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1.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(1,n.esp)ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116416

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar as necessidades pessoais de Enfermeiros durante a pandemia da COVID-19 em Mato Grosso. Método: estudo exploratório e qualitativo, realizado em abril de 2020, com Enfermeiros do estado de Mato Grosso. Utilizou-se o discurso do sujeito coletivo e a Teoria das Necessidades Humanas de Maslow. Resultados: Os participantes apresentaram necessidades intermediárias (segurança e sociais) quanto as categorias da teoria de Maslow. Em relação aos discursos foram obtidas quatro ideias centrais: autocuidado, necessidade de afeto, compreensão do distanciamento e prejuízos na relação conjugal. Conclusões: As necessidades pessoais dos Enfermeiros refletem o impacto das medidas protetivas recomendadas durante a pandemia da COVID-19 tanto no contexto laboral como familiar. Descritores: Pandemias; Coronavirus; Pessoal de Saúde; Carência Psicossocial.(AU)


Objective: To identify the personal needs of Nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Mato Grosso. Method: exploratory and qualitative study, conducted in April 2020, with Nurses from the state of Mato Grosso. The collective subject discourse and Maslow Theory of Human Needs were used. Results: The participants presented intermediate needs (security and social) regarding the categories of Maslow theory. Regarding the speeches, four central ideas were obtained: self-care, need for affection, understanding of distance and losses in the marital relationship. Conclusions: Nurse personal needs reflect the impact of the protective measures recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic in both the work and family context. Descriptors: Pandemics; Coronavirus; Health Personnel; Psychosocial Deprivation.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar las necesidades personales de las Enfermeras durante la pandemia da COVID-19 en Mato Grosso. Metodo: estudio exploratorio y cualitativo, realizado en abril de 2020, con Enfermeras del estado de Mato Grosso. Se utilizó el discurso del sujeto colectivo y la Teoría de las Necesidades Humanas de Maslow. Resultados: Los participantes presentaron necesidades intermedias (seguridad y sociales) en relación con las categorías de la teoría de Maslow. Con respecto a los discursos, se obtuvieron cuatro ideas centrales: autocuidado, necesidad de afecto, comprensión de la distancia y pérdidas en la relación matrimonial. Conclusiones: Las necesidades personales de las Enfermeras reflejan el impacto de las medidas de protección recomendadas durante la pandemia da COVID-19, tanto en el contexto laboral como familiar. (AU)


Assuntos
Carência Psicossocial , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/instrumentação
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 505, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 66% of children under the age of 5 in Sub-Saharan African countries do not reach their full cognitive potential, the highest percentage in the world. Because the majority of studies investigating child cognitive development have been conducted in high-income countries (HICs), there is limited knowledge regarding the determinants of child development in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: This analysis includes 401 mother-child dyads from the South Africa and Tanzania sites of the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) longitudinal birth cohort study. We investigated the effect of psychosocial and environmental determinants on child cognitive development measured by the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scales of Intelligence (WPPSI) at 5 years of age using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Socioeconomic status was most strongly associated with child cognitive development (WPSSI Score Difference (SD):14.27, 95% CI:1.96, 26.59). Modest associations between the organization of the home environment and its opportunities for cognitive stimulation and child cognitive development were also found (SD: 3.08, 95% CI: 0.65, 5.52 and SD: 3.18, 95% CI: 0.59, 5.76, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study shows a stronger association with child cognitive development at 5 years of age for socioeconomic status compared to more proximal measures of psychosocial and environmental determinants. A better understanding of the role of these factors is needed to inform interventions aiming to alleviate the burden of compromised cognitive development for children in LMICs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição/fisiologia , Pobreza , Carência Psicossocial , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , África do Sul , Tanzânia
5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(6): 538-546, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006466

