Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 402
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445369

RESUMO

Annexin (Ann) is a polygenic, evolutionarily conserved, calcium-dependent and phospholipid-binding protein family, which plays key roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. However, a comprehensive understanding of CaAnn genes of pepper (Capsicum annuum) at the genome-wide level is limited. Based on the available pepper genomic information, we identified 15 members of the CaAnn gene family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaAnn proteins could be categorized into four different orthologous groups. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the CaAnn genes were tissue-specific and were widely expressed in pepper leaves after treatments with cold, salt, and drought, as well as exogenously applied MeJA and ABA. In addition, the function of CaAnn9 was further explored using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. CaAnn9-silenced pepper seedlings were more sensitive to salt stress, reflected by the degradation of chlorophyll, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the decrease of antioxidant defense capacity. This study provides important information for further study of the role of pepper CaAnn genes and their coding proteins in growth, development, and environmental responses.


Assuntos
Anexinas/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Tolerância ao Sal , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/genética , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 251-266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270016

RESUMO

The shed-microspore culture technique is an alternative sub-method combining anther and isolated microspore culture to induce microspore embryogenesis. Recently, its effective use in different types of peppers has drawn attention, because it has a higher embryo yield potential compared to anther culture and is more practical than isolated microspore culture. In this chapter, a stepwise protocol for shed-microspore culture of ornamental pepper is described. This protocol includes the steps of donor plant growth conditions, the choice of suitable flower buds based on DAPI staining of microspores, application of a cold pretreatment to flower buds, surface sterilization of the buds, shed-microspore culture of anthers, stress treatments, regeneration of androgenic in vitro plantlets, their acclimatization and ploidy analysis, and in vivo chromosome doubling of the haploid plants.


Assuntos
Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/genética , Capsicum/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corantes Fluorescentes , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Indóis , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Ploidias , Regeneração/genética , Coloração e Rotulagem , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 267-278, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270017

RESUMO

An efficient anther culture on double-layered media to produce doubled haploid (DH) plants in pepper (Capsicum annuum) was clearly shown to outperformed other techniques such as anther culture on solid medium and direct isolated microspore culture on liquid medium. It was even used for DH production in a cayenne type of hot pepper which was previously known as less responsive or even more recalcitrant to androgenesis than sweet bell pepper. Indeed, anther culture on double-layered media has been routinely used to produce DH plants on broad genotypes of C. annuum as parental candidates to develop hybrid varieties. The step-by-step protocol of pepper anther culture on double-layered media, we hereby present in detail, includes the growth of donor plants, the use of flower buds as anther source, flower bud disinfection, anther isolation, anther culture and incubation processes, embryo germination and plant acclimatization process, and transplanting of plants to the soil-compost medium in pots.


Assuntos
Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Capsicum/genética , Meios de Cultura , Flores/genética , Haploidia
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 279-291, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270018

RESUMO

Peppers have a prominent role in traditional cuisine of many different countries all around the world. This is why pepper is one of the most important crops worldwide. Production of doubled haploid (DH) pepper plants has been assessed by different approaches, but at present, the most efficient and universal method is by far anther culture, based on the use of the Dumas de Vaulx et al. protocol published in 1981, and adapted to the particularities of each specific pepper background. In this chapter, we present a method to produce pepper DHs by anther culture, based on the Dumas de Vaulx et al. protocol, but including a number of modifications which, in our experience, allow for a more efficient production DH plants in different pepper genotypes.


