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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3627-3637, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852620

RESUMO

This study increases the known biodiversity of cnidarian parasites in neotropical bryconid fishes. Two novel Myxobolus species are described based on morphology, ultrastructure and small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) sequencing: Myxobolus vetuschicanus n. sp. infecting fins of Salminus franciscanus and Myxobolus mineirus n. sp. infecting the mesentery of Brycon orthotaenia from the São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ultrastructural analysis of the two species revealed an asynchronous sporogenesis process, with germinative cells and young developmental stages of myxospores in the periphery of the plasmodia. In M. vetuschicanus n. sp., the plasmodia were surrounded by a layer of fibroblasts and in M. mineirus n. sp., the plasmodial membrane had direct contact with the host tissue. The phylogenetic analysis based on the ssrDNA of Henneguya/Myxobolus species showed that the two novel Myxobolus species grouped in subclades together with other parasite species of bryconid fishes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxobolus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA Ribossômico , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Filogenia , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos , Rios/parasitologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3255-3283, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856113

RESUMO

Seven new species of Urocleidoides from the gills and skin of nine Neotropical fish hosts (Anostomidae, Parodontidae, and Gymnotidae) are described: Urocleidoides digitabulum n. sp. on Leporinus friderici, Leporinus octofasciatus, and Megaleporinus elongatus (Anostomidae); Urocleidoides solarivaginatus n. sp. on L. friderici, L. octofasciatus, and Leporinus striatus (Anostomidae); Urocleidoides falxus n. sp. and Urocleidoides sapucaiensis n. sp. on M. elongatus; Urocleidoides tenuis n. sp. on Apareiodon piracicabae and Apareiodon affinis (Parodontidae); Urocleidoides sinus n. sp. on L. striatus, Schizodon nasutus, and Schizodon intermedius (Anostomidae); and Urocleidoides uncinus n. sp. on Gymnotus sylvius (Gymnotidae). Urocleidoides paradoxus was also found in this study on L. friderici and included in the phylogenetic analysis. Molecular data (partial 28S rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I) were obtained for U. digitabulum n. sp., U. tenuis n. sp., U. sinus n. sp., and U. uncinus n. sp. The identification of Urocleidoides is amended herein to include all taxonomic modifications observed in this genus over time and add new characteristics observed in the species in the present study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Urocleidoides digitabulum n. sp. and Urocleidoides sinus n. sp. (parasites of anostomids) closely related in the tree topologies. Furthermore, the new species described herein parasitized phylogenetically distant host species (Characiformes and Gymnotiformes), suggesting the effect of the dynamic process of ecological fitting.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Gimnotiformes/parasitologia , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Peixes , Brânquias/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Platelmintos/classificação , Platelmintos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e001820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609240

RESUMO

This study investigated the fauna of ectoparasitic crustaceans in Leporinus affinis from Reservoir Coaracy Nunes, in eastern Amazon (Brazil), as well as the parasite-host interactions. The mouth, gills and tegument of 50.9% of the fish examined were parasitized by Argulus chicomendesi, Ergasilus turucuyus and Excorallana berbicensis, and a total of 118 parasites were collected. The dominance was found for E. berbicensis and the higher infestation levels were caused by E. berbicensis on the body surface of the hosts, but E. turucuyus had the highest prevalence on the gills of this host. The cluster analysis revealed higher similarity in the infestations by E. berbicensis and A. chicomendesi in relation to infestation site in hosts. Host sex and relative condition factor (Kn) were not influenced by moderate parasitism, but the abundance of parasites presented negative correlation with weight and Kn of the fish. This is the first study on the parasites of L. affinis showing low species diversity, with moderate prevalence and low parasite abundance.


Assuntos
Arguloida , Caraciformes , Copépodes , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Animais , Arguloida/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Copépodes/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20180610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556046

