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1.
Food Chem ; 352: 129397, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667925

RESUMO

Paprika production under the protected designation of origin (PDO) standardized procedures leads to more quality products. However, it is also related to higher retail prices, making them susceptible to adulteration with low-quality paprika or its agricultural origin's mislabeling. Therefore, in this study, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) fingerprints, strongly related to phenolic acid and polyphenolic compounds, were proposed as chemical markers to assess the classification of paprika from five European regions (three Spanish PDO, Hungary, and the Czech Republic), through a classification decision tree constructed by partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models. After external validation, an excellent classification accuracy of 97.9% was achieved. Moreover, the chromatographic fingerprints were also proposed to detect and quantitate two different paprika geographical origin blend scenarios by partial least squares (PLS) regression. Low external validation and prediction errors -with values below 1.6 and 10.7%, respectively- were obtained.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Geografia , Capsicum/classificação , Análise Discriminante , Fraude , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672083

RESUMO

Sweet pepper is one of the most important economic fruits with nutritional attributes. In this sense, the nutraceutical value of consumed products is a major concern nowadays so the content of some bioactive compounds and antioxidants (phenols, ascorbic acid, lycopene, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and antioxidant activity) was monitored in 18 sweet pepper landraces at two maturity stages (green and red). All the traits except chlorophylls significantly increased in red fruits (between 1.5- and 2.3-fold for phenols, ascorbic acid, and 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition activity, 4.8-fold for carotenoid and 27.4-fold for lycopene content), which suggests that ripening is key for obtaining desired fruit quality. Among landraces, P-44 in green fruits is highlighted for its content in carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenols, and ascorbic acid, and P-46 for its antioxidant capacity and lycopene content. Upon maturity, P-48, P-44, and P-41 presented higher levels of phenols and lycopene, and P-39 of phenols, carotenoid, and DPPH. This work reflects a wide variability in the 18 pepper landraces at bioactive compounds concentration and in relation to fruit ripeness. The importance of traditional landraces in terms of organoleptic properties is emphasized as they are the main source of agricultural biodiversity today and could be helpful for breeders to develop new functional pepper varieties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Capsicum/química , Ecótipo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Clorofila/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Frutas/química , Licopeno/análise , Fenóis/análise , Pigmentação , Análise de Componente Principal
3.
Food Chem ; 337: 127748, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818708

RESUMO

In this study, pepper seed oil (PSO) was microencapsulated by spray drying at optimum conditions: oil/total solid material at 20% (w/w), gum Arabic/maltodextrin (GA/MD) at 1/5 (w/w), and air inlet temperature of 184 °C. Particle size distribution and morphology of the PSO powder (PSOP) were determined by a laser particle diameter analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were employed to identify the specific chemical groups of PSO, MD, and GA in the PSO-GA/MD complexes. The thermal stability of PSOP was evaluated by thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). PSOP displayed inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis although PSO had an antimicrobial activity against only Staphylococcus aureus. GA/MD microencapsulation resulted in significant preservation of PSO against oxidation during storage period.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Goma Arábica/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Sementes/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cápsulas , Dessecação , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Oxirredução
4.
Food Chem ; 334: 127595, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711277

RESUMO

The present study report on the application of an on line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-triple quadrupole/mass spectrometry methodology to the first apocarotenoids profiling of seventeen different chilli peppers cultivars belonging to Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum and Capsicum chinense species. A total of 19 free apocarotenoids and 8 apocarotenoids fatty acid esters were identified; ß-Apo-8'-carotenal and Apo-8'-zeaxanthinal were also quantified and the ß-Apo-8'-carotenal occurrence was in the percentage ranges relative to ß-carotene of 0.03-3.87%. PCA was performed as a multivariate display method on the quantified carotenoids and apocarotenoids, in order to visualize the data structure. Moreover, different ε-apoluteinals and 4-oxo-apo-ß-carotenals were detected in Capsicum species also for the first time and, to the best of authors knowledge, in any food matrix.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , beta Caroteno/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 338: 128012, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927202