Assuntos
Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Capsicum/genética , Flores/genética , Germinação , Haploidia
5.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(9): 2947-2964, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081151

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A begomovirus resistance gene pepy-1, which encodes the messenger RNA surveillance factor Pelota, was identified in pepper (C. annuum) through map-based cloning and functional characterization. Pepper yellow leaf curl disease caused by begomoviruses seriously affects pepper (Capsicum spp.) production in a number of regions around the world. Ty genes of tomato, which confer resistance to the tomato yellow leaf curl virus, are the only begomovirus resistance genes cloned to date. In this study, we focused on the identification of begomovirus resistance genes in Capsicum annuum. BaPep-5 was identified as a novel source of resistance against pepper yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus (PepYLCIV) and pepper yellow leaf curl Aceh virus (PepYLCAV). A single recessive locus, which we named as pepper yellow leaf curl disease virus resistance 1 (pepy-1), responsible for PepYLCAV resistance in BaPep-5 was identified on chromosome 5 in an F2 population derived from a cross between BaPep-5 and the begomovirus susceptible accession BaPep-4. In the target region spanning 34 kb, a single candidate gene, the messenger RNA surveillance factor Pelota, was identified. Whole-genome resequencing of BaPep-4 and BaPep-5 and comparison of their genomic DNA sequences revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (A to G) located at the splice site of the 9th intron of CaPelota in BaPep-5, which caused the insertion of the 9th intron into the transcript, resulting in the addition of 28 amino acids to CaPelota protein without causing a frameshift. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaPelota in the begomovirus susceptible pepper No.218 resulted in the gain of resistance against PepYLCIV, a phenotype consistent with BaPep-5. The DNA marker developed in this study will greatly facilitate marker-assisted breeding of begomovirus resistance in peppers.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/fisiologia , Capsicum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Genes Recessivos , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/virologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
6.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067307

RESUMO

Green pepper fruit is often consumed before it is completely ripe. However, the influence of the phenological stage in which the green pepper is consumed as a potential influencing factor in its bioactive compounds content and antioxidant capacity remains unknown. In addition, no literature is available concerning the bioactive compounds changes in 'Lamuyo' green peppers along its developmental and growth cycle. For this, two different approaches have been carried out, one using twelve different phenological stages (S1 to S12), and in the other, seven different harvest dates (from 27 February to 20 April). Moreover, bioactive compounds changes during 21 days of postharvest storage at 8 °C were investigated. In this study, bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and total phenolic content) and the total hydrophilic and lipophilic (TAA-H and TAA-L) antioxidant activity were analysed. In addition, total soluble solids, total acidity, individual sugars, and organic acids were determined. Vitamin C levels increased along the phenological stages and harvest dates due to significant increases in ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid levels. Our results show that the total phenol content decreases as vegetables develop and subsequently increases both as ripening begins and by the last harvest date. Furthermore, TAA-H was also greater by the phenological stage S12 and the 20 April harvest date. In conclusion, the phenological stage and harvest date are key factors that significantly influence the bioactive compounds of green peppers, and those that appear by S12 and 20 April could be more beneficial to health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Química Orgânica , Ácido Desidroascórbico/química , Análise de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenol , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Açúcares/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064462

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of the post-transcription stage of gene activity documented to play central roles in flower and fruit development in model plant species. However, little is known about their roles and differences in domesticated and wild Capsicum species. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the miRNA content at three developmental stages (flower, small fruit, and middle fruit) from two cultivated (C. baccatum and C. annuum) and two wild (C. chacoense and C. eximium) pepper species. This analysis revealed 22 known and 27 novel miRNAs differentially expressed across species and tissues. A number of stage- and species-specific miRNAs were identified, and Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 138 genes targeted by the miRNAs. Most Gene Ontology terms were for the categories "genetic information processing", "signaling and cellular processes", "amino acid metabolism", and "carbohydrate metabolism". Enriched KEGG analysis revealed the pathways amino acids, sugar and nucleotide metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and fructose-mannose metabolism among the principal ones regulated by miRNAs during pepper fruit ripening. We predicted miRNA-target gene interactions regulating flowering time and fruit development, including miR156/157 with SPL genes, miR159 with GaMYB proteins, miR160 with ARF genes, miR172 with AP2-like transcription factors, and miR408 with CLAVATA1 gene across the different Capsicum species. In addition, novel miRNAs play an important role in regulating interactions potentially controlling plant pathogen defense and fruit quality via fructokinase, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, and aromatic and neutral amino acid transporter. Overall, the small RNA-sequencing results from this study represent valuable information that provides a solid foundation for uncovering the miRNA-mediated mechanisms of flower and fruit development between domesticated and wild Capsicum species.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Flores/genética , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Capsicum/classificação , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/metabolismo , Domesticação , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Frutoquinases/genética , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804877