RESUMO

Eighty-one Hoplias malabaricus specimens were collected between February 2014 and June 2016. A total of 29 species of metazoan parasites were found, 13 of which were identified as monogeneans, seven were digenean species, seven of which were nematodes, and two of which were from the subclass Hirudinea. The highest prevalence values ​​were presented by Contracaecum sp. and Tylodelphys sp. The highest mean abundance and mean intensity was recorded by Tylodelphys sp.; the values were ​​36.7 ± 61.8 and 55.65 ± 69.1, respectively. The abundance of the monogenean Urocleidoides cuiabai was found to be positively correlated with host weight. The abundance of Bucephalidae gen. sp. exhibited significant positive correlations with host weight and length. For Contracaecum sp., a significant negative correlation was found between its abundance and host length and weight. No significant differences between the diversity indexes (Margalef, Pielou and Shannon) of the parasites collected in the two points were found. The Sorensen similarity index, with a value of 0.82 between the two sampling points revealed that the parasitic diversity between them is similar. The findings from this study represent new records of occurrence of H. malabaricus, as well as of Urocleidoides margolisi, Scleroductus sp. and Helobdella sp.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Parasitos/classificação , Densidade Demográfica , Rios
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e017019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428185

RESUMO

A new species of Tereancistrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Kayton, 1980 collected of Prochilodus lineatus gills from the Batalha River, Tietê-Batalha basin, São Paulo State, Brazil is described. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners mainly by the configuration of the ventral bar, which has an anvil-shaped characteristic with corrugated anterior projection. Tereancistrum takemotoi n. sp. is morphologically similar to T. toksonum Lizama, Takemoto & Pavanelli, 2004 in terms of their dorsal bars (Y-shaped), their dorsal anchors with divergent roots (superficial and deep) wherein their deep root rather elongated, and by the fact that they both have the male copulatory organ counterclockwise. However, only T. takemotoi n. sp. presents the male copulatory organ with 2» rings and shows undulations in the anterior margin of the dorsal bar. These undulations are absent in T. toksonum (which only has 1» rings). This is the fourth Tereancistrum species described for P. lineatus and the first described for the region from the Tietê-Batalha basin.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Brânquias/parasitologia , Rios , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia
6.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(3): 305-314, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253575

RESUMO

A previously undescribed Myxobolus sp. was isolated from the cranial nerves and ganglia of the spotfin hatchetfish Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner) that exhibited neurologic signs following importation from Colombia. Associated plasmodia formed space-occupying masses within nerves, compressing neuronal cell bodies and causing axonal degeneration. Myxospores from these fish were morphologically and molecularly distinct from other myxobolids infecting the central nervous system of characins. In valvular view, spores are pyriform with a rounded posterior and tapering anterior aspect. Myxospore bodies are 17.0-19.4 (mean 18.4) µm long and 8.2-9.3 (mean 8.8) µm wide. Polar capsules are asymmetrical and pyriform with a neck-like projection at the apical end. The small polar capsule measures 4.3-5.9 × 2.2-3.1 (mean 5.0 × 2.6) µm, while the large polar capsule measures 9.1-10.7 × 4.9-6.3 (mean 9.9 × 5.4) µm wide. The sequence generated for the small subunit rRNA (18S) gene did not directly match any sequences available on GenBank, but demonstrated 92% nucleotide similarity to Myxobolus axelrodi Camus, Dill, Rosser, Pote & Griffin, 2017 infecting Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz). This study provides the first morphological, histological and molecular characterisation of Myxobolus stellatus n. sp. from the spotfin hatchetfish.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Nervos Cranianos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gânglios/parasitologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Colômbia , Myxobolus/citologia , Myxobolus/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
7.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 27­37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198993

RESUMO

Hoplias aff. malabaricus is abundant in the Mogi-Guaçu River. The aim of this study was to perform an inventory of the species of metazoan that parasite this species of fish taken from oxbow lakes of the Mogi-Guaçu River. The Mann-Whitney test was used to statistically analyze the possible influence of the sex of the host on the group with the highest parasite richness and the greatest abundance of parasites. Simpson's diversity index was used to determine parasite diversity among the zoological groups of parasites of H. aff. malabaricus with the highest index. A total of 78 specimens of H. aff. malabaricus were examined. Among the zoological groups of metazoans found, the phylum Nematoda had the greatest number of species. Among these, the larval stage of Contracaecum sp. was most abundant. The sex of the host had a significant effect, with parasites more abundant in female fish (Z(U)=0.043; p<0.05). The digenean Parspina argentinensis, the nematodes Procamallanus (S.) iheringi, Rhabdochona acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. and copepods Vaigamus sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea have not previously been recorded as parasites of H. aff. malabaricus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Copépodes/classificação , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência , Rios , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Parasitol Int ; 76: 102061, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978596