RESUMO

The rates of suicide and self-harm in Northern Ireland are high, and have increased from 143 registered suicides in 1996 to 313 in 2010 and 318 in 2015. This Review summarises the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour, as well as the evidence from a small number of studies that have identified risk factors associated with high suicide rates in Northern Ireland. These risk factors were mental illness, trauma, exposure to the conflict known as the Troubles, deprivation, relationship problems, employment difficulties, financial difficulties, being LGBT, childhood adversities, and alcohol or drug use. We highlight the key challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention, emphasising a so-called lifespan approach. More needs to be done to address the relationship between substance misuse and suicide. Future research and prevention efforts should also focus on the transgenerational effect of the conflict, youth suicide, suicide prevention in minority groups, and the criminal justice context. The provision of and access to suicide-specific psychosocial interventions need to be prioritised, more support for people in crisis is required, as well as interventions for mental illness. Protect Life 2, the national suicide prevention strategy, needs to be implemented in full. Given the legacy of conflict in Northern Ireland, all suicide prevention efforts should be trauma informed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conflito Psicológico , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Carência Psicossocial , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 641-649, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907309

RESUMO

Early childhood deprivation is associated with higher rates of neurodevelopmental and mental disorders in adulthood. The impact of childhood deprivation on the adult brain and the extent to which structural changes underpin these effects are currently unknown. To investigate these questions, we utilized MRI data collected from young adults who were exposed to severe deprivation in early childhood in the Romanian orphanages of the Ceaușescu era and then, subsequently adopted by UK families; 67 Romanian adoptees (with between 3 and 41 mo of deprivation) were compared with 21 nondeprived UK adoptees. Romanian adoptees had substantially smaller total brain volumes (TBVs) than nondeprived adoptees (8.6% reduction), and TBV was strongly negatively associated with deprivation duration. This effect persisted after covarying for potential environmental and genetic confounds. In whole-brain analyses, deprived adoptees showed lower right inferior frontal surface area and volume but greater right inferior temporal lobe thickness, surface area, and volume than the nondeprived adoptees. Right medial prefrontal volume and surface area were positively associated with deprivation duration. No deprivation-related effects were observed in limbic regions. Global reductions in TBV statistically mediated the observed relationship between institutionalization and both lower intelligence quotient (IQ) and higher levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The deprivation-related increase in right inferior temporal volume seemed to be compensatory, as it was associated with lower levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. We provide compelling evidence that time-limited severe deprivation in the first years of life is related to alterations in adult brain structure, despite extended enrichment in adoptive homes in the intervening years.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Adoção , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Orfanatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Romênia , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12872, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148302

RESUMO

Exposure to early psychosocial deprivation as a result of institutional care disrupts typical brain development. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is the first longitudinal study to investigate the neurodevelopment of institutionalized infants randomized to a foster care (FCG) intervention versus care as usual (CAUG). Here, we present findings from a follow-up assessment of brain electrical activity as indexed by resting EEG at age 16 years. In addition, we examined the effects of disruption of foster care placement (e.g. the number of moves among foster care placements) on brain electrical activity. Resting-state EEG was collected from 48 CAUG, 46 FCG and 48 never institutionalized (NIG) control participants. Absolute (µV2 ) and relative (proportion) power were computed from eyes closed, resting EEG data for theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. The CAUG displayed higher relative theta and lower relative alpha power compared to the FCG at 16 years of age. The FCG showed brain activity comparable to the NIG. The results further showed that disruptions following the original foster care placement had an adverse effect on brain electrical activity. Within the foster care group, there were no effects of age of placement on EEG power. Placement of children who have experienced early institutional rearing into stable foster care settings ensure long-term improvement in brain functioning.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança Institucionalizada , Eletroencefalografia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Carência Psicossocial , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
8.
Rev. psicanal ; 26(3): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/469/489, dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050014