RESUMO

Salinity provokes an imbalance of vegetative to generative growth, thus impairing crop productivity. Unlike breeding strategies, grafting is a direct and quick alternative to improve salinity tolerance in horticultural crops, through rebalancing plant development. Providing that hormones play a key role in plant growth and development and stress responses, we hypothesized that rootstock-mediated reallocation of vegetative growth and yield under salinity was associated with changes in the hormonal balance. To test this hypothesis, the hybrid pepper variety (Capsicum annuum L. "Gacela F1") was either non-grafted or grafted onto three commercial rootstocks (Creonte, Atlante, and Terrano) and plants were grown in a greenhouse under control (0 mM NaCl) and moderate salinity (35 mM NaCl) conditions. Differential vegetative growth versus fruit yield responses were induced by rootstock and salinity. Atlante strongly increased shoot and root fresh weight with respect to the non-grafted Gacela plants associated with improved photosynthetic rate and K+ homeostasis under salinity. The invigorating effect of Atlante can be explained by an efficient balance between cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA). Creonte improved fruit yield and maintained the reproductive to vegetative ratio under salinity as a consequence of its capacity to induce biomass reallocation and to avoid Na+ accumulation in the shoot. The physiological responses associated with yield stability in Creonte were mediated by the inverse regulation of CKs and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Finally, Terrano limited the accumulation of gibberellins in the shoot thus reducing plant height. Despite scion compactness induced by Terrano, both vegetative and reproductive biomass were maintained under salinity through ABA-mediated control of water relations and K+ homeostasis. Our data demonstrate that the contrasting developmental and physiological responses induced by the rootstock genotype in salinized pepper plants were critically mediated by hormones. This will be particularly important for rootstock breeding programs to improve salinity tolerance by focusing on hormonal traits.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922964

RESUMO

Plant species are precursors of a wide variety of secondary metabolites that, besides being useful for themselves, can also be used by humans for their consumption and economic benefit. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is not only a common food and spice source, it also stands out for containing high amounts of antioxidants (such as vitamins C and A), polyphenols and capsaicinoids. Particular attention has been paid to capsaicin, whose anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and analgesic activities have been reported in the literature. Due to the potential interest in pepper metabolites for human use, in this project, we carried out an investigation to identify new bioactive compounds of this crop. To achieve this, we applied a metabolomic approach, using an HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) separative technique coupled to metabolite identification by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). After chromatographic analysis and data processing against metabolic databases, 12 differential bioactive compounds were identified in sweet pepper fruits, including quercetin and its derivatives, L-tryptophan, phytosphingosin, FAD, gingerglycolipid A, tetrahydropentoxylin, blumenol C glucoside, colnelenic acid and capsoside A. The abundance of these metabolites varied depending on the ripening stage of the fruits, either immature green or ripe red. We also studied the variation of these 12 metabolites upon treatment with exogenous nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas involved in a good number of physiological processes in higher plants such as germination, growth, flowering, senescence, and fruit ripening, among others. Overall, it was found that the content of the analyzed metabolites depended on the ripening stage and on the presence of NO. The metabolic pattern followed by quercetin and its derivatives, as a consequence of the ripening stage and NO treatment, was also corroborated by transcriptomic analysis of genes involved in the synthesis of these compounds. This opens new research perspectives on the pepper fruit's bioactive compounds with nutraceutical potentiality, where biotechnological strategies can be applied for optimizing the level of these beneficial compounds.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Capsicum/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbolinas/análise , Carbolinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/análise , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/análise , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Triptofano/análise , Triptofano/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920210