RESUMO

Two new Myxobolus species were described infecting Brycon orthotaenia from the São Francisco River, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From a total of 39 B. orthotaenia collected, two specimens (5.1%) exhibited infection of the ovary and 12 specimens (30.8%) displayed infection of the liver. The plasmodia of both Myxobolus species were white and spherical measuring around 1 mm in length. The plasmodium found in the ovary showed mature myxospores, which were oval shaped from the frontal view and measured 9.2-11.0 (9.8 ± 0.4) µm in length, 5.9-6.9 (6.5 ± 0.3) µm in width and 4.6-5 (4.9 ± 0.1) µm in diameter. The two polar capsules were the same size and measured 3.9-6.2 (4.7 ± 0.5) µm in length and 1.8-2.4 (2.1 ± 0.2) µm in width. The polar tubules had 9 coils. The plasmodium found in the liver showed mature myxospores which were ellipsoidal in shape from the frontal view and measured 10.0-11.4 (10.7 ± 0.5) µm in length, 7.3-8.6 (8.1 ± 0.4) µm in width and 5.3-7.0 (6.8 ± 0.4) µm in diameter. The two polar capsules were the same size and measured 4.2-5.4 (4.9 ± 0.3) µm in length and 1.9-2.9 (2.7 ± 0.3) µm in width. The polar tubules had 8 coils. Ultrastructural analysis revealed an asynchronous sporogenesis process, with young developmental myxospore stages more often found in the periphery of the plasmodium and mature myxospores in the centre of the plasmodium. The plasmodial wall was formed by a single membrane which was not surrounded by a layer of host tissue. A thick layer of fibrous material was found in the peripheral ectoplasm close to the plasmodial wall of the plasmodium found in the ovary. Phylogenetic analysis based on the small-subunit ribosomal DNA - ssrDNA sequences and using the closest myxozoan sequences to each one of the species studied here based on previous GenBank data and Henneguya/Myxobolus/Thelohanellus species parasitizing fish from South American, revealed that the new species are grouped in a subclade together with other Myxobolus species parasitizing bryconid hosts.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Myxobolus/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Filogenia , Animais , Brasil , Microscopia Eletrônica , Myxobolus/anatomia & histologia , Myxobolus/ultraestrutura , Rios/parasitologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 871-878, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897794

RESUMO

Myxozoans of the family Ceratomyxidae are common coelozoic parasites of marine, anadromous, and freshwater fish, and may also be found, less frequently, parasitizing the tissue of these hosts. The diversity and ecology of the freshwater species of the genus Ceratomyxa have been poorly investigated, leading to a knowledge gap that restricts the understanding of the distribution and prevalence of this group of parasites. In the present study, parasites were found inside vermiform plasmodia, characterised by oscillatory movements in the characiform species Hemiodus unimaculatus. The crescent-shaped and elongated spores, perpendicular to the suture line, have a mean length of 28.9 ± 2.7 µm and width of 2.6 ± 0.1 µm, with two symmetrical oval polar capsules, 1.9 ± 0.3 µm in length and 1.7 ± 0.2 µm in width, containing polar filaments with three or four coils, located near the central suture, with symmetrical lateral elongations 14.3 ± 1.1 µm in length and binucleate amoeboid sporoplasm. The integrated comparative analysis of the morphological characteristics and partial SSU rRNA sequences supported the identification of a new species of coelozoic Ceratomyxa, found in the gallbladder of H. unimaculatus, from the Tocantins basin, in the municipalities of Estreito and Imperatriz in eastern Brazilian Amazonia.The new species was denominated Ceratomyxa fonsecai n. sp.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Plasmodium/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Água Doce/parasitologia , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/citologia , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia , Plasmodium/fisiologia
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e014519, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058014

RESUMO

Abstract Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes, Erythrinidae), trahira, is a neotropical freshwater fish of economic and public health significance. A total of 45 specimens of H. malabaricus commercialized in the municipality of Magé, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were acquired between April 2016 and April 2018 to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty of the fish were found parasitized by 347 fourth-stage nematode larvae identified taxonomically as Eustrongylides sp. using morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The parasitic indices were: prevalence 44.44%, mean intensity 17.35, mean abundance 7.71, and range of infection 2-40. Infection sites were musculature, mesentery, abdominal cavity, and serosa of intestine, stomach and liver. This is the first report of Eustrongylides sp. larvae parasitizing H. malabaricus in the state of Rio de Janeiro.


