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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e36283, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103400

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a influência das composições familiares na ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência. Método:estudo caso-controle, realizado com 74 gestantes adolescentes, grupo de casos, e 74 adultas jovens sem história pregressa de gravidez na adolescência, grupo controle, pareadas pela variável renda familiar. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas estruturadas realizadas no período deagosto a outubro de 2016 em Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, e em seguida analisados pelos métodos estatísticos descritivo e inferencial. Resultados: identificou-se associação entre a ocorrência do desfecho com pertencer a famílias não nucleares, não permanecer a mesma família durante a infância e adolescência, e a constituição de uma família própria no período da adolescência. Conclusão:verificou-se que adolescentes inseridas em famílias não nucleares estão mais expostas a fatores de risco para ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência, quando comparadas às jovensprovenientes de famílias com ambos os pais.


Objective: to analyze the influence of family compositions in the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence. Method:this is a case-control study performed with 74 pregnant adolescents, group of cases, and 74 young adults without background history of pregnancy during adolescence, group control, paired by family income. Data were collected through structured interviews conducted in the period from August to October 2016 in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, and then analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results:we identified an association between the occurrence of the outcome and the belonging to non-nuclear families, as well as the non-belonging to the same family during childhood and adolescence, besides the constitution of an own family in the period of adolescence. Conclusion: checked that adolescents inserted in nonnuclear families are more exposed to risk factors for the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence when compared to young people coming from families with both parents.


Objetivo: analizar la influencia de las composiciones familiares en la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente. Método: estudio caso-control efectuado con 74 adolescentes embarazadas, grupo de casos, y 74 jóvenes adultas sin historia anterior de embarazo en la adolescencia, grupo de control, agrupadas por sus ingresos familiares. Los datos se recopilaron mediante entrevistas estructuradas conducidas en el periodo de agosto a octubre de 2016 en Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, y posteriormente analizados por los métodos estadísticos descriptivo e inferencial. Resultados:se identificó una asociación entre la ocurrencia del desenlace y la pertenencia a las familias no nucleares, no permanencia en la misma familia durante niñez y adolescencia, y la constitución de una familia propia en el periodo de la adolescencia. Conclusion: comprobado eso que las adolescentes insertadas en familias no nucleares están más expuestas a los factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente en comparación con las jóvenes provenientes de familias con ambos padres biológicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Características da Família , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho
2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 97-110, jul.-dez. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1125734

RESUMO

A literatura menciona a importância do lazer na vida em família, ressaltando as interações significativas que promove e suas contribuições ao bem-estar da família. Buscou-se compreender a vivência do lazer a partir da perspectiva do grupo familiar, descrevendo as possíveis influências da experiência do lazer na dinâmica das mesmas. Participaram três famílias, que responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico e a uma entrevista do grupo familiar, além de terem produzido registros fotográficos de momentos de lazer. Para análise das entrevistas, incluindo os relatos acerca das fotografias, utilizou-se a Análise de Conteúdo. Verificou-se que as famílias descreveram atividades e concepções de lazer diversas e que todas mencionaram os efeitos positivos que a vivência coletiva do lazer gera às suas dinâmicas, favorecendo a convivência, o diálogo e a alegria. No entanto, as limitações de tempo, dinheiro, de acesso a opções de lazer e de conciliação das demandas de gerações diferentes foram descritos como empecilhos para a vivência familiar do lazer. Conclui-se refletindo acerca das implicações dos achados para políticas públicas de lazer e para uma educação para o lazer.


The literature mentions the importance of leisure in family life, highlighting the significant interactions it promotes and its contributions to family well-being. It sought to understand the experience of leisure from the perspective of the family group, describing the possible influences of the experience of leisure on their dynamics. Three families participated, who answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and an interview of the family group, besides having produced photographic records of leisure moments. For the analysis of the interviews, including the reports about the photographs, the Content Analysis was used. It was verified that the families described various leisure activities and conceptions and that all mentioned the positive effects that the collective experience of leisure generates to their dynamics, favoring the coexistence, the dialogue, and the joy. However, the limitations of time, money, access to leisure options, and the conciliation of the demands of different generations were described as impediments to the family experience of leisure. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of the findings for leisure public policies and leisure education.