RESUMO

Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are the most widespread and cultivated species of Solanaceae in subtropical and temperate countries. These vegetables are economically attractive worldwide. Although whole-genome sequences of peppers and genome-editing tools are currently available, the precision editing of peppers is still in its infancy because of the lack of a stable pepper transformation method. Here, we employed three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains-AGL1, EHA101, and GV3101-to investigate which Agrobacterium strain could be used for pepper transformation. Hot pepper CM334 and bell pepper Dempsey were chosen in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 induced the highest number of calli in cv. Dempsey. All three strains generated similar numbers of calli for cv. CM334. We optimized a suitable concentration of phosphinothricin (PPT) to select a CRISPR/Cas9 binary vector (pBAtC) for both pepper types. Finally, we screened transformed calli for PPT resistance (1 and 5 mg/L PPT for cv. CM334 and Dempsey, respectively). These selected calli showed different indel frequencies from the non-transformed calli. However, the primary indel pattern was consistent with a 1-bp deletion at the target locus of the C. annuumMLO gene (CaMLO2). These results demonstrate the different sensitivity between cv. CM334 and Dempsey to A. tumefaciens-mediated callus induction, and a differential selection pressure of PPT via pBAtC binary vector.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium/genética , Capsicum/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0243689, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760824

RESUMO

Wild relatives of domesticated Capsicum represent substantial genetic diversity and thus sources of traits of potential interest. Furthermore, the hybridization compatibility between members of Capsicum species complexes remains unresolved. Improving our understanding of the relationship between Capsicum species relatedness and their ability to form hybrids is a highly pertinent issue. Through the development of novel interspecific hybrids in this study, we demonstrate interspecies compatibility is not necessarily reflected in relatedness according to established Capsicum genepool complexes. Based on a phylogeny constructed by genotyping using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and with a portion of the waxy locus, and through principal component analysis (PCA) of phenotypic data, we clarify the relationships among wild and domesticated Capsicum species. Together, the phylogeny and hybridization studies provide evidence for the misidentification of a number of species from the World Vegetable Center genebank included in this study. The World Vegetable Center holds the largest collection of Capsicum genetic material globally, therefore this may reflect a wider issue in the misidentification of Capsicum wild relatives. The findings presented here provide insight into an apparent disconnect between compatibility and relatedness in the Capsicum genus, which will be valuable in identifying candidates for future breeding programs.


Assuntos
Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/classificação , Capsicum/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Plant Sci ; 305: 110826, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691960

RESUMO

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of different colors improve plant growth and increase levels of secondary metabolites. This study aimed to determine the effect of red, blue, and red + blue LEDs (1:1) on the secondary metabolites composition in chili, focusing on capsaicinoids, at the top and middle of the plant canopy in 'Super Hot' chili. The accumulated yield of the chili fruit was the highest for control, followed by blue, red and red + blue LEDs, with the top canopy giving twice more yield than the middle canopy. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of chili fruit's methanolic extracts was used to determine capsaicinoids levels. Blue LEDs significantly increased nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin contents by 57 %, 43 %, 56 %, 28 %, and 54 %, respectively, compared to the control. Also, 24 tentatively annotated metabolites, including phenylalanine, cinnamate, and valine, which are involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, were semi-quantitatively evaluated to determine the impact of LED exposure on the biosynthetic pathway of capsaicinoids. Supplemental blue LED placed at the top and between the canopy may boost the levels of capsaicinoids in chili fruit grown in greenhouses.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Luz , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(5): 1557-1573, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609141