RESUMO

O artigo aborda a violência racial e o efeito de pensamento vindo de perspectivas minoritárias sobre o genocídio étnico-racial no Brasil. Ao seguir as pistas de uma perspectiva religiosa afro-brasileira sobre pretos velhos, o artigo sonda uma filosofia do tempo que insiste sobre a persistência atual da escravidão. E se, como parece sugerir a religiosidade afro-brasileira, o sistema de escravidão negra iniciado no século XV não terminou? A primeira seção do artigo esboça uma etnografia para retirar consequências dessa proposição sobre a duração do sistema escravista. Na segunda parte, o artigo articula essa proposição a posicionamentos do ativismo antirracista do movimento negro. Por fim se sugere uma leitura da relação entre a problemática racial e os limites da democracia brasileira (AU)


This paper approaches the racial violence and the effects of the thought of the minority perspectives about ethnic-racial genocide in Brasil. Following the leads of an afro-brazilian religious perspective about the preto velho, the article probes a time philosophy that insists in the endurance of the current slavery. And as the afro-Brazilian religiosity suggests, has the black slavery system, that initiated in the 15th century, finished yet? The first section of the article sketches an ethnography to get to the consequences of the proposition concerning the length of the enslavement system. In the second part, the paper articulates this proposition to place the anti-racist activism in the black movement. Finally, it suggests a possible relation between the racial issue and the brazilian democracy


El artículo aborda la violencia racial y el efecto de pensamiento de las perspectivas minoritarias sobre el genocidio étnico-racial en Brasil. Siguiendo las pistas de una perspectiva religiosa afro-brasileña acerca de los pretos velhos, el artículo indaga una filosofía del tiempo que insiste acerca de la persistencia actual de la esclavitud. Según lo que parece sugerir la religiosidad afro-brasileña, el sistema de esclavitud negra iniciado en el siglo XV ¿ha terminado? La primera sección del artículo esboza una etnografía para retirar consecuencias de esa proposición acerca de la duración del sistema esclavista. En la segunda parte el texto articula esa proposición con posicionamientos del activismo antirracista del movimiento negro. Por fin sugiere una lectura de la relación entre la problemática racial y los límites de la democracia brasileña


Assuntos
Racismo , Pobreza , Carência Psicossocial , Religião , Segregação Social
9.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671131

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Many assume that having poor physical health in old age lowers life satisfaction, but in fact there are large differences in life satisfaction among older people who experience disability. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether psychosocial factors modify the negative association between disability and life satisfaction in older people and whether these differ across the life course. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 66,561 community-dwelling Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) participants aged 50-106 with a mean age of 67.8 ± 9.9 (SD) years from 17 European countries and Israel. METHODS: Psychosocial factors included depression (EURO-D scale), perceived loneliness, having a spouse, having children, contact with children, and participation in social activities. Disability was assessed by limitations in (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living ((I)ADL) and life satisfaction by Cantril's ladder. We also ran the analyses with the Control Autonomy Self-realization Pleasure (CASP-12) Index, a normative measure of quality of life. We used multiple linear regressions to estimate associations and proportion of variance explained. RESULTS: The variance in life satisfaction that could be attributed uniquely to ADL and IADL disability was 0.17% and 0.33% respectively (both p < 0.001). The impact of (I)ADL disabilities on life satisfaction was strongest at age 50 and gradually decreased with increasing age (p trend < 0.001). Mental health explained more variance; 5.75% for depressive symptoms and 2.50% for loneliness and for social resources this ranged from 0.09% to 0.47% (all p < 0.001). While disability has a negative effect on life satisfaction, the effect was not stronger in older persons who were depressed, neither in those who felt lonely nor in those without social resources. Similar outcomes were found when using CASP-12 as the explained variable. CONCLUSION: The impact of (I)ADL disabilities on life satisfaction in community-dwelling older people decreases with age. These associations are not affected by psychosocial factors and these patterns cannot be explained by people changing their norms and values.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Israel , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Carência Psicossocial , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
An. psicol ; 35(3): 483-489, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190036