En la literatura se menciona la importancia de la recreación en la vida familiar, destacando las importantes interacciones que promueve y sus contribuciones al bienestar de la familia. Trató de comprender la experiencia de recreación desde la perspectiva del grupo familiar, describiendo las posibles influencias de la experiencia de recreación en su dinámica. Participaron tres familias que respondieron a un cuestionario sociodemográfico y a una entrevista del grupo familiar, además de haber producido registros fotográficos de los momentos de recreación. Para el análisis de las entrevistas, incluyendo los informes sobre las fotografías, se utilizó el Análisis de Contenido. Se comprobó que las familias describían diversas actividades y concepciones de recreación y que todas mencionaban los efectos positivos que la experiencia colectiva de recreación genera a sus dinámicas, favoreciendo la convivencia, el diálogo y la alegría. Sin embargo, las limitaciones de tiempo, dinero, acceso a opciones de recreación y la conciliación de las demandas en las diferentes generaciones se describieron como impedimentos para la experiencia familiar de recreación. Concluimos reflexionando sobre las implicaciones de los hallazgos para las políticas públicas de recreación y para la educación del recreación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Recreação , Família , Características da Família , Relações Familiares , Fertilização , Atividades de Lazer
3.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 55-65, jul.-dez. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1125731

RESUMO

Casais que vivem em residências separadas (LAT - Living Apart Together) representam uma configuração conjugal diferente da tradicional. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a configuração conjugal de alguns casais LAT no norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória por meio de amostragem de conveniência. Foram entrevistados cinco casais, com base em um questionário sociodemográfico e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática e geraram duas categorias principais: relacionamentos LAT permanente e provisório. Os subtemas comuns às duas categorias foram conjugalidade, coparentalidade e suporte social. O desejo de coabitar mostrou-se presente somente na configuração LAT provisório e nenhum casal reportou experiência de preconceito contra seu tipo de relacionamento.


Couples who living apart together (LAT) represent a new marital relationship, different from the traditional. The aim of this study was to investigate some LAT couples' marital relationships in the north of Rio Grande do Sul. Qualitative and exploratory research was designed with a convenience sample. We interviewed five couples with a sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The material was submitted to thematic analysis, which results in two main categories: LAT relationships that are permanent and transitory. Common subthemes to both categories were conjugality, co-parenthood, and social support. The desire for cohabitation was present only in transitory LAT configuration and no couple reported experience of prejudice against their relationship.


Parejas que viven en residencias separadas (LAT - Living Apart Together) representan una configuración conyugal distinta de la tradicional. Este estudio objetivó investigar la configuración conyugal de dos parejas LAT al norte del estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa y exploratoria en un muestreo por conveniencia y se entrevistó cinco parejas, con un cuestionario sociodemográfico y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Un análisis temático mostró la presencia de dos tipos de relaciones de pareja LAT, el permanente y el transitorio. Subtemas comunes a las categorías fueron configuración conyugal, coparentalidad y suporte social. El deseo de cohabitación estuvo presente solamente en la configuración LAT transitoria y ninguna de las parejas reportaron experiencias de prejuicio.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Preconceito , Características da Família , Saúde da Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terapia de Casal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Relações Familiares
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poor housing conditions have been linked with worse health outcomes and infectious disease spread. Since the relationship of poor housing conditions with incidence and mortality of COVID-19 is unknown, we investigated the association between poor housing condition and COVID-19 incidence and mortality in US counties. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of county-level data from the US Centers for Disease Control, US Census Bureau and John Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center for 3135 US counties. The exposure of interest was percentage of households with poor housing conditions (one or greater of: overcrowding, high housing cost, incomplete kitchen facilities, or incomplete plumbing facilities). Outcomes were incidence rate ratios (IRR) and mortality rate ratios (MRR) of COVID-19 across US counties through 4/21/2020. Multilevel generalized linear modeling (with total population of each county as a denominator) was utilized to estimate relative risk of incidence and mortality related to poor housing conditions with adjustment for population density and county characteristics including demographics, income, education, prevalence of medical comorbidities, access to healthcare insurance and emergency rooms, and state-level COVID-19 test density. We report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and mortality ratios (MRRs) for a 5% increase in prevalence in households with poor housing conditions. RESULTS: Across 3135 US counties, the mean percentage of households with poor housing conditions was 14.2% (range 2.7% to 60.2%). On April 21st, the mean (SD) number of cases and deaths of COVID-19 were 255.68 (2877.03) cases and 13.90 (272.22) deaths per county, respectively. In the adjusted models standardized by county population, with each 5% increase in percent households with poor housing conditions, there was a 50% higher risk of COVID-19 incidence (IRR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.38-1.62) and a 42% higher risk of COVID-19 mortality (MRR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25-1.61). Results remained similar using earlier timepoints (3/31/2020 and 4/10/2020). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Counties with a higher percentage of households with poor housing had higher incidence of, and mortality associated with, COVID-19. These findings suggest targeted health policies to support individuals living in poor housing conditions should be considered in further efforts to mitigate adverse outcomes associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 814, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthrax is the second most highly prioritized zoonotic disease in Ethiopia due to its negative impact at the household level, causing disease and production losses in livestock and severe disease in humans. This study seeks to assess the knowledge of, attitudes towards, and practices addressing (KAPs) anthrax in the communities of Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted concurrently with focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) between May 2019 and April 2020. A total of 862 respondents participated in the questionnaire survey. Of these, 800 were local community members while 62 were professionals working at health service institutions. In addition, qualitative data were collected using six FGDs and 11 KIIs. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent (496/800) of the community respondents said that they were aware of anthrax while 38% (304/800) of them did not. Only 9.3% (74/800) of the respondents reported that the causative agent of anthrax is germs/microbial. About 56.5% (35/62) of professional respondents said that it is bacterial. More than 60% (64.1%, 513/800) of the respondents did not know that whether the disease was zoonotic or not. Regarding clinical signs, 26.3 (210/800) and 36.8% (294/800) of the respondents could identify at least one in animals and humans, respectively, while 21.3 (170/800) and 20.1% (161/800) knew one or more transmission routes in animals and humans, respectively. Moreover, 43.4% (347/800) and 45.6% (365/800) of the respondents mentioned one or more control/prevention method(s) in animals and humans, respectively. Regarding qualitative results, some of the participants knew the disease (in animals) by their local names: Lalish and Tafia (splenomegaly), and Gulbus (abdominal cramps and shivering). Some reported that anthrax was exclusively a human disease while others recognized its zoonotic potential after the clinical signs in both animals and humans were listed. CONCLUSION: The KAP of the participants regarding anthrax was low. There was no consistent understanding of the disease among the participants. The study also revealed that the participants did not receive consistent, adequate, and continuous education regarding the disease.