RESUMO

The inactivation of S. Typhimurium and A. flavus along with quality degradation kinetics was studied during combined microwave-infrared (MW-IR) heating of paprika. The spatial changes in the distribution of temperature and variation in water activity (aw) of the paprika samples resulted in a 7.389 log reduction in S. Typhimurium, and 6.182 log reduction in A. flavus. During heating, the deterioration of red pigments was more pronounced compared to that of the yellow pigments. The alteration of color was observed to be due to the increase in a large number of brown pigments. The inhibition of DPPH radicals accelerated with an increase in the power level of MW-IR radiation; the inhibition rate increased from 0.0859 to 0.1485 s-1. Also, the pungency of dried paprika was found to increase due to moisture reduction, inactivation of peroxidase, and the short-duration of heating.


Assuntos
Capsicum/microbiologia , Micro-Ondas , Pasteurização/métodos , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Aspergillus flavus , Capsicum/química , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Calefação , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Cinética , Masculino , Pigmentação , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Salmonella typhimurium , Paladar , Temperatura
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 128129, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092010

RESUMO

Aroma, phenolic compounds and sensory properties of fresh and powdered organic and conventional sweet red peppers dried by three methods (hot air, intermittent microwave and infrared) were studied. The number of aroma compounds was higher in both fresh and powdered organic pepper samples; however, the total amount was higher in conventional samples. In both organic and conventional samples, alcohols were the dominant aroma group. (E)-ß-ionone and ß-ocimene, which are important compounds in peppers, were determined only in organic peppers. Among the drying methods, intermittent microwave drying was more effective in creating new aroma compounds. The liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that luteolin derivative compounds comprised an average of 70% of the phenolics. Higher amount of phenolic were determined in organic samples. Infrared drying was more effective in retaining of phenolics than the other two methods. Sensory analysis revealed that hot air-dried samples were least preferred.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Dessecação/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Micro-Ondas , Pós
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804977

RESUMO

Region-specific local landraces represent a germplasm diversity adapted and acclimatized to local conditions, and are ideal to breed for targeted market niches while maintaining the variability of heirloom traits. A collection of 180 pepper accessions, collected from 62 diverse locations across six Balkan countries, were characterized and evaluated for phenotypic and biochemical variation during a multi-year environment. An assortment of 32 agro-morphological, fruit quality, and virus resistance traits were evaluated, and the top 10% accessions were identified. A wide range of trait variation concerning plant architecture, inflorescence and fruit traits, yield and fruit quality was observed, and appreciable variation was noticed. According to hierarchical clustering, six distinct clusters were established based on pre-defined varietal groups. Divergence among accessions for phenotypic and fruit compositional variability was analyzed, and eight principal components were identified that contributed ~71% of the variation, with fruit shape, width, wall thickness, weight, and fruit quality traits being the most discriminant. Evaluation of the response to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and pepper mild mottle mosaic virus (PMMoV) showed that 24 and 1 accession were resistant, respectively while no tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance was found. Considerable diversity for agro-bio-morphological traits indicates the Balkan pepper collection as good gene sources for pre-breeding and cultivar development that are locally adapted.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Península Balcânica , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/virologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/virologia , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Tobamovirus/patogenicidade , Tospovirus/patogenicidade
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2896-2901, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794204

RESUMO

Although different cultural groups are known to vary in their tolerance for hot chili peppers, the influence of factors such as cultural background and upbringing on sensitivity to compounds in spicy food is unclear. A study was designed to investigate sensitivity differences to capsaicin between Caucasian American and South Asian Indian cultural groups while controlling for general chili pepper affinity. The two cultural groups were selected to match on metrics related to chili pepper use and liking. Subjects were exposed to a capsaicin (100 ppm) stimulus on the tongue, cheek, hard palate, and lip and rated the intensity of irritation every 30 s, over a 10-min period. Overall sensitivity to capsaicin in the oral cavity did not differ between the groups, nor were responses different between the groups depending on the oral cavity area stimulated. These data suggest a limited role of cultural attributes on capsaicin sensitivity between Caucasian Americans and South Asian Indians. The methods and findings here provide subject recruitment insight and guidance on effectively designing a sensory study to answer perceptual questions regarding specific subject groups. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study design provides a model for researchers interested in utilizing sensory testing to answer questions about subject groups. Although the objective of this study regarded sensitivity differences across two cultural groups, alterations in the subject matching process used presently could be easily implemented to investigate sensitivity across other differing subject characteristics of interest.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Ásia/etnologia , Capsaicina/análise , Capsicum/química , Humanos , América do Sul/etnologia , Paladar , Língua/metabolismo
9.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 835-843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657210