RESUMO

Los recientes estudios en priming perceptivo se han centrado en identificar las diferencias entre población con y sin Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) confirmando la hipótesis que el TEPT representa un trastorno de la memoria. En este trabajo, se pretende abordar el priming en personas que han estado expuestas a diversas experiencias traumáticas relacionadas con el desplazamiento forzado. Para ello, se diseñaron tres categorías de palabras "trauma" (i.e., de amenaza, emocional y judicial) y una categoría de palabras “neutra”, las cuales compartían su raíz de tres letras. Participaron 44 colombianos refugiados y solicitantes de asilo que residen en Ecuador con presencia o ausencia de TEPT. Los resultados confirman que las personas con TEPT presentan mayor priming perceptivo en las categorías de amenaza y emociones y los solicitantes de asilo en la categoría judicial. Se discuten las implicaciones para los estudios que abordan el impacto de violencia política


In line with the hypothesis that PTSD is a memory disorder, recent studies on perceptual priming have focused on identifying the differences between population with and without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study addresses priming in people who have been exposed to traumatic experiences of forced displacement. To that end, three categories of the word “trauma” (i.e., of threat, emotional and judicial) and a category of “neutral” words, which shared their three-letter root were chosen. The participants were 44 Colombian refugees and asylum seekers living in Ecuador with or without PTSD. The results of our study point that people with PTSD have higher perceptual priming in the threat and emotional categories, and asylum seekers show higher priming in the judicial category. The implications for studies that address the impact of political violence are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Colômbia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Direito a Buscar Asilo
11.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals residing in more deprived areas with a lower diet quality might have a higher mortality risk. We aimed to examine the association between deprivation within an area and all-cause mortality risk according to diet quality. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective study on 27,994 men and 33,273 women aged 45-75 years. Neighborhood deprivation was assessed using the Japanese areal deprivation index (ADI). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Individuals residing in the most deprived area had the lowest dietary scores. During the 16.7-year follow-up, compared to individuals with a high quality diet residing in the least deprived area, individuals with a low quality diet had a higher risk of mortality according to increment of ADI (p trend = 0.03); the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.09 (0.999-1.19), 1.17 (1.08-1.27), and 1.19 (1.08-1.32) in those residing in the lowest through the highest third of ADI, respectively. However, individuals with a high quality diet had no significant association between ADI and mortality. CONCLUSION: A well-balanced diet may prevent early death associated with neighborhood socioeconomic status among those residing in highly deprived areas.


Assuntos
Dieta/mortalidade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Censos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Carência Psicossocial , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 57-65, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183646

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of the Building My Future program's implementation variables on attendance rate and on changes in personal, problem-solving, and community competencies. The program is run by local Social Services from Castile and Leon, Spain, and offers opportunities for adolescents to propose and carry out youth-led activities in their community. Data were accumulated from 356 participants, the majority experiencing negative psychosocial conditions, attending a total of 32 groups from 2013 to 2016. Using binary logistic regression and hierarchical linear regression analyses, results showed that having a facilitator with less professional experience, attending larger groups, having a high level of family involvement, and performing fewer modules and fewer extra activities predicted higher attendance rates and more positive task orientation, self-concept, social realization, and problem-solving competencies. Being younger, from an urban area, and having a facilitator with less professional experience predicted a higher score in community integration. These findings reveal that several program implementation components can contribute to the program's development and effectiveness and can also be considered across multiple programs in this field of practice


Este estudio examina la influencia de las variables de la aplicación del programa "Construyendo mi futuro" en el índice de asistencia y el cambio en competencias personales, de resolución de problemas y comunitarias. El programa se ofrece desde los Servicios Sociales de Castilla y León, España, brindando oportunidades para que adolescentes propongan y lleven a cabo actividades en su comunidad. Se recogieron datos de 356 participantes, la mayoría en situación de riesgo psicosocial, que asistieron a un total de 32 grupos desde el año 2013 hasta el año 2016. Mediante análisis de regresión logística binaria y regresión jerárquica lineal, los resultados indican que tener un facilitador con menos experiencia (más joven), asistir a grupos más grandes, disfrutar de un alto nivel de participación familiar y realizar menos módulos y menos actividades adicionales predecían un mayor índice de asistencia. Estas variables predijeron además una mayor orientación hacia la tarea y cambios positivos en autoconcepto, realización social y resolución de problemas. El hecho de ser joven, de zona urbana y tener un facilitador con menor experiencia profesional predecía una mayor puntuación en integración comunitaria. Estos resultados nos revelan cómo determinados componentes de la aplicación del programa pueden contribuir al desarrollo y a la eficacia del mismo, pudiendo igualmente ser considerados en otros muchos programas en este ámbito de intervención