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A major thrips resistance QTL in Capsicum was fine-mapped to a region of 0.4 Mbp, and a multidisciplinary approach has been used to study putative underlying mechanisms. Resistance to thrips is an important trait for pepper growers. These insects can cause extensive damage to fruits, flowers and leaves on field and greenhouse grown plants worldwide. Two independent studies in Capsicum identified diterpene glycosides as metabolites that are correlated with thrips resistance. In this study, we fine-mapped a previously defined thrips resistance QTL on chromosome 6, to a region of 0.4 Mbp harbouring 15 genes. Two of these 15 candidate genes showed differences in gene expression upon thrips induction, when comparing plants carrying the resistance allele in homozygous state to plants with the susceptibility allele in homozygous state for the QTL region. Three genes, including the two genes that showed difference in gene expression, contained a SNP that was predicted to lead to changes in protein structure. Therefore, these three genes, i.e. an acid phosphatase 1 (APS1), an organic cation/carnitine transporter 7 (OCT7) and an uncharacterized locus LOC107874801, are the most likely candidates for playing a role in thrips resistance and are a first step in elucidating the genetic basis of thrips resistance in Capsicum. In addition, we show that the diterpene glycoside profiles did not differ between plants with the resistance and susceptibility allele for the chromosome 6 QTL, suggesting that these compounds do not play a role in the resistance conferred by the genes located in the major thrips resistance QTL studied.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Animais , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsicum/parasitologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(10): 4342-4349, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of water containing calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3 )2 ) at excessively high concentrations in closed hydroponic crops can cause calcium ion (Ca2+ ) accumulation in the recycled nutrient solution (NS) and concomitantly negatively affect yield and product quality. The aim of the study was to determine maximum Ca2+ concentrations that do not harm the crop and to simulate the pattern of Ca2+ accumulation when the Ca2+ concentration in the irrigation water, and concomitantly in the replenishment nutrient solution (RNS), is excessive. In the current study, irrigation water containing 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mmol L-1 Ca2+ was used to prepare the RNS supplied to pepper cultivated in a closed hydroponic system. RESULTS: At 1.5 mmol L-1 Ca2+ , no Ca2+ accumulation was observed in the recirculating NS. However, at 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mmol L-1 in the irrigation water, the Ca2+ concentration in the recirculating NS, increased by the latter cropping stages to 17, 28 and 37 mmol L-1 , corresponding to 6.4, 9.0 and 10.8 dS m-1 . The accumulation of Ca2+ in the recirculating NS affected both tissue nutrient concentrations and uptake concentrations of Ca2+ , sulphate ion (SO4 2- ) and magnesium ion (Mg2+ ), but this was not the case for nitrogen (N) or potassium ion (K+ ). Growth, yield and plant water uptake were restricted at moderate (3.0 and 4.5 mmol L-1 ) and high (6.0 mmol L-1 ) external Ca2+ levels. CONCLUSION: In soilless pepper crops with zero discharge of fertigation effluents, the Ca2+ concentration in the irrigation water and the RNS should be lower than 3.0 mmol L-1 to avoid yield restrictions due to salinity. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cálcio/análise , Capsicum/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/análise , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Hidroponia , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(11): 4724-4734, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crops are exposed to recurrent and acute drought stress episodes during their vegetative and reproductive cycles, and these episodes are increasingly frequent due to ongoing climate change. Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), alias bell pepper, is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables and is grown in open fields worldwide. Here we assessed the effect of acute water stress, applied to a breeding line of sweet pepper at three stages of plant development: five true-leaves (Stage 1), production of the third flower (Stage 2) and setting of the first fruit (Stage 3), on the production and biochemical composition of its ripe fruits. RESULTS: The water stress at Stages 1 and 2 induced a delay in fruit ripening, while at Stage 3 caused a drop in production. The biochemical composition of ripe fruits was assessed by quantifying their content in vitamin C, sugars, organic acids, flavonoids as well as 190 volatile organic compounds, mainly belonging to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, esters, terpenes, aldehydes and ethers. Our results highlight that, at different stages of plant development, acute water stresses modulate differently the accumulation of bioactive compounds in fruits, which play a key role in setting the redox-status and osmotic adjustment of the plant. This was also the case for volatile compounds since, within each chemical class, different compounds varied their content in ripe fruits. CONCLUSIONS: On the whole, our results demonstrate that water stresses potentially affect the organoleptic and sensory qualities of bell pepper fruits depending on when they occur. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Água/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Água/análise
16.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(6): 1935-1948, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902082