RESUMO

Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites. The biosynthesis of this mycotoxins is a complex process and involves at least 30 genes clustered within an approximately 82 kB gene cluster. In the present study, the effect of Capsicum chinense and Piper nigrum fruits on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production were studied in relation to the expression of aflD, aflM, aflR, and aflS four; key genes of aflatoxins biosynthesis pathway. GC-EIMS analysis identified capsaicin (66,107 µg g-1) and piperine (1,138 µg g-1) as the most abundant compounds in C. chinense and P. nigrum fruits, respectively. The antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic assays showed that C. chinense, P. nigrum, capsaicin, and piperine inhibited A. parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production in a dose-dependent manner. The piperine at 300 µg mL-1 produced higher radial growth inhibition (89%) and aflatoxin production inhibition (69%). The expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and revealed that aflatoxin inhibition occurring via downregulating the aflS and aflR, and subsequently aflD and aflM genes. These results will improve our understanding of the mechanism of aflatoxin regulation by C. chinense, P. nigrum, capsaicin, and piperine, and provides a reference for further study.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Piper nigrum/química , Aflatoxinas/genética , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Capsaicina/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Frutas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2080-2089, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562279

RESUMO

Hot water treatment (HT) has proved to alleviate chilling injury (CI) in bell pepper and other Solanaceae species, this has been associated with the presence of metabolites such as sugars and polyamines, which protect the plasmatic membrane. However, it is unknown if the phenolic compounds in bell pepper play a role in the CI tolerance induced by the application of a HT. The aim of this study was to identify the specific phenolics associated with induced CI tolerance in bell pepper by HT (53 °C, 1 to 3 min). Fruit treated for 1 min (HT-1 min) exhibited CI tolerance (the lowest symptom development, electrolyte leakage, and vitamin C loss) and was the chosen treatment for further experiments. The phenolic composition was affected by HT-1 min and CI. Phenolics presented a strong correlation with the antioxidant activity. In fruit with CI tolerance, the concentration of seven compounds was increased, being quercetin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside and chlorogenic acid the most remarkable. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was accumulated only in fruit with induced tolerance, meanwhile orientin was particularly sensitive to heat and cold exposure. Thus, HT-1 min (53 °C, 1 min) is a useful technology to induce CI tolerance in bell pepper and such tolerance is associated with the phenolic composition that may reduce the prevalence of oxidative stress during the storage under CI conditions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Phenolics induced by CI and HT may be useful to detect early stages of heat and chilling injuries in bell pepper and prevent the negative effect of such stresses even before its harvest and during commercial storage. Additionally, the phenolics associated with CI tolerance may be used as markers in breeding programs to create new chilling resistant cultivars.


Assuntos
Capsicum/fisiologia , Frutas/química , Fenóis/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Frutas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 331: 127286, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562978

RESUMO

Nowadays, novel tools have been developed for efficient analysis and visualization of large-scale metabolite profile data associated with metabolic pathways. A high-throughput platform using PathVisio 3 combined with multivariate analysis is proposed for the first time. Additionally, this is the first analysis of the relationships among terpenoids monoterpene, sesquiterpene, triterpene, and tetraterpene during pepper fruit ripening, and their changes. This platform was successfully applied to interpret large-scale data related to 131 metabolites from mature and immature fruits of 13 pepper phenotypes. The carotenoid-derived volatiles, such as dihydroactinidiolide and ß-ionone were closely correlated with carotenoids, indicating that the synthesis and degradation of carotenoids occurred in pepper fruit mature stage. Using PathVisio 3, the metabolic changes in pathway could be presented quickly, revealing the accumulation of stress-related metabolites, such as proline, capsaicin, and phenylalanine, in the mature stage. This approach could provide useful information about comprehensive biochemical regulation of fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Metabolômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 327: 127057, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464461