Resumo Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes, Erythrinidae), traíra, é um peixe neotropical de água doce que tem significante impacto na economia e saúde pública. De abril de 2016 a abril de 2018, foram adquiridos 45 espécimes de H. malabaricus comercializados no município de Magé, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os peixes foram necropsiados e filetados para investigação da presença de larvas de nematoides. Vinte dos peixes coletados estavam parasitados por 347 larvas de nematoides, identificadas taxonomicamente como larvas de quarto estágio de Eustrongylides sp. usando-se dados morfológicos, morfométricos e moleculares, apresentando os seguintes valores: prevalência de 44,44%, intensidade média de 17,35, abundância média de 7,71, e amplitude de variação da infecção de 2-40. Os sítios de infecção foram musculatura, mesentério, cavidade abdominal e serosas do intestino, estômago e fígado. Este é o primeiro registro de larvas de Eustrongylides sp. parasitando H. malabaricus no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.


Assuntos
Animais , Dioctophymatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brasil , Dioctophymatoidea/anatomia & histologia , Dioctophymatoidea/classificação
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800711

RESUMO

Three piranha species, Serrasalmus maculatus, S. marginatus and Pygocentrus nattereri, living sympatrically in the lower Paraná River (Argentina) were examined searching for nasal monogeneans to know its diversity and distribution. Four species of monogeneans belonging to Rhinoxenus were found parasitizing the nasal cavities. Two new species are described, and new morphological data of 2 previously described species is provided. Rhinoxenus argentinensis n. sp. is characterized by having the male copulatory organ (MCO) as a coiled tube with a reel shaped-base; an elongated accessory piece articulated to base of MCO; a sinistral vagina with a sclerotized vestibule, and a sclerotized cap of the ventral anchor laterally modified forming a triangular expansion. Rhinoxenus paranaensis n. sp. is characterized by having a MCO as a coiled tube with a reel-shaped base; an accessory piece with an elongate proximal portion, a dilated distal portion with digitiform projections articulated to base of MCO; a sinistral vagina with 5-6 cuticular spine-shaped processes, and a sclerotized cap of the ventral anchor modified laterally forming a bilobate expansion. Additionally, multivariate discriminant analyses showed significant morphometric differences in the ventral anchors among Rhinoxenus species parasitizing 'piranhas '.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Argentina , Masculino , Platelmintos/anatomia & histologia , Platelmintos/classificação , Rios
12.
J Helminthol ; 94: e102, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679532

RESUMO

The production of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum has been undergoing financial losses due to parasitic infection by the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae, raising an alert for aquaculture in South America. The lack of adequate treatment and use of unlicensed chemicals encourages research for alternative solutions with minimal side effects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro antiparasitic potential of commercial nutraceutical products (Natumix® and BioFish®) against N. buttnerae and to assess the respective in vivo toxic effects on the host tambaqui. For in vitro assays, parasitized fish were necropsied for acanthocephalans sampling. The parasites were exposed to three concentrations (0.078, 0.313 and 1.25 mg/ml) of each product, as well as controls (one without product and another with a solubilizer). For the in vivo acute toxicity test, juvenile fish (<0.1 g) were exposed to five increasing concentrations of each product. Mortality of tambaqui was recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The estimated lethal concentration (LC) for 10, 50, 90 and 99% of fish was determined to classify the toxicity of the products on the target species. After in vitro efficacy tests, the highest concentrations (1.25 mg/ml) caused 100% mortality of the parasites in both products, but only Natumix® caused 100% mortality using the intermediate concentration (0.313 mg/ml) after 24 h. According to the acute toxicity result, the LC50 classified the nutraceutical products as slightly toxic for tambaqui. The tested products had a parasiticidal effect on N. buttnerae, and the toxicity test showed that both products have therapeutic potential when added to the diet.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Aquicultura , Caraciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Dose Letal Mediana , América do Sul
13.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3327-3336, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728724

