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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 136-145, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High levels of impulsivity represent a core feature of various psychiatric conditions, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Impulse Control and Conduct Disorders, Bulimia Nervosa, Substance Use Disorders, and other maladaptive behaviors, like non-suicidal self-harm and suicidal behavior. The overall aim of our research is to carry out a trans-diagnostic study of impulsivity as a common behavioral risk factor, taking into consideration the different dimensions of impulsivity (motor, attentional, non-planning). The project investigates inhibitory neurocognitive deficits, electrophysiological correlates, childhood adversities and genetic vulnerability factors in the background of impulsivity. METHODS: In this report, we describe the results of our pilot study which aims to compare impulsivity profiles, personality traits, and levels of aggression in patients with adult ADHD (aADHD) and BPD primary diagnoses, and healthy control subjects, based on self report questionnaires (Barratt Impulivity Scale, Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory). We have also carried out analyses on the role of childhood adverse events in the background of impulsivity. Because of the predominance of female participants in the BPD group, we restrict our analyses to only female subjects (N=111 out of 152 patients overall). RESULTS: Comparing the three groups significant differences were observed in each impulsivity domain: higher levels of attentional and motor impulsivity were present in aADHD, while non-planning impulsivity was more characteristic to BPD (p<0.001). Using the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory aADHD patients reached significant higher levels on six subscales (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependency, perseverance, selfdirection, cooperation) than BPD patients (p<001). Childhood emotional neglect results in higher levels of impulsivity in adulthood (R=0.54, p<0.001) regardless of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Impulsivity, as a diagnostic criterion of different psychiatric disorders is a heterogenous construct. Different characteristics of impulsivity are pronounced with respect to the condition it is part of. Studying impulsivity can improve our understanding of the etiology of different psychiatric conditions, which can result in more specific and effective therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto , Caráter , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
2.
Harefuah ; 158(7): 458-462, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Simple logic would suggest that there should be some endophenotype for bipolar disorder. Possible endophenotypes could include specific variations in personality. Bagby and Ryder summarized the work up to that point by noting that the related personality traits of high neuroticism and harm avoidance seem to be associated with bipolar disorder as well as with unipolar depression, whereas higher novelty seeking may be associated only with bipolar patients. As these parameters are all very sensitive to the affective state, it is critical to examine the literature that pertains specifically to euthymic patients in order to evaluate the extent to which this signifies underlying personality (trait), and not primarily clinical status (state). Several important studies have been published since the Bagby and Ryder paper, which we review here. We restrict our current review to empirical studies which employed both adequate samples of euthymic (to minimize the state/trait dilemma) bipolar patients as well as healthy comparison subjects. This paper is restricted to frequently used explicit measures of personality - that is, self-report questionnaires: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) based on Cloninger's psychobiological theory of temperament and character, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory based on the five-factor model of Costa & McCrae, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) (23). No single dimension of 'personality' reviewed would qualify as a psychological marker for a bipolar disorder. Earlier findings as reviewed by Bagby and Ryder, of higher novelty seeking, were not replicated in these studies. Of the personality traits considered, the most promising candidate for marker or endophenotype would seem to be "impulsivity" as measured by the BIS-II.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Personalidade , Caráter , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Autorrelato
3.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 317-322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215824

RESUMO

Background: Understanding the etiology of violence in patients with schizophrenia is an issue of great clinical and public importance. Although personality traits are an important aspect in determining complex behaviors of schizophrenia patients, there is a lack of research on the relationship between personality traits and violence, especially homicidal behavior, in this population. Aim: We aimed to compare temperament and character dimensions between homicidal and other mostly violent forensic patients with schizophrenia, and to determine which temperament and character dimensions are associated with homicidal behavior in these patients. Methods: We recruited 71 male forensic schizophrenia patients without concomitant substance dependence and antisocial personality disorder. The patients were divided into two groups according to trial documentation as: (1) Homicide and attempted homicide group (N 30; 42%), and (2) Other offenses group (N 41; 58%). Patients were assessed by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Differences between groups were tested with t-test. Results: The two groups of patients were similar in their PANSS scores, but the homicidal men were significantly more likely to show higher harm avoidance (HA) scores than the less violent comparison men (t = 2,876, df-69, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Our results indicate that forensic schizophrenic patients with higher HA scores would show a greater risk of homicidal violence. Improved understanding of personality traits associated with such behavior is needed in order to prevent homicidal behavior. Importance of these results suggests that further study is needed.