RESUMO

Chilling injury (CI) restricts the quality and shelf life of bell pepper fruits; reducing these CI-induced detrimental effects is therefore of high economic and agricultural relevance. Here, we investigated the effects of trisodium phosphate (TSP), salicylic acid (SA), and TSP + SA treatments on pepper fruits under cold stress at 4 °C for 25 d. Combined TSP + SA treatment performed an optimal effect. Specifically, TSP + SA treatment enhanced fatty-acid desaturation efficiency, as indicated by the increased expression of key fatty acid desaturase genes, and higher content of unsaturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, TSP + SA treatment inhibited the CI-induced membrane damage, manifested as lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content. Furthermore, low field-nuclear magnetic resonance and proline content also revealed that TSP + SA treatment mitigated CI through enhancing water retention in pepper fruits. Collectively, our results may shed new light on optimizing the low-temperature storage conditions of post-harvest peppers.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfatos/química , Ácido Salicílico/química , Água/química , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/química , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Prolina/química , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia
13.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(3): 188-198, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414691

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic disease that causes morbidity associated with metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is a worldwide problem and represents a major cause of liver injury, which can lead to liver cell death. We investigated the effects of nonivamide (pelargonic acid vanillylamide, PAVA; 1 mg/kg) and rosuvastatin (RSV; 10 mg/kg) on hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFD for 16 weeks then received PAVA or RSV for 4 additional weeks. We examined the metabolic parameters, function, fat content, histological alterations, reactive oxygen species production, and apoptotic cell death of the liver, in addition to the expression of the following important molecules: transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) phosphorylation of sterol regulatory element binding protein (pSREBP-1c/SREBP-1c), total and membrane glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and cleaved caspase-3. HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was associated with significantly increased morphological disorganization, injury markers, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis. However, metabolic dysfunction and hepatic injury were reduced by RSV and PAVA treatment. PAVA regulated lipid deposition, improved insulin resistance, and decreased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. Therefore, PAVA represents a promising therapeutic approach for treating metabolic disorders in patients with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsicum/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Fitoterapia , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsaicina/administração & dosagem , Capsaicina/isolamento & purificação , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333770

RESUMO

Pigs exposed to elevated ambient temperatures exhibit reduced daily gain, alterations in muscle and fat deposition, and decreased health. Negative aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function, integrity, and permeability also occur. High-intensity sweeteners can ameliorate the negative effects of heat stress (HS) by increasing GI glucagon-like peptide-2 production while capsicum oleoresin has been shown to reduce inflammatory response. The effects of an artificial high-intensity sweetener and capsicum oleoresin (CAPS-SUC; TakTik X-Hit, Pancosma, Switzerland) on growth performance of pigs were examined. Forty-eight pigs (12 wk of age, 43.2 ± 4.3 kg) were assigned to six treatments: thermoneutral conditions (21 ± 1.1 °C; 40% to 70% relative humidity) fed ad libitum with (TN+) or without supplement (TN-), heat stress (35 ± 1 °C; 20% to 40% relative humidity) fed ad libitum with (HS+) or without supplement (HS-), and thermoneutral conditions pair-fed to HS intake with (PFTN+) or without supplement (PFTN-). Supplementation (0.1 g/kg feed) began 2 d prior to the 3-d environmental treatment period. Body weights (BWs) and blood samples were collected on days -1 and 3. Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were measured thrice daily and the feed intake (FI) was recorded daily. Intestinal sections were collected for histology. Pigs in HS conditions exhibited increased RT (~1.2 °C) and RR (~2.7-fold) compared with TN and PFTN groups (P < 0.01). HS+ animals had increased RR when compared with HS- animals (P < 0.02). Heat stress decreased FI compared with TN. HS and PFTN decreased (P < 0.05) average daily gain compared with TN. Supplement did not alter the BW gain. HS and PFTN decreased (P < 0.05) Gain:Feed compared with TN during environmental treatment. Supplementation with CAPS-SUC increased Gain:Feed by 0.12 (P < 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to decrease in CAPS-SUC vs. non-supplemented HS and PFTN animals (P ≤ 0.1). Circulating insulin concentrations as well as monocyte count increased in HS compared with PFTN (P < 0.04) but did not differ from TN and likely linked to altered FI. CAPS-SUC increased basophil count (P < 0.02), irrespective of environment. Ileal villus height tended to decrease during HS and PFTN compared with TN (P < 0.08), indicating an effect of intake. Overall, CAPS-SUC supplementation increased pig feed efficiency and may improve immune response.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Insulina/sangue , Intestinos , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Suínos
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3260-3266, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050063