Assuntos
Antraz/psicologia , Conscientização , Bacillus anthracis , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Zoonoses/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antraz/epidemiologia , Antraz/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174962

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first officially described in Brazil on February 26th, 2020. The accumulation of reports of concomitant infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and pathogens that cause diseases endemic to tropical countries, such as dengue and chikungunya fever, has started to draw attention. Chagas disease and leprosy remain public health problems in many developing countries, such as Brazil. In this manuscript, we describe a case of concomitant leprosy, Chagas disease, and COVID-19, highlighting the cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the clinical behavior of household contacts who previously received prophylactic Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hanseníase Dimorfa/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Características da Família , Humanos , Pandemias
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153082

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety symptoms) among the general population of Hong Kong and migrant Filipina domestic helpers (FDHs). Having to live with the employers by law, FDHs' working environment might affect their well-being during COVID-19 (e.g., household crowdedness/size, insufficiency of protective equipment against COVID-19, increased workload). Research has suggested that coping resources (e.g., social support, COVID-19-related information literacy) and COVID-19-specific worries are associated with people's well-being during COVID-19. This study examined the psychosocial correlates of probable anxiety among FDHs in Hong Kong amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By purposive sampling, FDHs (n = 295) were recruited and invited to complete a cross-sectional survey. Participants' working environment (crowdedness, household size), COVID-19 job arrangements (workload, provision of protective equipment), coping resources (social support, COVID-19 information literacy), COVID-19-specific worries (contracting COVID-19, getting fired if contracting COVID-19), and anxiety symptoms were measured. Multivariate regression results showed that the insufficiency of protective equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.18, 2.11), increased workload (OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.02, 2.25), and worries about being fired if getting COVID-19 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.68) were significantly associated with probable anxiety. This was one of the earliest studies to indicate that job arrangements and COVID-19-specific worries significantly contributed to FDHs' anxiety symptoms. Our findings shed light on the importance of addressing employment-related rights and pandemic-specific worries through interventions among FDHs in Hong Kong during pandemic situations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Aglomeração , Características da Família , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filipinas/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181874