Assuntos
Caráter , Homicídio/psicologia , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Temperamento , Adulto , Agressão , Criminosos/psicologia , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Violência
4.
J Affect Disord ; 252: 394-403, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, but adult-ADHD is still an under-diagnosed and untreated condition. Treating adult-ADHD is complex and requires effective strategies for ADHD symptoms and comorbidities. Because of its high comorbidity rate with mood disorders and the growing interest in symptoms of emotional dysregulation in these patients, our aim was to collect studies that investigated temperament correlates in adult people with ADHD, to better understand the association between them and the eventual role of temperament as a prognostic-therapeutic marker. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature. We included only studies that measured temperament traits in ADHD adults using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Paris and San Diego-Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) or the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). RESULTS: We retrieved 15 papers that used the TCI and 6 papers that used the TEMPS-A. In the TCI studies, ADHD was associated with high scores on Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and low scores on Persistence. For the TEMPS-A studies, ADHD and Bipolar Disorders share some similarities in temperament scores, except for the hyperthymic temperament score. LIMITATIONS: A comparison between the TCI and TEMPS-A results was not possible. The number of papers included was small. Among them, the type of sample, the number of recruited subjects and the ADHD assessment were very different. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of ADHD individuals share temperament traits such as lability, irritability and excessiveness of emotional responses. Further research is needed to better understand whether temperament influences the pharmacological response of ADHD patients and whether temperament scores affect the long-term therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Caráter , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Humor Irritável , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Affect Disord ; 252: 464-474, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: personality features have been repeatedly associated with depression treatment outcome in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), however conclusive results are still lacking. Moreover, as for Bipolar Disorder (BD), results are only few and preliminary. AIM: the aim of the present study was to perform an exploratory investigation of the influence of personality traits as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), on principal depression treatment outcomes (non remission, non response and resistance). METHODS: 743 mood disorders patients (455 MDD (61.24%) and 288 BD (38.76%)) were recruited in the context of 6 European studies. Generalized logit models were performed to test the effects of TCI dimensions on treatment outcomes, considering possible confounders such as age, gender and education. Positive results were controlled for comorbidities (anxiety and substance use disorders) as well. RESULTS: MDD Non-Remitters showed high Harm Avoidance (HA) and Self Transcendence (ST) (p = 0.0004, d = 0.40; p = 0.007, d = 0.36 respectively) and low Persistence (P) and Self Directedness (SD) (p = 0.05; d = 0.18; p = 0.002, d = 0.40, respectively); MDD Non-Responders showed a slightly different profile with high HA and low Reward Dependence (RD) and SD; finally, MDD Resistants showed low RD, P and Cooperativeness (C). In BD patients, only higher HA in non response was observed. LIMITATIONS: the retrospective cross-sectional design, the TCI assessment regardless of the mood state and the small number of bipolar patients represent the main limitations. CONCLUSION: specific TCI personality traits are associated with depression treatment outcome in MDD patients. The inclusion of such personality traits, together with other socio-demographic and clinical predictors, could ameliorate the accuracy of the prediction models available to date.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Caráter , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874530