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Carência Psicossocial , Grupos de Risco , Psicologia do Adolescente , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
13.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 75-81, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183648

RESUMO

Cyberbullying has become a growing social concern among the scientific community and in society in general. The consequences of cyberbullying for the victim are quite serious; many indicators of social maladjustment have been found, with suicide ideation being especially noteworthy. From this perspective, the main objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between cybervictimization and suicide ideation in adolescent victims of cyberbullying through the psychosocial maladjustment variables of loneliness, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, and psychological distress. Participants in this study were 1,062 adolescents (547 boys, 515 girls), ranging in age from 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.51, SD = 1.62). The structural equations model showed that cybervictimization is directly and indirectly related to suicide ideation. Indirect relationships were found to have a greater effect on suicide ideation than the direct effects of cybervictimization. The relevance of these results for scientific research are discussed, as well as their implications for future scientific studies


El ciberacoso escolar suscita una creciente preocupación social en la comunidad científica y en la sociedad en general. Las consecuencias del mismo en la víctima son muy serias: se han encontrado numerosos indicadores de desajuste social, entre los cuales destaca la ideación suicida. Desde esta perspectiva, el objetivo principal de este trabajo ha sido analizar las relaciones entre la cibervictimización y la ideación suicida en adolescentes víctimas de ciberacoso escolar a través de las variables de desajuste psicosocial de soledad, sintomatología depresiva, estrés percibido y malestar psicológico. En esta investigación participaron 1,062 adolescentes (547 chicos y 515 chicas), con un rango de edad que oscila entre los 12 y 18 años (M = 14.51, DT = 1.62). El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales mostró que la cibervictimización se relaciona directa e indirectamente con la ideación suicida. Las relaciones indirectas mostraron tener un efecto más elevado sobre la ideación suicida que los efectos directos de la cibervictimización. Se discute la relevancia de estos resultados para la investigación científica, así como sus implicaciones para futuros trabajos científicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adaptação Psicológica , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve
14.
J Genet Psychol ; 180(4-5): 217-230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305235

RESUMO

Hikikomori (social withdrawal that lasts six months or longer) is a growing problem among Japanese adolescents and young adults, with recent estimates that approximately 1% of Japanese youths will suffer from an episode of hikikomori in their lifetimes. What remains unclear is whether hikikomori is a culture-bound syndrome or a condition impacting youths around the globe. Hence, the self-reported prevalence and psychosocial correlates of past experiences with hikikomori were examined in cross-sectional samples of university students from Singapore (n = 147), Nigeria (n = 151), and the United States (n = 301). Following tests of measurement invariance, comparisons showed that past experiences with hikikomori were related to elevated levels of current loneliness and depressive symptoms in each sample. However, analyses also revealed evidence of cultural variation in both the prevalence and the psychosocial correlates associated with past experiences of hikikomori, which taken together, provide preliminary evidence that the culture-bound characterization of hikikomori may not be appropriate.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 203, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An adequate number of prenatal consultations is beneficial to the health of the mother and fetus. Guidelines recommend an average of 5-14 consultations. Daily practice, however, shows that some women attend the midwifery practice more frequently. This study examined factors associated with frequent attendance in midwifery-led care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a large midwifery practice in the Netherlands among low-risk women who started prenatal care in 2015 and 2016. Based on Andersen's behavioral model, we collected data on potential determinants from the digital midwifery's practice database. Prenatal healthcare utilization was measured by a revised version of the Kotelchuck Index, which measures a combination of care entry and numbers of visits. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the likelihood of frequent attendance compared to the recommended number of visits, adjusted for all relevant factors. Separate models were fitted on the non-referred and the referred group of obstetric-led care, as referral was found to be an effect modifier. RESULTS: The prevalence of frequent attendance was 23% (243/1053), mainly caused by worries and/or vague complaints (44%; 106/243). Among non-referred women, 53% (560/1053), frequent attendance was associated with consultation with an obstetrician (OR = 3.99 (2.35-6.77)) and exposure to sexual violence (OR = 2.17 (1.11-4.24)). Among the referred participants, 47% (493/1053), frequent attendance was associated with a consultation with an obstetrician (OR = 2.75 (1.66-4.57)), psychosocial problems in the past or present (OR = 1.85 (1.02-3.35) or OR = 2.99 (1.43-6.25)), overweight (OR = 1.88 (1.09-3.24)), and deprived area (OR = 0.50 (0.27-0.92)). CONCLUSION: Our exploratory study indicates that the determinants of frequent attendance in midwifery-led care differs between non-referred and referred women. Underlying causes for frequent attendance was mainly because of non-medical reasons. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: A trustful midwife-client relationship is known to be needed for clients such as frequent attenders to share more detailed, personal stories in case of vague complaints or worries, which is necessary to identify their implicit needs.