RESUMO

On the basis of morphological and molecular analyses, a new myxozoan parasite is described from the gills of the fish Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, collected in the municipality of Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Plasmodia of Henneguya unitaeniata sp. nov. were oval and whitish and were found surrounded by collagen fibers forming plasmodia wall between gill filaments on the gill arch. The spores were ellipsoidal with two similar polar capsules. Morphometric analysis showed a total spore mean length of 23.8 ± 1.5 µm, spore body mean length of 14.5 ± 0.7 µm, caudal appendage mean length of 10.3 ± 1.4 µm, thickness mean length of 4.3 ± 0.3 µm, polar capsule mean length of 4.2 ± 0.5 µm, polar capsule mean width of 1.8 ± 0.3 µm, spore mean width of 4.8 ± 0.4 µm, and 4-5 polar filament coils. Phylogenetic analysis showed Henneguya unitaeniata sp. nov. as a basal species in a subclade formed by myxozoans that parasitize bryconid fishes.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Animais , Brasil , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Myxozoa/citologia , Myxozoa/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e014519, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778530

RESUMO

Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes, Erythrinidae), trahira, is a neotropical freshwater fish of economic and public health significance. A total of 45 specimens of H. malabaricus commercialized in the municipality of Magé, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were acquired between April 2016 and April 2018 to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty of the fish were found parasitized by 347 fourth-stage nematode larvae identified taxonomically as Eustrongylides sp. using morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The parasitic indices were: prevalence 44.44%, mean intensity 17.35, mean abundance 7.71, and range of infection 2-40. Infection sites were musculature, mesentery, abdominal cavity, and serosa of intestine, stomach and liver. This is the first report of Eustrongylides sp. larvae parasitizing H. malabaricus in the state of Rio de Janeiro.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Dioctophymatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Dioctophymatoidea/anatomia & histologia , Dioctophymatoidea/classificação
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 458-464, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390437

RESUMO

Between March and October 2008, 355 specimens of Pygocentrus nattereri were collected from the lowland lakes of Central Amazonia, Brazil, to study their nematode fauna. A total of 1.116 specimens of Nematoda were collected, belonging to six species. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus was the species with the highest parasite indices. Larvae of Anisakis sp. have zoonotic potential and were found parasitizing the intestine and liver of Pygocentrus nattereri. Some of these nematode species were new records for the host P. nattereri. The diversity of nematodes that use P. nattereri as a host indicates the important role of this fish species in the maintenance of these six nematode species in the lowland lakes of Central Amazonia.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Caraciformes/classificação , Feminino , Masculino
16.
Parasite ; 26: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335315

RESUMO

Anacanthorus (Anacanthorinae) is one of the most speciose and common genera of neotropical monogeneans, yet there are still many gaps in our knowledge concerning their diversity and phylogeny. We performed phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequences in order to investigate the phylogenetic position within the Dactylogyridae of Anacanthorus spp. infesting serrasalmids from two Brazilian river basins. Sequences of partial 28S rDNA obtained for nine species of Anacanthorus and Mymarothecium viatorum parasitizing serrasalmids and the published sequences of other members of the Dactylogyridae were included in the phylogenetic reconstruction. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of anacanthorine monogeneans. The Anacanthorinae (represented in this study by Anacanthorus spp.) formed a monophyletic group included in a large clade together with a group of solely freshwater Ancyrocephalinae and species of the Ancylodiscoidinae. Mymarothecium viatorum (Ancyrocephalinae) was placed within the clade of freshwater Ancyrocephalinae. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that the relationships among species of Anacanthorus reflect those of their serrasalmid hosts: the first subgroup includes a species specific to hosts assigned to Piaractus, a member of the "pacus" lineage; the second subgroup includes a species parasitizing the "Myleus-like pacus" lineage; and the third subgroup includes species parasitizing the lineage of the "true piranhas". We suggest that Anacanthorus and their serrasalmid hosts can be considered a useful model to assess host-parasite biogeography and coevolution in the neotropics. However, future studies focusing on a wider spectrum of host species and their specific Anacanthorus spp. are needed in order to investigate coevolution in this highly diversified system.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(4): 927-931, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Herbal therapy is a potentially beneficial alternative for fish aquaculture, since it may be cheaper and more effective than chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro efficacy of Ficus insipida latex on monogeneans of Colossoma macropomum gills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the anthelmintic activity, four concentrations of F. insipida latex (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µL/L) and exposure time to cause immobilization on monogeneans were used. In addition, two control groups, being one with water from the breeding tank and the other with breeding water from the tank + 70% ethyl alcohol were used. RESULTS: At the concentration of 250 µL/L of F. insipida latex, the immobilization of the monogeneans occurred after 4 h of exposure, while at the concentration of 500 µL/L, it occurred after 2 h. At the concentrations of 750 and 1000 µL/L of F. insipida latex, the immobilization of the monogeneans occurred after 1 h and 30 min, respectively. After exposure to 250 µL/L of F. insipida latex, 100% of immobilization of monogeneans was observed within 4 h, to 500 and 750 µL/L, 100% immobilization occurred within 4 h and to 1000 µL/L, 100% mortality occurred after 2 h. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we recommended the use of 1000 µL/L of F. insipida latex for therapeutic baths in of C. macropomum against monogeneans, after previous test of toxicity.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Ficus/química , Látex/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Trematódeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aquicultura , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Látex/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , América do Sul
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 458-464, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042520

