion: Social capital played an important mediating role in the relationship between NLE and QoL, and it alleviated the negative effects of NLE on the QoL of the community residents in China. Providing reliable social capital for community residents experiencing NLE could effectively improve their quality of life.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Capital Social , Adulto , CME-Carbodi-Imida , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231144

RESUMO

Establishing an age-friendly environment at the community level is essential for promoting healthy aging. This study focused on the relationship between older adults and the community environment through their levels of satisfaction within it. We measured their physical activity (PA) in the community environment and three variables of community-level satisfaction: community environment (SCE), community social infrastructure (SSI), and community street networks (SSN). We analyzed 108 older adult participants in Suzhou using mediation analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the relationship between physical activity and the community environment. The results of the mediation effect model showed that SCE, SSI, and SSN all affected the physical functions of older adults via the total amount of physical activity (TPA); SSI and SSN affected older adults' physical functions by affecting the total duration of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA). In addition, SSI and SSN are related to the types of community facilities, street space quality, and accessibility. Our study provides valuable insights into optimizing aging-friendly neighborhoods through moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PAs at both the facility and street space levels.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Idoso , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Características de Residência , Meio Social , Caminhada
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231557

RESUMO

Participation in gateball sports may improve the well-being of older individuals in the context of active aging. However, the mechanisms of the effect need a social viewpoint. A random sample of 337 valid data points was gathered from seven cities in the Chinese province of Hunan. Structural equation modeling, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, and other techniques examined the standard structure and causal links between involvement in gateball sports, social capital, and elderly people's well-being. According to structural equation modeling, playing gateball sports may improve elderly people's well-being, and social capital may influence this link to some extent. The engagement in gateball sports and social capital work in concert to promote well-being, according to a qualitative comparative study of the fuzzy sets that identified four patterns of "A, B, C, and D" antecedent constructs that do so in elderly people.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Esportes , Idoso , Envelhecimento , China , Cidades , Humanos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232090

RESUMO

Improper waste disposal of tourists has detrimental impacts on the environment, economy, and people in rural destinations. Separating at the source is an effective means to mitigate these adverse impacts on rural destinations. Hence, identifying factors influencing tourists' waste sorting intentions in rural destinations is critical to the sustainability of rural tourism and rural land. However, few studies focus on tourists' waste sorting intentions. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social capital, this research examined the determinants of tourists' waste sorting intentions in rural destinations. A total of 395 valid questionnaires were collected from a rural destination in Huzhou, China. The results indicated that: (1) all TPB variables, i.e., attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, positively and directly affect tourists' waste sorting intentions; (2) interpersonal trust directly and positively influences tourists' waste sorting intentions; (3) subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, interpersonal trust, and emotional bonding indirectly influence tourists' waste sorting intentions through the mediation of attitude toward the behavior; (4) emotional bonding does not directly affect tourists' waste sorting intentions, but the link is established through the mediation of attitude toward the behavior. This research expands the body of knowledge by integrating individuals' psychological elements with their social contexts. The findings offer some theoretical and managerial implications for understanding how tourists' social contexts facilitate tourists' waste sorting intentions.


Assuntos
Intenção , Capital Social , Atitude , China , Humanos , População Rural
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231410

RESUMO

Mental illness significantly impacts agricultural producers, whose occupation puts them at increased risk for compromised mental health and related disorders. Help-seeking intention, which can be mediated by variables such as social identity, social capital, and self-stigma, can lead to improved mental health outcomes. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the intention of agricultural producers to seek mental health assistance and determine whether these three variables are associated with help-seeking intention. Researchers administered a cross-sectional survey of agricultural producers from two regions in 32 Texas counties. Researchers surveyed a sample of Texas agricultural producers (n = 429) to understand their social identity, social capital, and degree of self-stigma, and their intent to seek help for personal or emotional problems and for suicide ideation. Researchers identified a relationship between social identity and social capital, which indicated that social identity is moderately associated with greater levels of social capital. The multiple linear regression analyses confirmed that social capital and self-stigma are significant predictors of producers' help-seeking intention for both help-seeking types. These results signify the importance of efforts to increase social capital, increase mental health literacy and tailor training to address self-stigma and enhance positive help-seeking behavior among agricultural producers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Capital Social , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Identificação Social , Estigma Social
14.
Health Educ Res ; 37(6): 405-419, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200434