Assuntos
Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Tocologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Carência Psicossocial , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Tocologia/métodos , Tocologia/normas , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
16.
Soc Work ; 64(3): 198-206, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190061

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study examined coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between perceived discrimination and social exclusion among African immigrants in the United States (N = 409). Moderation models using path analyses were conducted to examine the moderating effects of three coping strategies (active coping, use of instrumental support, and religious coping) on the relationship between discrimination and four dimensions of social exclusion: (1) material deprivation, (2) limited access to basic social rights, (3) limited social participation, and (4) insufficient cultural integration. Increases in perceived discrimination were associated with increased social exclusion on all four dimensions. Increased use of active coping was found to weaken the positive relationship between perceived discrimination and material deprivation and between discrimination and limited social participation. Use of instrumental support also buffered the negative effects of discrimination on limited social participation. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Discriminação Social , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Carência Psicossocial , Religião , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos
17.
Enferm. nefrol ; 22(2): 130-139, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186311

RESUMO

Introducción: Garantizar el cuidado del paciente en hemodiálisis se reconoce como una actividad compleja, exigente y estresante a la cual se expone de manera reiterada el cuidador. El apoyo social y la resiliencia constituyen factores protectores que permiten amortiguar el impacto del estrés en la salud mental de los cuidadores. Objetivo: Analizar el apoyo social y la resiliencia como factores protectores en los cuidadores de pacientes en hemodiálisis. Material y Método: Estudio mixto secuencial con alcance descriptivo. La selección muestral se realizó de forma intencional-no probabilística para una muestra de 67 cuidadores de pacientes en hemodiálisis asistentes al Servicio de tratamiento sustitutivo durante el 2018. Se emplearon como instrumentos un Cuestionario de variables sociodemográficas, el Cuestionario de apoyo social funcional Duke-UNK-11 y la Escala reducida de Resiliencia Connor-Davidson. Se desarrollaron entrevistas grupales para la recogida de información cualitativa. Resultados: La percepción de apoyo social así como las dimensiones de apoyo afectivo y confidencial se expresan en niveles medios y bajos, distinguiéndose la familia como la principal red de apoyo para los cuidadores. La resiliencia alcanza niveles medio y alto siendo el optimismo, el sentido del humor y el establecimiento de relaciones sociales los principales mecanismos resilientes para enfrentar la actividad de cuidado. Conclusiones: El apoyo social y la resiliencia se comportan como factores protectores en los cuidadores estudiados. Se constituyen como los principales recursos psicológicos amortiguadores del estrés que ofrecen una perspectiva diferente y enriquecedora para enfrentar situaciones adversas de manera efectiva en los cuidadores