RESUMO

The 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) has wreaked havoc on countries, communities and households. Its effect on individuals and their families, although enormous, has not been adequately explored. We thus present a report on the illness experiences of three families in Ghana who had at least one member diagnosed with COVID-19. We interviewed them and recorded their commonest fears, such as death, stigmatisation and collapse of family business. Respondents had a fair idea about symptoms of COVID-19, mode of transmission and safety precautions. Family separation and loss of income were some of the adverse effects expressed. Majority of them were hopeful that family members with COVID-19 would recover and be reunited. The biopsychosocial impact of COVID-19 is tremendous and family physicians and other primary care workers have an essential role to play in addressing this.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Emoções , Características da Família , Família , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Medo , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Esperança , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 171-178, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and subsequent quarantine could raise the risk of food inadequacy and nutrition deficiency crises. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on household food security in Jordan, determined the percentage of food security and the levels of food insecurity during the quarantine, determined the associated factor with food insecurity, and determined main food groups associated with FINS during the quarantine. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a Web-based validated questionnaire. The Food Insecurity Experience Scale was used to measure the food insecurity during the first four weeks of the quarantine, and a modified food consumption score was used to determine the number of times the household consumes each food group. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to describe, explore, and predict risk factors correlated with food insecurity among Jordanians, during the first four weeks of the quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 3129 Jordanians had responded to the assessment and fully answered the questionnaire. 23.1% of the total participants were severe food insecure, while 36.1% were moderate food insecure, 40.7% were food secure. The regression model demonstrated the monthly income per capita below the poverty line and a number of the family member (1-4 and 5-7) associated significantly with moderate food insecurity (OR: 5.33; 95% CI: 4.44-6.40, OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.86, OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98, respectively). As well as with the severe food insecurity (OR: 6.87; 95% CI: 5.542-8.512, OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37-0.74, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.87, respectively). Age 18-30 years old (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.23-2.65) and living in a rented house (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.69) were associated significantly with severe food insecurity. Carbohydrates and the meat group were significantly related to food insecurity (p-value was <0.001 for both groups). CONCLUSION: Covid-19 and its subsequent quarantine have a tangible impact on food security levels for the populations. Awareness and strategies to support individuals at higher risks should be guided not only by the income but also by other risk factors identified in the present study as the number of persons in the family, younger adults (18-30 years old), and those who do not own their houses).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Família , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193957

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause uncertainty to Uganda's food security among underprivileged households. The Corona virus Response Team inaugurated a relief food distribution campaign, ensuing from the countrywide COVID-19 lockdown to counter the rising food insecurities in many urban and rural poor households. However, the relief response campaign has received a lot of critics from both rural and urban communities who were planned as the beneficiaries. Three months into the COVID-19 pandemic the population reports; delays in the distribution, poor quality supplies, arrests and continued restrictions, slow paced distribution among household, and a negative impact on the health care system. As a learning from the current experience, we recommend; a multisectoral engagement, better planning, a decentralized food distribution, and formulation of clear food distribution guidelines to guide the future responses. Use of mobile cash transfers to reach out to the food insecure households can support local economies and lower the cost on middlemen and interrelated corruption.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Assistência Alimentar/organização & administração , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , População Rural , Uganda/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1631-1634, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151916

RESUMO

Improved understanding of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), within households could aid control measures. However, few studies have systematically characterized the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in U.S. households (1). Previously reported transmission rates vary widely, and data on transmission rates from children are limited. To assess household transmission, a case-ascertained study was conducted in Nashville, Tennessee, and Marshfield, Wisconsin, commencing in April 2020. In this study, index patients were defined as the first household members with COVID-19-compatible symptoms who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test result, and who lived with at least one other household member. After enrollment, index patients and household members were trained remotely by study staff members to complete symptom diaries and obtain self-collected specimens, nasal swabs only or nasal swabs and saliva samples, daily for 14 days. For this analysis, specimens from the first 7 days were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using CDC RT-PCR protocols.† A total of 191 enrolled household contacts of 101 index patients reported having no symptoms on the day of the associated index patient's illness onset, and among these 191 contacts, 102 had SARS-CoV-2 detected in either nasal or saliva specimens during follow-up, for a secondary infection rate of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46%-60%). Among fourteen households in which the index patient was aged <18 years, the secondary infection rate from index patients aged <12 years was 53% (95% CI = 31%-74%) and from index patients aged 12-17 years was 38% (95% CI = 23%-56%). Approximately 75% of secondary infections were identified within 5 days of the index patient's illness onset, and substantial transmission occurred whether the index patient was an adult or a child. Because household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is common and can occur rapidly after the index patient's illness onset, persons should self-isolate immediately at the onset of COVID-like symptoms, at the time of testing as a result of a high risk exposure, or at the time of a positive test result, whichever comes first. Concurrent to isolation, all members of the household should wear a mask when in shared spaces in the household.§.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Características da Família , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psicothema ; 32(4): 501-507, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pandemic disaster has specific effects on mental health, however, little is known about those specific effects in children and adolescents. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a sample of children and adolescents and to compare the results with previous national data and other studies to determine variations. METHOD: A total of 459 children and adolescents in residential care, foster families, kinship families, or family strengthening programs under SOS Children's Villages Spain were evaluated using the SDQ to measure internalizing and externalizing problems and using KIDSCREEN-10 index to measure heath related quality of life. An independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA and the chi-square test were used. RESULTS: The children and adolescents in this study had worse psychological wellbeing than those in the 2017 Spanish reference, that is, before the COVID-19 outbreak. Quality of life remained the same. No differences between care modalities were found. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to monitor the mental health status of children and adolescents to prevent possible problems. Additionally, it is necessary to use well-known assessment instruments because it is essential to have a reference to other situations and populations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Criança Adotada/psicologia , Criança Acolhida/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Adolescente , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Instituições Residenciais , Espanha , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240709, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064771