RESUMO

The understanding of psychopathic personalities in early works of Kurt Schneider making start from the traditional doctrine of temperament but straying from the degeneration theory and constitutional concepts of E. Kretschmer is analyzed. Under the notion of psychopathic personality K. Schneider means properly the variation of the character that according to his famous definition can cause by its 'deviations from the average' suffering for the society and can also suffers itself due to those deviations. The importance that K. Schneider attached to the differentiation of all personality anomalies from schizophrenic process is emphasized. The basic characteristics of 10 special types of psychopathic personalities according to K. Schneider's systematics are also analyzed. K. Schneider pursued the identification of one prominent psychological trait in the building of his systematics and definition of special psychopathic types. He strived to avoid sociological labels that had been used by his predecessors ('liars and cheaters', 'enemies of society' 'inborn prostitute' and so on). The great influence of E. Kretschmer on K. Schneider's characteristics of 'affective' and 'unsure of himself' psychopaths is noted although K. Schneider did not accepted the constitutional systems of E. Kretschmer and did not highlight 'schizoid' psychopathy. The growth of psychopathic personality groups compared with the last lifetime systematics of E. Kraepelin (from eight to ten) appears by K. Schneider only formal because E. Kraepelin placed some clinically detailed descriptions of personality disorders beyond the main heading.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtornos da Personalidade , Caráter , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico , Temperamento
7.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(4): 315-326, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829504

RESUMO

Generalization of Pavlovian fear to safe stimuli resembling conditioned-danger cues (CS+) is a widely accepted conditioning correlate of clinical anxiety. Though much of the pathogenic influence of such generalization may lie in the associated avoidance, few studies have assessed maladaptive avoidance decisions associated with Pavlovian generalization. Lab-based assessments of this process, here referred to as aversive Pavlovian-instrumental covariation during generalization (APIC-G), have recently begun. The current study represents a next step in this line of work by conducting the first examination of anxiety-related dimensions of personality that may exacerbate APIC-G. Specifically, we test anxiety sensitivity (AS) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) as moderators of relations between Pavlovian generalization and maladaptive avoidance decisions in 102 undergraduate students with wide-ranging levels of IU and AS. Results indicate a facilitative effect of AS on this APIC-G process, with AS strengthening relations between Pavlovian generalization and maladaptive generalized avoidance whether operationalizing Pavlovian generalization with psychophysiological (fear-potentiated startle) or behavioral measures. Additionally, IU was found to facilitate APIC-G when indexing Pavlovian generalization with behavioral but not fear-potentiated startle measures. Moderating effects of AS were most pronounced for stimulus classes bearing the highest resemblance to CS+, whereas effects of IU were most pronounced for the stimulus class with the highest level of threat ambiguity. Results implicate AS and IU as risk factors for the maladaptive decisional correlates of Pavlovian generalization and suggest that established associations between these traits and clinical anxiety may derive, in part, from their enhancement of maladaptive APIC-G. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Condicionamento Clássico , Tomada de Decisões , Incerteza , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Caráter , Correlação de Dados , Sinais (Psicologia) , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Generalização do Estímulo , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 48(4): 255-259, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711689

RESUMO

AIM: There is an unclear relationship between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. We aimed to evaluate temperamental and personal characteristics of patients with PCOS. METHODS: Fifty patients with PCOS and 41 healthy controls were included in the study. Hormonal and demographic characteristics were recorded after gynecologic and psychiatric evaluation. Socio-demographical Data Form, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory were performed for all participants. RESULTS: Patients with Policystic Ovary Syndrome had significantly higher depression and anxiety scores when compared to the controls (p < 0.05). There were no significant difference in any of the subdimensions neither for temperament nor for character between patient and control groups (p > 0.05). Testosteron levels and the degree of hirsutism, LH/FSH ratio and body mass index of the patients did not have significant correlations with depression or anxiety scores or any of the Cloninger subdimentions (p > 0.05). However, there was a negative correlation between age and novelty seeking and age and reward dependence (r:-0.33, p:0.018; r:-0.295, p:0.037, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study showed no significant difference between patients and healthy controls regarding temperament and character. Patients had higher anxiety and depression scores. Further research is needed to enlighten this subject.