RESUMO

Abstract Between March and October 2008, 355 specimens of Pygocentrus nattereri were collected from the lowland lakes of Central Amazonia, Brazil, to study their nematode fauna. A total of 1.116 specimens of Nematoda were collected, belonging to six species. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus was the species with the highest parasite indices. Larvae of Anisakis sp. have zoonotic potential and were found parasitizing the intestine and liver of Pygocentrus nattereri. Some of these nematode species were new records for the host P. nattereri. The diversity of nematodes that use P. nattereri as a host indicates the important role of this fish species in the maintenance of these six nematode species in the lowland lakes of Central Amazonia.


Resumo Entre março e outubro de 2008, foram coletados 355 espécimes de Pygocentrus nattereri para o estudo da Nematofauna, provenientes dos lagos de várzea da Amazônia Central, Brasil. Um total de 1.116 espécimes de Nematoda foram coletados, pertencentes a seis espécies. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus foi a espécie com índices parasitários mais elevados. Larvas de Anisakis sp. apresentam um potencial zoonótico, e foram encontradas parasitando o intestino e o fígado de P. nattereri. Algumas espécies de nematoides estão sendo registradas em P. nattereri pela primeira vez. A diversidade de espécies de nematoides que utilizam P. nattereri como hospedeiro indica seu importante papel na manutenção destas cinco espécies nos lagos de várzea da Amazônia Central.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/classificação , Brasil , Biodiversidade , Caraciformes/classificação
19.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(6): 511-519, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093872

RESUMO

Four new dactylogyrid species are described, three species (Anacanthorus camposbacae n. sp., Anacanthorus carmenrosae n. sp. and Notozothecium nanayensis n. sp.) from the gills of Myloplus schomburgkii (Jardine), captured in the River Nanay, Iquitos, Peru, and one new species (Mymarothecium iiapensis n. sp.) from the gills of Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier) in a fish pond in Iquitos, Peru. Anacanthorus camposbacae n. sp. differs from its congeners by possessing the accessory piece with a sub-medial branch having tentacle-like extensions. Anacanthorus carmenrosae n. sp. is characterised by possessing a Y-shaped accessory piece. Notozothecium nanayensis n. sp. differs from its congeners by the shape of both anchors and the presence of a short anteromedial triangular process in the ventral bar and by possessing an accessory piece with spoon-shaped proximal end. Mymarothecium iiapensis n. sp. is characterised by presenting a wrench-tool-shaped accessory piece and by possessing both anchors with conspicuous fold on the superficial roots.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Peru , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia
20.
J Fish Dis ; 42(6): 905-912, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933363

RESUMO

Ninety-seven specimens of spotfin hatchetfish, Thoracocharax stellatus, an ornamental freshwater species from the Amazon basin, were captured in the basin of the Guamá River in the municipality of Belém, in northern Brazil, and analysed for coccidiosis infection. Overall, 26 of the specimens were infected by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Goussia, with unsporulated forms being found in the gastric epithelium and sporulated forms in the intestinal lumen. The spheroid oocysts (mean diameter: 13.2 ± 1.7 µm) have four elliptical sporocysts. A partial sequence of the SSU rDNA of the new species was obtained, which contained 1,121 base pairs, with 43.8% guanine + cytosine (G + C), and the bases distributed as follows: A = 28.1%, C = 18.3%, G = 25.5% and T = 28.1%. The combined analysis of the morphometric and phylogenetic evidence confirmed that the specimens represented the genus Goussia and were allocated to a new species, Goussia guamaensis n. sp., which is described here.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeriidae/classificação , Eimeriidae/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Mucosa Gástrica/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Água Doce , Intestinos/parasitologia , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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