Introduction: Ensuring the care in hemodialysis patient is a complex, demanding and stressful activity to which the caregiver is repeatedly exposed. Social support and resilience are protective factors that allow to mitigate the impact of stress on the caregiver's mental health. Objective: Analyze social support and resilience as protective factors in caregivers of patients on hemodialysis. Material and Method: A sequential mixed model design with descriptive scope. A non-probability sampling was made for a sample of 67 caregivers of hemodialysis patients attending the Substitute Treatment Service during 2018. A questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, the Duke-UNK-11 Functional Social Support Questionnaire and the Connor-Davidson Reduced Resilience Scale were used as instruments. Group interviews were developed for the collection of qualitative information. Result: The perceptions of social support as well as the dimensions of affective and confidential support are expressed in medium and low levels, distinguishing the family as the main support network for caregivers. Resilience reaches medium and high levels, with optimism, a sense of humor and the establishment of social relationships as the main resilient mechanisms to approach the care activity. Conclusions: Social support and resilience operate as protective factors in the caregivers studied. Both are considered as the main psychological resources to mitigate stress. Also they offer a different and enriching perspective to face adverse situations effectively in caregivers


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/enfermagem , Diálise Renal/enfermagem , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Resiliência Psicológica/classificação , Cuidadores/psicologia , Afeto , Ajustamento Emocional/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial
18.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 25(2): 101-108, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185096

RESUMO

School maladjustment (SM) is understood as a set of behavioral, social, and emotional difficulties that prevent students from meeting the expectations of their school context. Its appearance during the first years of schooling is linked to school failure and dropout, violent behaviors, mental health problems, and maladaptive trajectories that persist for the rest of an individual’s life. The goal of this study was to identify psychosocial adversity variables capable of predicting the appearance of SM during the first three years of school. By collecting data on school maladjustment, adverse childhood experiences and psychosocial dysfunction, a longitudinal follow-up process was applied to a cohort of 26,108 Chilean students (50.7% female) from the start of their schooling (6.3 years of age in 1st grade) until two years later (8.4 year age mean in 3st grade). Through binary logistic regressions, the results obtained show that mother’s adolescent pregnancy, biological father's absence, mental pathology in a relative, psychosocial dysfunction, and teacher's negative perception of students’ academic and behavioral performance predict the appearance of SM after three years in the school system. The article discusses these results and their implications for the development of preventive programs aimed at reducing SM and mental health problems during childhood


La inadaptación escolar (IE) se entiende como un conjunto de dificultades de comportamiento, sociales y emocionales que impiden que los estudiantes cumplan con las expectativas de su contexto escolar. Su aparición durante los primeros años de escolaridad está relacionada con el fracaso y el abandono escolar, los comportamientos violentos, los problemas de salud mental y las trayectorias de mala adaptación que persisten durante el resto de la vida del individuo. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar variables de adversidad psicosocial capaces de predecir la aparición de inadaptación escolar durante los primeros tres años de escolarización. Al recopilar datos sobre el desajuste escolar, las experiencias adversas en la infancia y la disfunción psicosocial, se aplicó un proceso de seguimiento longitudinal a una cohorte de 26,108 estudiantes chilenos (50.7% mujeres) desde el inicio de sus estudios (6.3 años de edad en primer grado) hasta dos años más tarde (8.4 años de edad en tercer grado). A través de regresiones logísticas binarias, los resultados obtenidos muestran que el embarazo adolescente de la madre, la ausencia biológica del padre, la patología mental en un familiar, la disfunción psicosocial y la percepción negativa del profesor del desempeño académico y del comportamiento de los estudiantes predicen la aparición de inadaptación escolar después de tres años en el sistema escolar. El artículo analiza estos resultados y sus implicaciones para el desarrollo de programas preventivos dirigidos a reducir los problemas de inadaptación escolar y de salud mental durante la infancia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Carência Psicossocial , Impacto Psicossocial , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Esgotamento Psicológico , Seguimentos , Estudos Longitudinais , Chile
19.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(3): 272-282, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183749