RESUMO

At present nearly half of the world's population is under some form of government restriction to curb the spread of COVID-19, an extremely contagious disease. In Bangladesh, in the wake of five deaths and 48 infections from COVID-19, between March 24 and May 30, 2020, the government imposed a nationwide lockdown. While this lockdown restricted the spread of COVID-19, in the absence of effective support, it can generate severe food and nutrition insecurity for daily wage-based workers. Of the 61 million employed labor force in Bangladesh, nearly 35% of them are paid on a daily basis. This study examines the food security and welfare impacts of the COVID-19 induced lockdown on daily wage workers both in the farm and nonfarm sectors in Bangladesh. Using information from more than 50,000 respondents complied with the 2016-17 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) in Bangladesh, this study estimates daily wage rates as Bangladesh Taka (BDT) 272.2 in the farm sector and BDT 361.5 in the nonfarm sector. Using the estimated daily wage earnings, this study estimates that a one-day complete lockdown generates a US$64.2 million equivalent economic loss only considering the wage loss of the daily wage workers. After estimating the daily per capita food expenditure separately for farm and nonfarm households, this study estimates a minimum compensation package for the daily wage-based farm and nonfarm households around the US $ 1 per day per household to ensure minimum food security for the daily wage-based worker households.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política Pública/economia , Quarentena/economia , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pobreza , Quarentena/métodos , Salários e Benefícios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239576, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113548

RESUMO

In the global context, health and the quality of life of people are adversely affected by either one or more types of chronic diseases. This paper investigates the differences in the level of income and expenditure between chronically-ill people and non-chronic population. Data were gathered from a national level survey conducted namely, the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) by the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) of Sri Lanka. These data were statistically analysed with one-way and two-way ANOVA, to identify the factors that cause the differences among different groups. For the first time, this study makes an attempt using survey data, to examine the differences in the level of income and expenditure among chronically-ill people in Sri Lanka. Accordingly, the study discovered that married females who do not engage in any type of economic activity (being unemployed due to the disability associated with the respective chronic illness), in the age category of 40-65, having an educational level of tertiary education or below and living in the urban sector have a higher likelihood of suffering from chronic diseases. If workforce population is compelled to lose jobs, it can lead to income insecurity and impair their quality of lives. Under above findings, it is reasonable to assume that most health care expenses are out of pocket. Furthermore, the study infers that chronic illnesses have a statistically proven significant differences towards the income and expenditure level. This has caused due to the interaction of demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with chronic illnesses. Considering private-public sector partnerships that enable affordable access to health care services for all as well as implementation of commercial insurance and community-based mutual services that help ease burden to the public, are vital when formulating effective policies and strategies related to the healthcare sector. Sri Lanka is making strong efforts to support its healthcare sector and public, which was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) in early 2020. Therefore, findings of this paper will be useful to gain insights on the differences of chronic illnesses towards the income and expenditure of chronically-ill patients in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica/economia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Indigência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Phys Biol ; 17(6): 065010, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085650

RESUMO

Shelter-in-place and other confinement strategies implemented in the current COVID-19 pandemic have created stratified patterns of contacts between people: close contacts within households and more distant contacts between the households. The epidemic transmission dynamics is significantly modified as a consequence. We introduce a minimal model that incorporates these household effects in the framework of mean-field theory and numerical simulations. We show that the reproduction number R 0 depends on the household size in a surprising way: linearly for relatively small households, and as a square root of size for larger households. We discuss the implications of the findings for the lockdown, test, tracing, and isolation policies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Características da Família , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085714