RESUMO

One of the main challenges for analytical laboratories and food safety authorities is the control of food contaminants hazardous to human health. For the first time, a simple, fast, and cost-effective sample preparation method is proposed as an extraction technique to determine 12 brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (seven polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and five novel BFRs) in Capsicum cultivars. Different QuEChERS and dispersive solid-phase extract (d-SPE) sorbent compositions were evaluated in terms of recovery and matrix effects. The best results were obtained with citrate-buffered version QuEChERS and a cleanup step, with 150 mg of MgSO4, 50 mg of primary secondary amine (PSA), 50 mg of C18, and 5 mg of carbon. The limit of detection (LOD) was between 1.4 and 9.3 µg/kg and R2 > 0.99. Recoveries and matrix effects were between 66 and 104% and 0.58 and 2.18, respectively. The relative standard deviations from repeatability and reproducibility studies and estimation of measurement uncertainty were lower than 20%. Gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer was used to confirm the presence of BFRs in the samples. Novel BFRs were detected lower than the LOD.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/isolamento & purificação , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação
16.
Exp Anim ; 69(3): 269-278, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051390

RESUMO

A combination of aged garlic, ginger, and chili peppers extracts (AGC) was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and ferric-reducing antioxidant assays, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed in Aß1-42-induced rats. The AGC was orally administered to Wistar rats at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight (AGC125, AGC250, AGC500, respectively) for 64 days. At day 56, Aß1-42 was injected via both sides of the lateral ventricles. The effects of the AGC on spatial and recognition memory were examined using a Morris water maze and novel object recognition tasks. Rats induced with Aß1-42 exhibited obvious cognitive deficits, as demonstrated by their increased escape latency time (ET) and decreased retention time (RT) and percentage of discriminative index (DI). When compared with the control group, all AGC-treated rats showed significantly shorter ETs and higher DIs during the 5-min delay testing phase. Rats treated with AGC250 also had significantly longer RTs. Administration of Aß1-42 significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in the rat brain homogenate. Pretreatment with the AGC caused significant increases in SOD, GPx, and CAT activities, as well as a significant decrease in MDA in the rat brain homogenates after Aß-induced neurotoxicity. Our results suggested that an AGC may ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in Aß-treated rats due to its role in the upregulation of SOD, GPx, and CAT.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/química , Gengibre/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1102: 63-71, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043997