Assuntos
Caráter , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hirsutismo , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
9.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 4139404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733834

RESUMO

Objectives: The findings of previous studies focused on personality disorders in epileptic patients are difficult to interpret due to nonhomogeneous samples and noncomparable methods. Here, we aimed at studying the personality profile in patients with mild temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with mTLE (22 males, mean age 40.7 ± 12.1) underwent awake and sleep EEG, 3T brain MRI, and an extensive standardized diagnostic neuropsychiatric battery: Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Beck Depression Inventory-2, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Drug history was collected in detail. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis was performed on TCI-R data, while all other clinical and psychological variables were compared across the resulting clusters. Results: Scores of Harm Avoidance (HA), Reward Dependence (RD), Persistence (P), Cooperativeness (C), and Self-Transcendence (ST) allowed the identification of two clusters, describing different personality subtypes. Cluster 1 was characterized by an early onset, more severe anxiety traits, and combined drug therapy (antiepileptic drug and Benzodiazepine/Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) compared to Cluster 2. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that different personality traits may play a role in determining the clinical outcome in patients with mTLE. Specifically, lower scores of HA, RD, P, C, and ST were associated with worse clinical outcome. Thus, personality assessment could serve as an early indicator of greater disease severity, improving the management of mTLE.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Caráter , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento/fisiologia
10.
Dev Psychol ; 55(5): 1096-1110, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688471

RESUMO

The present three-study investigation examined cultural influences on the internalization of social expectations. Testing the claim of self-determination theory that lesser internalization of social expectations is linked to socialization practices that portray social expectations as in conflict with autonomy, in Study 1 we undertook a content analysis of the views of social expectations portrayed in American and Indian storybooks. Results indicated that only American and not Indian storybooks more frequently portrayed characters as displaying negative emotions when behaviors were socially expected as compared with spontaneous. In Study 2 (n = 120), we undertook a vignette-based experiment, which showed that American parents viewed social expectations as incompatible with agency whereas Indian parents viewed them as compatible with agency. In Study 3 (n = 224), we undertook a related vignette based experiment among 7- and 10-year-old children in the United States and India. Results indicated that younger children shared a view of social expectations as compatible with agency, with qualitative developmental change occurring among American children who come to view social expectations as in conflict with autonomy with age, and quantitative developmental change occurring among Indian children who deepen their earlier understandings of social expectations with age. Our results point to the presence of early relational outlooks that young children use in assimilating cultural variable messages communicated in socialization practices. Challenging simple "fax" models of cultural learning, our results indicate that children do not passively absorb cultural messages but actively interpret them in integrating them with their emerging sense of self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Livros , Comparação Transcultural , Família/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Identificação Social , Socialização , Atitude , Caráter , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Individualidade , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal , Teoria Psicológica , Estados Unidos
11.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(2): 601-617, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704900

RESUMO

We studied the pattern of personality development in a longitudinal population-based sample of 752 American adolescents. Personality was assessed reliably with the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory at 12, 14, and 16 years of age. The rank-order stability of Junior Temperament and Character Inventory traits from age 12 to 16 was moderate (r = .35). Hierarchical linear modeling of between-group variance due to gender and within-group variance due to age indicated that harm avoidance and persistence decreased whereas self-directedness and cooperativeness increased from age 12 to 16. Novelty seeking, reward dependence, and self-transcendence increased from age 12 to 14 and then decreased. This biphasic pattern suggests that prior to age 14 teens became more emancipated from adult authorities while identifying more with the emergent norms of their peers, and after age 14 their created identity was internalized. Girls were more self-directed and cooperative than boys and maintained this advantage from age 12 to 16. Dependability of temperament at age 16 was mainly predicted by the same traits at earlier ages. In contrast, maturity of character at age 16 was predicted by both temperament and character at earlier ages. We conclude that character develops rapidly in adolescence to self-regulate temperament in accord with personally valued goals shaped by peers.