RESUMO

Young Black gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YB-GBMSM) are disproportionately burdened by HIV and often exhibit suboptimal engagement in HIV care. With the goal of increasing engagement in HIV care, we designed a culturally specific, theory-based group-level program, Brothers Building Brothers by Breaking Barriers (B6), which aimed to strengthen resilience and social capital among YB-GBMSM living with HIV. We conducted a pilot trial to evaluate the program's acceptability and feasibility. Through clinic-based recruitment and community outreach events, we recruited and enrolled 71 YB-GBMSM into the study. Participants were randomized to either the B6 program or a control comparison program. Post-session evaluation surveys and in-depth qualitative interviews showed B6 to have high levels of acceptability and satisfaction. Specifically, participants described benefits to interacting in a group with other YB-GBMSM, and several described increased comfort with their own gay identities after participation. No adverse events or safety concerns were reported. However, there were challenges to feasibility, as reflected in recruitment and retention rates. The B6 program was highly acceptable among YB-GBMSM living with HIV; however, innovative program delivery methods and implementation strategies will be needed to improve recruitment and retention in future implementation of B6.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Capital Social , Masculino , Humanos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Estudos de Viabilidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293728

RESUMO

Residents play an important role as one of the main actors in food safety governance. To build a pattern of food safety risk co-governance, the positive and effective participation of residents is vital. This study first establishes a comprehensive analysis framework combining social capital theory and political efficacy theory. Data from a survey of 714 residents in Shandong Province, China, were analysed through structural equation modelling and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to examine the causal relationship between residents' willingness to participate and its driving factors. The results indicated that: (1) reciprocity norm, institutional trust and social engagement have significant positive effects on willingness to participate; (2) political efficacy has a partial mediating effect in the relationship between social capital and willingness to participate; (3) fsQCA findings have four solutions to achieving residents' strong willingness to participate; reciprocity norm, institutional trust and political efficacy are the core elements that affected residents' high willingness to participate, whereas social engagement and sociodemographic variables are the non-core variables. Therefore, we put forward suggestions for improving residents' willingness to participate in food safety governance, including improving the appeal expression and feedback mechanism, cultivating residents' social capital and paying attention to the superposition effect of social capital and political efficacy.


Assuntos
Capital Social , China , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Confiança , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293830

RESUMO

Pro-environmental behavior can promote the optimization of the living environment and sustainable social development. This paper constructs a theoretical analysis framework of "environmental consciousness, habitat environment-social capital- pro-environmental behavior". By using structural equation modeling and 1005 instances of microscopic research data, we analyzed the influence of environmental awareness and habitat environment on the pro-environmental behavior of community residents. The results of the analysis were combined with the Bootstrap method to verify the mediating role of social capital dimensions in the influence of environmental awareness and habitat quality on the pro-environmental behavior of community residents. The results show that: Firstly, environmental awareness, habitat quality, and social capital have positive effects on the pro-environmental behavior of community residents. Secondly, environmental awareness and habitat quality have positive effects on the five dimensions of social capital. Thirdly, among the five dimensions of social capital, four dimensions of social trust, social norms, sense of community belonging, and community voluntarism play a partially mediating role between environmental awareness, habitat quality, and pro-environmental behavior. This paper enriches the research on the influence of environmental awareness and habitat environment on pro-environmental behavior, reveals the mediating effect of each dimension of social capital, and broadens the horizon for the study of pro-environmental behavior. The results of the study can provide a reference for decision making to promote the implementation of pro-environmental behavior among community residents.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Ecossistema , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , Confiança , China
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294047