RESUMO

An ambient ionization tandem mass spectrometric approach was developed to rapidly screen multiresidue pesticides on fruits and vegetables without sample preparation and chromatographic separation. The residual pesticides on fruits and vegetables were collected by sweeping a metallic probe across the sample surface for 2 cm. The analytes collected on the probe were desorbed and ionized in a thermal desorption electrospray ionization (TD-ESI) source, after which analyte ions were detected by a triple quadruple mass analyzer (QqQ) operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. With this TD-ESI/MS/MS approach, 308 pesticides were monitored, where a mixture containing 15 pesticide standards was successfully identified to demonstrate the capability of this approach to screen trace multiresidue pesticides. The approach had reasonable detection limits (<50 ppb) and reproducibility (RSD: 8.43%, n = 9) from the analysis of a benthiazole standard solution. Real samples including a tomato and bell pepper were analyzed using this TD-ESI/MS/MS approach. After TD-ESI/MS/MS analysis, the organic solvent extracts from the same samples were subjected to TD-ESI/MS/MS, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for validation.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Capsicum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Verduras/química
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(5): 2208-2223, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the acreage used for organic agriculture and the demand for organic fruit and vegetables have increased considerably. Given this scenario, landraces, such as Capsicum landraces, can provide valuable germplasm. Capsicum peppers are very interesting because of their high phenolic content, and particularly their flavonoid content, which provides a high added value. Moreover, the broad genetic diversity in local varieties expands the opportunities for adaptation to organic production and for exploiting genotype × environment interactions to select peppers with the highest phenolic content. RESULTS: In this work, the main flavonoids of peppers were exhaustively evaluated over 2 years in a wide collection of heirlooms, both unripe and fully ripe, under organic and conventional cultivation. The genotype and ripening stage contributed to a high degree to the variation in flavonoids. The growing system influenced this variation to a lesser extent. Luteolin and quercetin showed the highest contributions to total phenolic content (70% and > 20%, respectively) at both ripening stages, while myricetin, apigenin, and kaempferol showed lower contributrions. The average flavonoid content was higher in ripe fruits, and organic management significantly increased the accumulation of total flavonoids and luteolin. Positive correlations between flavonoids were found at both ripening stages, especially between main flavonoids luteolin and quercetin and between kaempferol and quercetin (ρ > 0.7). CONCLUSION: Genotype × environment interaction enabled the identification of accessions with high flavonoid content grown under organic conditions at both ripening stages, particularly total flavonoids and luteolin at the fully ripe stage. Our results reinforce the importance of a wide genetic variation and of considering different ripening stages and growing conditions for breeding high-quality peppers. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Flavonoides/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Quempferóis/análise , Luteolina/análise , Agricultura Orgânica , Fenóis/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Quercetina/análise
19.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 23(2): 150-158, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The evidence for safe consumption of chili pepper to gain health benefits is insufficient as high doses reported to cause gastric erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of red chili pepper ethanol extract (RCEE) to weight loss in high fat dieted female albino Wistar rats while monitoring adverse effects of high dose consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body weight gain, lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, liver, kidney and thyroid biochemical functions were determined in addition to histopathological examination of liver and kidney to determine biological effects of 2 ingested concentrations of red chili pepper extract (5 and 10 mg). RESULTS: Red chili pepper ethanol extract (RCEE) showed anti-obesity potentials and hypolipidemic effects through decreased levels of total cholesterol (T.Ch), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) reached 25, 55, 45 and 45%, respectively, in parallel with increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels by 22.6%. The antioxidative potentials of RCEE were pronounced through significant increases in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities (346.43 mU mL-1 and 15.33 U L-1 in group 2, respectively). Histological examination of liver and kidney showed adverse results but that did not significantly reflect on their functional biochemical parameters. CONCLUSION: Results introduced scientific evidence that red chili pepper possesses functional pharmacological properties but the excessive consumption induces liver and kidney damage.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Radicais Livres , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 310: 125963, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838374

RESUMO

A new MEKC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of four Sudan dyes in chili products. The separation and MS detection conditions were optimized to achieve fast, efficient, selective, and sensitive determination of Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, and Sudan IV dyes. The target compounds were extracted from chili samples with acetonitrile and cleaned by freeze-out. This two-step sample preparation led to excellent extraction efficiency and minimal matrix effect. The analytical performance of the method was very good, with r2 ≥ 0.9914 and limits of quantification lower than 22 µg kg-1. The precision was below 15.7%. The recovery for spiked samples ranged from 84.4 to 99.6%, with relative standard deviations less than 8.0%. For all evaluated samples, the matrix effects did not exceed ± 10%. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated with 20 chili products, two of which were found to contain Sudan I and IV residues.


Assuntos
Corantes/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos Azo/análise , Caprilatos/química , Capsicum/química , Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Micelas , Naftóis , Tensoativos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
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