Assuntos
Caráter , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Temperamento , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade
12.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(4): e35-e50, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047763

RESUMO

Mõttus and colleagues (2017) reported evidence that the unique variance in specific personality characteristics captured by single descriptive items often displayed trait-like properties of cross-rater agreement, rank-order stability, and heritability. They suggested that the personality hierarchy should be extended below facets to incorporate these specific characteristics, called personality nuances. The present study attempted to replicate these findings, employing data from 6,287 individuals from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Japan, and United States). The same personality measure-240-item Revised NEO Personality Inventory-and statistical procedures were used. The present findings closely replicated the original results. When the original and current results were meta-analyzed, the unique variance of nearly all items (i.e., items' scores residualized for all broader personality traits) showed statistically significant cross-rater agreement (median = .12) and rank-order stability over an average of 12 years (median = .24), and the unique variance of the majority of items had a significant heritable component (median = .14). These 3 item properties were intercorrelated, suggesting that items systematically differed in the degree of reflecting valid unique variance. Also, associations of items' unique variance with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) replicated across samples and tracked with the original findings. Moreover, associations between item residuals and BMI obtained from one group of people allowed for a significant incremental prediction of BMI in an independent sample. Overall, these findings reinforce the hypotheses that nuances constitute the building blocks of the personality trait hierarchy, their properties are robust and they can be useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Caráter , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Canadá , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Transtornos da Personalidade/genética , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 13(4): 914-921, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051626

RESUMO

AIM: Transition from early intervention in psychosis services (EIPS) to ongoing care can be challenging for staff and service users. This study aims to explore staff views of the barriers and facilitators to transition from EIPS. METHODS: Eighteen EIPS staff were interviewed about their experiences of discharge processes and interviews were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: (1) "nowhere to go": illustrated how service users remained in EIPS because other teams lacked capacity to take them; (2) "collaboration between agencies" highlights the challenges of working across boundaries; (3) "therapeutic relationships": reflects the loss service users and staff experienced at discharge; (4) "advanced planning" relates to the necessity for advanced planning and service user empowerment to facilitate the discharge process. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-depth exploration of EIPS staff views on discharge processes. To ensure seamless transitions throughout care pathways, services need better inter-agency collaboration and more adequate preparation for transition.


Assuntos
Intervenção Médica Precoce , Alta do Paciente , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Ajustamento Social , Estigma Social , Adulto , Caráter , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 13(3): 525-531, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278295

RESUMO

AIM: There is lack of research on the study of clinical personality traits in recent onset of psychosis (ROP) patients. The aims of this research were to study the relations among psychosocial, personality and clinical characteristics in ROP patients and also the effect that significant variables had on the different domains of Quality of Life (QoL). METHODS: Data for these analyses were obtained from 81 ROP patients. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Scale were used to assess personality, symptoms and QoL. RESULTS: Correlations between the negative symptoms and the physical, psychological and social domains of QoL, and the disorganized symptoms and physical domain, were found. Furthermore, the physical, psychological and social relationship domains of QoL were lower in patients with schizoid traits and the psychological domain was lower in patients with depressive traits. In contrast, the psychological and social domains were higher in patients with histrionic traits, while the physical domain was higher for patients with narcissistic traits. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated that negative symptoms and narcissistic and depressive traits explained 16.9% of the physical domain. Narcissistic and depressive traits explained 15% of the psychological domain. Finally, the negative symptoms and histrionic traits explained 13.7% of the social domain. CONCLUSIONS: QoL seems to be better explained by negative psychotic symptoms and some clinical personality traits. Our results support the importance of integrated intervention approaches that consider personality.