RESUMO

While a growing number of farmers migrate to urban sectors to engage in off-farm employment, little is known whether and how the migration working experience (MWE) changes farmers, especially their social capital. Using a survey data set with 2863 farm households in 14 provinces in China, we developed a mediation model to examine the impact of MWE on social capital, as well as the roles of household income, farmers' risk attitude, and information and communications technologies (ICTs). We show that MWE has a significantly positive impact on social capital and weak ties in social capital, which is mediated by household income, risk attitude, and ICT adoption. In particular, MWE can increase income, enhance risk preference, and promote ICT adoption, thus, leading to higher social capital. Moreover, ICTs play a moderating role in the impact of MWE on income and risk preference, that is, ICTs can decrease the impact of MWE on income, and completely substitute the impact of MWE on risk attitude. Our study provides an explanation for the reason why farmers are willing to migrate despite unfavorable working conditions they may endure in urban areas.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Capital Social , Humanos , Agricultura , China , População Rural
18.
Am Ann Deaf ; 167(3): 334-354, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314165

RESUMO

Social capital can positively influence students' postsecondary aspirations and their postschool transitions to higher education and employment. Educators, families, and young people themselves can play an active role in generating and developing adolescents' social capital. A targeted focus on developing robust social capital could play an important role in the transition planning and support provided to secondary students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and contribute to their success in postsecondary education and employment. A qualitative study gaining the perspectives of DHH young adults attending universities in Australia investigated the role of social capital in assisting DHH students in their attainment of postsecondary education. Ten DHH university students who communicated primarily through spoken English participated in semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis identified social capital facilitator themes on four levels: community, school, family, and individual. In addition, two barrier themes were identified.


Assuntos
Surdez , Perda Auditiva , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Capital Social , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Estudantes , Audição
19.
Acad Med ; 97(10): 1528-1535, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Amid efforts to diversify the medical profession, research has yet to fully explore the role of early social ties to the field. This study examined diversity through the experiences of students without early ties to medicine through family members working in health care (i.e., "newcomers") in comparison with more-connected peers (i.e., "insiders"), examining how social newcomers to medicine negotiate challenges stemming from their outsider status. METHOD: The author conducted an exploratory qualitative study from 2018 to 2021 using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Following a voluntary preliminary survey of 2 cohorts of first-year medical students about their social connections in health care, the author conducted interviews over the next 2 years with students who had indicated their willingness to participate. Interviews addressed how social context shaped-and continued to influence-their journeys into medicine. Eighty second- and third-year students participated in 94 interviews, including some follow-up interviews for longitudinal insight into outsider status. Interviews from the second year (58 new, 14 follow-up) provided the foundation of the qualitative results. RESULTS: Students experienced outsider status primarily on the basis of being newcomers to medicine, often compounded by intersectional characteristics, including first-generation college status, rural or low-income background, race or ethnicity, and nontraditional status. For some, an early shortage of social capital became internalized, continuing to influence confidence and belonging well into training, in line with social reproduction theory. However, newcomers also experienced benefits associated with diverse backgrounds which helped them find a sense of belonging in medicine, as suggested by community cultural wealth and antideficit perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: Newcomer status proved to be a central cause of outsiderness for students from all backgrounds and warrants greater attention from stakeholders, perhaps mirroring the undergraduate focus on first-generation college-goers. Findings suggest institutions that provide robust networking and community-building opportunities are best positioned to support newcomers.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Capital Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural
20.
Eval Program Plann ; 95: 102171, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209653

RESUMO

Researchers establish that the current challenges of human resources management to attract and retain talent are based on fostering and increasing the participation of relationships with employees and sustainably managing the organization and teams. The objective of this article is to evaluate the effect that sustainable human resource management has on social capital, and employee retention and loyalty programs. The information required to carry out the empirical analysis was obtained from an online survey to Spanish universities. Data processing was conducted by using the PLS-SEM technique. The results obtained show that social sustainability actions influence the social capital perceived by employees significantly and that social capital influences their loyalty and retention significantly. However, we found that social sustainability actions influence employee loyalty and retention significantly and positively only when it mediates between social capital. This research contributes to the management of organizations and suggests human capital managers to have a greater relational management of human resources in the connection, involvement and transparency of their social sustainability actions in order to achieve greater loyalty and retention ratios, better performance of the organization and, in general, a greater benefit for society.


Assuntos
Gestão de Recursos Humanos , Capital Social , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Recursos Humanos
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