RESUMO

AIMS: Phosphorus (P) is a finite resource and inoculation of phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria (PMB) is a promising approach for the enhancement of soil P availability and plant P uptake. This drives scientists to search for the microbes effective in mobilizing legacy P in soils. METHODS AND RESULTS: The current incubation and greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to investigate P mobilization and pepper P uptake as affected by a new biocontrol and bioremediation bacterium Burkholderia cepacia CQ18. This bacterium converted Ca3 (PO4 )2 , FePO4 , AlPO4 , and lecithin into soluble inorganic P in the culture solutions and increased available P (including water-soluble P and Olsen P) in the soil. There were positive correlations between the soluble inorganic phosphorus and the exudates (protons, organic acids (oxalate and gluconate), siderophores and phosphatases) in culture solutions. Pepper plant biomass, fruit yield and P uptake changed in the sequence: chemical fertilizers plus bacterial inoculant >only chemical fertilizers >only bacterial inoculant >blank control. CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account the wide spectrums of P mobilization and simultaneous production of acid, neutral and alkaline phosphatases at a given pH, B.cepacia CQ18 may be a potential PMB used in soils with wide pH ranges. The mechanisms employed by this bacterium in the solubilization of recalcitrant inorganic P could be the efflux of protons, organic acids (oxalate and gluconate) and siderophores. Phosphatases could be of utmost importance in the mineralization of the organic P. The production of siderophores and phosphatases by of B.cepacia CQ18 could thus be crucial for not only the antagonism against plant pathogens but also the mobilization of soil sparingly available P. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Burkholderia cepacia CQ18 could be potentially developed into a biofertilizer.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/metabolismo , Burkholderia cepacia/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacocinética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes/análise , Fósforo/análise , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 582-592, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnesium (Mg) fertilization is a promising practice to improve vegetable yield. However, its impacts on vegetable quality and human health have not been examined. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of varying Mg fertilization rates on yield and quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit. Furthermore, result of the field experiment was linked to pepper consumption data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) framework to evaluate the potential health impact of Mg fertilization for the first time. RESULTS: Compared to control, Mg fertilization increased the 2-year average pepper yield by 25.6%, whereas there was no significant yield improvement when Mg rates exceeded 112.5 kg MgO ha-1 . Magnesium application increased concentrations of Mg and capsaicinoids, decreased those of calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn) and vitamin C (Vc), and had no effect on potassium (K) and iron (Fe) in pepper fruit. As a result, Mg fertilization decreased the comprehensive nutrition level of pepper by 16.6%. Furthermore, the current health burden of the Chinese adult population associated with pepper consumption is estimated at 21.3 million DALYs per year, with the risk being increased by 5.40 DALYs for per megagram of Mg fertilizer application. Increasing health risk was mainly attributed to decreasing concentrations of Ca and Vc in pepper fruit, though the increased Mg intakes offset the impact of 1.74% to 14.4%. CONCLUSION: Magnesium fertilization significantly improved the yield but reduced nutritional quality of pepper fruit, and increased human health risks associated with consumption of pepper fruit. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Magnésio/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Magnésio/análise , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0236001, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196641