Assuntos
Caráter , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/reabilitação , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizoide/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizoide/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizoide/reabilitação , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Ajustamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mil Med ; 184(5-6): e147-e153, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Armed forces view their officers' character as foundational to their ability to lead the personnel entrusted to them. The character of junior officers is of particular interest, because they must increasingly make quick, morally-laden decisions while dispersed among civilians without time to consult their commanders. However, little is systematically known about the character of officers. Accordingly, the present study was aimed at mapping Australian Army junior officers' perceptions of the chief aspects of their own character and also those of their main role models, specifically, their senior officers, including their trustworthiness as an essential aspect of effective leadership. The present study also tested whether these character perceptions were aligned with four core values of the Australian Army - courage, initiative, teamwork, and respect - which are intended to shape the character of its personnel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The respondents (N = 171 lieutenants) ranked how well each of 24 positive character strengths applied to themselves as individuals. To test the alignment of these rankings with the respondents' perception of their leaders' character, respondents nominated the five top strengths of their effective leaders. This study was approved by the Australian Defence Human Research Ethics Committee (ADHREC 009-2013). RESULTS: With regard to the first aim, five character strengths - integrity, leadership, good judgment, trustworthy, and teamworker - were ranked by the respondents as being their chief personal strengths at frequencies significantly above those expected from random allocation.With regard to the second aim, the respondents aligned the rankings of their character strengths with those of their effective leaders through the entire list, not just the highest-ranking items. Nevertheless, there were two significant differences. The respondents assigned their leaders higher ranks for wisdom than for themselves, but assigned lower ranks to their leaders for being trustworthy.With regard to the third aim, the respondents' perceptions of their chief character strengths were not well aligned with the four core values of the Australian Army. Teamworker was given a significant top ranking, but courage, initiative, and respectful were not. Thus, the respondents did not appear to respond according to organizational demand characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The present study achieved its aims. First, it revealed five character strengths that junior officers in the Australian Army tended to see as their own chief strengths. Second, the junior officers saw their character strengths as aligned with those of their senior officers. By and large, this alignment extended across all the character strengths, regardless of their specific ranking. Subject to further experimental testing, this finding provides correlational evidence that junior officers may model their character on what they see in their senior officers. Third, in contrast, the junior officers' rankings were not well aligned with the Australian Army's stated core values. The junior officers saw teamworker as one of their chief strengths, but not courage, initiative, or respectful. This pattern does not imply that the junior officers rejected strengths as valuable but only that they are not among the junior officers' own chief strengths.


Assuntos
Caráter , Militares/psicologia , Austrália , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(4): 839-857, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359069

RESUMO

Prior research has found that people's desires to change their personality traits predict corresponding subsequent trait growth over time. However, few studies have examined the processes through which people can volitionally change their personality traits. Thus, it remains unclear whether merely desiring change predicts trait growth or whether actively pursuing change is necessary. The present study was a 15-week intensive longitudinal design that tested whether engaging in trait-typical behaviors predicted trait change. Participants provided self-report ratings of their personality traits and were able to freely accept and complete weekly "challenges"-prewritten behavioral goals that would pull their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in line with their desired traits. Results indicated that merely accepting behavioral challenges did not predict trait changes. Rather, only actually completing challenges (i.e., performing trait-typical behaviors) predicted trait change over time. Thus, merely wanting to change does not appear to be sufficient to evoke trait growth; successfully changing one's personality traits may require actively and successfully implementing behaviors to change oneself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Caráter , Metas , Volição , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Autorrelato , Ajustamento Social , Fatores Sociológicos
17.
J Atten Disord ; 23(1): 12-21, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26610740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of personality traits and characteristics on quality of life and functioning in adults with ADHD. METHOD: Participants were adults with ( n = 206) and without ADHD ( n = 123) who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report (SAS-SR). Participants also provided information on academic, motor vehicle operation, legal, social, familial, and occupational functioning. Outcomes were examined using stepwise linear regression, logistic regression (for binary outcomes), and negative binomial regression (for count outcomes) controlling for ADHD symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, and executive dysfunction. RESULTS: Adults with ADHD significantly differed from controls across nearly all TCI personality domains. On average, adults with ADHD endorsed more novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, and less reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Personality traits and characteristics, especially self-directedness, significantly predicted functional impairments even after controlling for ADHD symptoms, executive function deficits, and current psychiatric comorbidities. CONCLUSION: In adults with ADHD, personality traits exert unique associations on quality of life and functional impairment across major life domains, beyond the relations expected of and associated with ADHD symptoms and other associated psychiatric conditions and cognitive vulnerabilities. Addressing personality traits in adults with ADHD may lead to improvements in quality of life and reductions in functional impairment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caráter , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Emotion ; 19(8): 1495-1499, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475034