RESUMO

Random population-based surveys to estimate prevalence of SARS-CoV2 infection causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are useful to understand distributions and predictors of the infection. In April 2020, the first-ever nationally representative survey in Canada polled 4,240 adults age 18 years and older about self-reported COVID experience in March, early in the epidemic. We examined the levels and predictors of COVID symptoms, defined as fever plus difficulty breathing/shortness of breath, dry cough so severe that it disrupts sleep, and/or loss of sense of smell; and testing for SARS-CoV-2 by respondents and/or household members. About 8% of Canadians reported that they and/or one or more household members experienced COVID symptoms. Symptoms were more common in younger than in older adults, and among visible minorities. Overall, only 3% of respondents and/or household members reported testing for SARS-CoV-2. Being tested was associated with having COVID symptoms, Indigenous identity, and living in Quebec. Periodic nationally representative surveys of symptoms, as well as SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, are required in many countries to understand the pandemic and prepare for the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(10): E898-903, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103654

RESUMO

The disproportionate negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Native communities is a result of transgenerational traumas-mental and physical-which have been ongoing and developing for centuries. This article considers 19th-century American visual and narrative representations of Native experiences of and responses to transgenerational trauma. This article also suggests ethical implications for Native American health of interpreting those representations and suggests an obligation to look on 19th-century White American artists' romanticizations of Native experiences with humility.


Assuntos
Arte , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Trauma Histórico/complicações , Historiografia , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Saúde da População , Violência , Arte/história , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Trauma Histórico/etnologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Narração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos , Violência/ética , Violência/história , Violência/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0236905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119712

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although Thailand has been fairly effective at controlling the spread of COVID-19, continued disease surveillance and information on antibody response in recovered patients and their close contacts remain necessary in the absence of approved vaccines and antivirals. Here, we examined 217 recovered COVID-19 patients to assess their viral RNA shedding and residual antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. We also evaluated antibodies in blood samples from 308 close contacts of recovered COVID-19 patients. We found that viral RNA remained detectable in 6.6% of recovered COVID-19 cases and up to 105 days. IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 13.8%, 88.5%, and 83.4% of the recovered cases 4-12 weeks after disease onset, respectively. Higher levels of antibodies detected were associated with severe illness patients experienced while hospitalized. Fifteen of the 308 contacts (4.9%) of COVID-19 cases tested positive for IgG antibodies, suggesting probable exposure. Viral clearance and the pattern of antibody responses in infected individuals are both crucial for effectively combating SARS-CoV-2. Our study provides additional information on the natural history of this newly emerging disease related to both natural host defenses and antibody duration.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sobreviventes , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Tailândia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 760, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A more stringent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion (from negative to positive) definition has been proposed to allow more definite detection of recent tuberculosis (TB) infection. We explored alternative conversion definitions to assist the interpretation of serial QFT results and estimate incidence of TB infection in a large cohort study. METHODS: We used QFT serial results from TB household contacts aged ≥15 years, collected at baseline and during two follow-up visits (2006-2011) as part of a cohort study in 24 communities in Zambia and South Africa (SA). Conversion rates using the manufacturers' definition (interferon-gamma (IFN-g) < 0.35 to ≥0.35, 'def1') were compared with stricter definitions (IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥0.7 IU/ml, 'def2'; IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥1.05 IU/ml, 'def3'; IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥1.4 IU/ml, 'def4'). Poisson regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred sixty-five individuals in Zambia and 822 in SA had QFT results available. Among HIV-negative individuals, the QFT conversion rate was 27.4 per 100 person-years (CI:22.9-32.6) using def1, 19.0 using def2 (CI:15.2-23.7), 14.7 using def3 (CI:11.5-18.8), and 12.0 using def4 (CI:9.2-15.7). Relative differences across def1-def4 were similar in Zambia and SA. Using def1, conversion was less likely if HIV positive not on antiretroviral treatment compared to HIV negative (aRR = 0.7, 95%CI = 0.4-0.9), in analysis including both countries. The same direction of associations were found using def 2-4. CONCLUSION: High conversion rates were found even with the strictest definition, indicating high incidence of TB infection among household contacts of TB patients in these communities. The trade-off between sensitivity and specificity using different thresholds of QFT conversion remains unknown due to the absence of a reference standard. However, we identified boundaries within which an appropriate definition might fall, and our strictest definition plausibly has high specificity.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante , Características da Família , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
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