RESUMO

Responses to drought within a single species may vary based on plant developmental stage, drought severity, and the avoidance or tolerance mechanisms employed. Early drought stress can restrict emergence and seedling growth. Thus, in areas where water availability is limited, rapid germination leading to early plant establishment may be beneficial. Alternatively, germination without sufficient water to support the seedling may lead to early senescence, so reduced germination under low moisture conditions may be adaptive at the level of the population. We studied the germination response to osmotic stress of diverse chile pepper germplasm collected in southern Mexico from varied ecozones, cultivation systems, and of named landraces. Drought stress was simulated using polyethylene glycol solutions. Overall, survival time analysis revealed delayed germination at the 20% concentration of PEG across all ecozones. The effect was most pronounced in the genotypes from hotter, drier ecozones. Additionally, accessions from wetter and cooler ecozones had the fastest rate of germination. Moreover, accessions of the landraces Costeño Rojo and Tusta germinated more slowly and incompletely if sourced from a drier ecozone than a wetter one, indicating that slower, reduced germination under drought stress may be an adaptive avoidance mechanism. Significant differences were also observed between named landraces, with more domesticated types from intensive cultivation systems nearly always germinating faster than small-fruited backyard- or wild-types, perhaps due to the fact that the smaller-fruited accessions may have undergone less selection. Thus, we conclude that there is evidence of local adaptation to both ecozone of origin and source cultivation system in germination characteristics of diverse chile peppers.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Germinação , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/toxicidade
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt B): 1881-1888, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096179

RESUMO

Bell peppers are susceptible to postharvest diseases caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata that limit its commercialization. Nowadays, nanotechnology allows encapsulation of natural components such as terpenes. The objective of this work was to develop chitosan nanoparticles with α-pinene (P-CSNPs) and a nanostructured edible coating (EC-P-CSNPs). The P-CSNPs were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering) and ζ potential. The P-CSNPs and the EC-P-CSNPs were applied to the bell peppers inoculated with A. alternata under cold storage for either 0, 7, 14 and 21 days at 12 ±â€¯2 °C followed by a shelf-life period of 5 days at 20 ±â€¯2 °C to assess their post-harvest quality. Nanoparticles size was 3.9 ±â€¯0.5 nm and the ζ potential value was between 13.4 and 14.9 mV. The incorporation of α-pinene was corroborated by FTIR. Significant changes in weight loss were obtained for P-CSNPs and EC-P-CSNPs at percentage of 3 and 6% compared to the control. For firmness, color, total soluble solids, titratable acids, maturity index, total flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity, no differences were found. Total carotenes were higher in bell peppers without A. alternata. The chitosan nanoparticles and edible coating inhibited A. alternata during the cold storage period of bell pepper and preserved the physicochemical quality.


Assuntos
Alternaria/fisiologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/farmacologia , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/microbiologia , Quitosana/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Etilenos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Pigmentação , Solubilidade
20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(11): 8429-8438, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037963

RESUMO

Plant-rhizobacteria interaction and co-evolution developed adaptive strategies which may help the plant survive in nature. Plant rhizosphere soil isolates were analyzed to investigated the effects of rhizobacteria for promoting plant growth and suppress plant disease. Bacterial strains which isolated from plant rhizosphere soil were screened for elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) on tobacco. Strain S2-3-2 results in significant reduction of disease severity on tobacco, it was identified as Bacillus pumilus by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). Strain S2-3-2 was deeper studied for pepper plant growth promotion and biological control activity against pepper bacterial spot disease. It was found that the pepper disease severity was decreased when the roots were drenched with strain S2-3-2, and the pepper plants had a higher weight and chlorophyll content, as compared with the mock-treated plants. Transcriptional expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes in pepper was analyzed by real-time PCR, gene expressions of CaPR1, CaPR4, and CaPR10 were increased when the plants were treated with strain S2-3-2. Moreover, strain S2-3-2 was tested for the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and it was determined to emit volatiles that enhance the growth of the tobacco plants. Interesting, heat-killed S2-3-2 enhance the pepper root growth, increase the gene expressions of CaPR4 and CaPR10 after pathogen challenge for 6 h, but limited to suppress the pepper bacterial spot disease as compare to the mock-treated plants. Strain S2-3-2 can be a potential biological control agent on the plant root for plant growth promoting and disease suppression.


Assuntos
Bacillus pumilus/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Bacillus pumilus/genética , Bacillus pumilus/fisiologia , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...