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that facial social category cues influence emotion perception such that happy expressions are categorized faster than negative expressions on faces belonging to positively evaluated social groups. We examined whether character information that is experimentally manipulated can also influence emotion perception. Across two experiments, participants learned to associate individuals posing neutral expressions with positive or negative acts. In a subsequent task, participants categorized happy and angry expressions of these same individuals as quickly and accurately as possible. As predicted, a larger happy face advantage emerged for individuals associated with positive character information than for individuals associated with negative character information. These results demonstrate that experimentally manipulated evaluations of an individual's character are available quickly and affect early stages of face processing. Emotion perception is not only influenced by preexisting attitudes based on facial attributes, but also by information about a person that has been recently acquired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Caráter , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
19.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(5): 536-545, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Hiring Intent Reasoning Examination (HIRE) was designed to (1) explore the relative value of applicant-specific attributes evaluated during the hiring of entry-level pharmacists; (2) examine how each of these attributes influences hiring decisions; and (3) identify which attributes practicing pharmacists perceive as most and least valuable. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was developed and sent to 36,817 pharmacists; 3723 (11%) responded representing a broad cross-section of practice settings and job roles. Forty-eight attributes were analyzed, 24 character traits and 24 markers of academic success. Respondents identified: 1) the relative importance the possession of each attribute would play in the decision to hire an applicant; 2) the relative importance the lack of possession of the attribute would play on the decision to hire an applicant; 3) the 10 most important attributes used when considering an applicant, and; 4) the 10 least important attributes used when considering an applicant. After investigating the relative importance of the 48 traits, a factor analysis to further group the traits was undertaken. RESULTS: Character traits were consistently ranked higher than academic traits, both in importance and as more likely to effect the hiring decision. Additionally, "the top ten most important attributes" were dominated by character traits and "the top ten least important attributes" used in the hiring of an entry-level pharmacist were dominated by the academic traits. A factor analysis provided further evidence of the distinction of the character traits from the academic success markers. CONCLUSION: When selecting employees from a pool of qualified applicants, the most important attributes used in hiring decision relate to the character of the pharmacist. The results are similar across all practice settings and types of respondents completing the survey.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pessoal , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Caráter , Tomada de Decisões , Análise Fatorial , Humanos
20.
Creat Nurs ; 24(3): 152-157, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567756

RESUMO

There is a historical emphasis on duties to self, or self-regarding duties, in nursing's ethics heritage literature from the 1860s to 1965. Yet, as nursing education shifted to university settings and society and nursing moved away from a virtue-based ethics to a duty-based ethics, the emphasis on self-regarding duties was lost. In the 2001 revision of the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, that emphasis is reclaimed and restored. The 2015 version of the Code further develops and expands the ethical obligation of duties to self. The aggregate duty or principle of "duties to self" includes attention to personal health, safety, and well-being, preserving one's wholeness of character and integrity, maintaining competence, and continuing personal and professional growth.


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Ética em Enfermagem , Autocuidado/ética , American Nurses' Association , Caráter , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Autonomia Profissional , Competência Profissional , Autoimagem , Estados Unidos
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