RESUMO

Objetivo: Examinar y mapear las consecuencias del dolor crónico en la infancia y la adolescencia. Método: Se realizó una revisión sistemática exploratoria (scoping review) de bases de datos internacionales (PubMed, SCOPUS, WOS y CINAHL, Cochrane Library) y de literatura gris. Se incluyeron documentos que abordaban aspectos psicosociales que influyen en el dolor crónico, publicados en inglés entre los años 2010 y 2016. Se excluyeron los documentos que abordaban tratamientos farmacológicos o dolor crónico derivado de intervenciones quirúrgicas, y aquellos sin acceso al texto completo. Se incluyeron 34 documentos de los 716 revisados. Resultados: Los estudios muestran que el dolor se relaciona con altas tasas de discapacidad funcional y de trastornos del sueño y del espectro ansiedad-depresión. Los/las jóvenes experimentan mayores tasas de victimización y estigmatización, lo que contribuye al aislamiento social, mayor dificultad para atender las exigencias académicas y menor oportunidad de consumo de sustancias ilegales. Con respecto a la familia, el dolor crónico se ha asociado con un peor funcionamiento familiar y una inversión considerable de recursos económicos. Conclusiones: Esta revisión pone de manifiesto que la capacidad funcional, el sueño, el desarrollo personal, el apoyo de iguales y el funcionamiento familiar son líneas de interés en los trabajos publicados. Sin embargo, se detectan lagunas de conocimiento en áreas como las conductas de riesgo, las consecuencias que puede ocasionar el dolor en la edad adulta y las desigualdades de género


Objective: Our aim was to examine and map the consequences of chronic pain in children and adolescents. Method: A scoping review was carried out in the international databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, WOS and CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and gray literature. We included documents that addressed psychosocial aspects that influence chronic pain, published in English between 2010 and 2016. We excluded the documents that dealt with pharmacological treatments, chronic pain derived from surgical interventions or where there was no access to full text. 34 of the 716 documents reviewed were included. Results: Studies show that pain is associated with high rates of functional disability, sleep disorders and spectrum depression-anxiety. Young people experience higher rates of victimization and stigmatization, contributing to social isolation, difficulty in meeting academic demands and less opportunity to consume illegal substances. With respect to the family, chronic pain has been associated with poorer family functioning and considerable investment of economic resources. Conclusions: This Scoping Review shows that functional capacity, sleep, personal development, peer support and family functioning are interesting lines in published works. However, gaps in knowledge are detected in areas such as risk behaviours, the consequences that pain can cause in adulthood and gender inequalities


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Dor Crônica/complicações , Carência Psicossocial , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social
20.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(11): 1379-1389, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055630

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore how small area deprivation is associated with attitudes towards mental illness in a large sample of individuals living in private households in England. METHOD: Cross-sectional data from Health Survey for England (2014) were analysed using multilevel models. The exposure of interest was the deprivation level of the small area in which an individual resides as measured by Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) score. The primary outcome was an individual's overall attitude towards mental illness, measured using a 12 item version of the Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale. Further outcomes were the two subscales of the CAMI, reflecting attitudes of (1) prejudice and exclusion and (2) tolerance and support. Individuals were nested within household and small geographical area. RESULTS: 5820 participants were included. Results from unadjusted models found strong evidence that individuals residing in the most deprived areas of England have worse attitudes towards mental illness compared to individuals living in the least deprived areas (estimated difference = - 3.5 points; 95% CI - 4.8 to - 2.2; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, education level, ethnicity and weekly income there was no longer evidence for this association (adjusted difference = - 0.1 points, 95% CI - 1.3 to 1.2; P = 0.931). Similar patterns of results were found for the CAMI subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between small area-level deprivation and attitudes towards mental illness is no longer observed when controlling for certain individual-level characteristics.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Preconceito , Estigma Social
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