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1.
Waste Manag ; 104: 139-147, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978832

RESUMO

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is an emergent unknown environmental problem, linked to increased production and consumption of pharmaceuticals and, as such, understanding risk perception is fundamental. This study focuses on exploring causes (trust and knowledge) and effects (intention and proper individual disposal of pharmaceutical leftovers) of environmental and health risk perception. Survey data was collected in Portugal, Spain, and France (sample of 509 individuals). Data illustrated that in France, where the quantity of recycled pharmaceuticals is much higher, respondents reported a higher need for knowledge, but not a higher risk perception nor self-reported behaviour. Although previous research illustrates that higher trust correlates with lower risk perception, we found a positive correlation, which highlights the need to comprehend these variables in emergent risks. Results further confirmed a hypothesized moderated mediation model to explain proper disposal behaviour. We found an indirect effect of risk perception on behaviour through intention, which was stronger for participants with higher environmental identity. Understanding the causes and effects of risk perception of pharmaceuticals in the environment thereby contributes to improve pharmaceutical waste management processes and to promote the proper disposal of pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Europa (Continente) , França , Humanos , Portugal , Espanha
2.
Waste Manag ; 104: 246-253, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986446

RESUMO

Proper collection and disposal of pharmaceutical waste from households can reduce the negative influence of medicines on the environment. The aim of this paper is to examine the current methods of disposal of unused medicines from households, as well as the willingness of Serbian residents to participate and bear the costs of an organized collection program. Moreover, this research aims to define factors contributing to an individual's willingness to participate and pay for a medicine collection program. The survey included randomly selected patients older than 18 years visiting private pharmacies in the four largest Serbian cities. The questionnaire included information regarding the presence of unwanted medicines within the household, general medicine disposal practices, the likelihood to participate in a medicine take-back program, willingness to pay for a medicine disposal program (per prescription and per visit), importance to the environment, and demographic variables from participants. Approximately 80% of surveyed respondents are very or somewhat likely to participate, however less than half of the respondents are willing to pay for the collection of their unused medicines. The factors that influenced willingness to participate are environmental awareness and income, while the factors affecting willingness to pay, are previously received advice about proper disposal, education level, number of unwanted medicines in the household and gender. The majority of Serbian people dispose unused medicines improperly, mostly into household garbage. Well-organized and easily accessible collection programs are essential in order to enable the general public to return unused medicines for proper disposal.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Cidades , Características da Família , Humanos , Sérvia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939501

RESUMO

The distribution of harms to health varies spatially determined by the socioeconomic conditions of the environment. This research aimed to assess the spatial distribution of dental caries in 12-year-old children and their correlation with socioeconomic indicators in Brazilian states. The sample of this ecological study comprised all the 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District. Thematic and correlation maps were constructed in order to assess the spatial dependency, as well as the correlation between dental caries and socioeconomic factors. The results showed that the states with the worst DMFT indexes were located in the north and northeast, showing spatial autocorrelation. These regions also had the worst results for the following variables: poverty, illiteracy, education, and income. The bivariate analysis showed that household income and education level had negative spatial correlation with the DMFT index, while illiteracy and poverty rates showed positive correlation. Despite advances in the decline of DMFT index in recent years, there is still an inequity in the distribution of the caries disease.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 109966, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989958

RESUMO

Many developing countries are transitioning to integrated solid waste management systems that will likely have a recycling component for making them sustainable. There are several approaches to recycling, one being waste separation at the household level. Such an approach relies critically on the willingness of households to engage in source-separation. Many studies on recycling have been based on self-reported information on the willingness of households to participate in recycling programmes, should they be established; only few studies have been able to test what these intentions are by actual measurements of participation. The type of measurement for gauging success should be able to compare achievements against alternative approaches. This study is of particular interest to transitioning countries because it reports on a recycling programme in a small community that, even though voluntary in nature, has so far been sustained for almost three years. Available data on the amount of recycled beverage containers retrieved over a six-month period was analysed to assess the performance of the programme. A survey of households was performed among the community to understand the factors that may be contributing to such longevity. It was found that a major driver is the internal motivation of most of the community households for caring and preserving the environment. This is a necessary but not sufficient requirement, for it is doubtful whether the programme could have been sustained without an effective education programme and a system to make the process of retrieval easy. The education programme importantly linked recycling as a solution to an environmental problem plaguing the community. Moreover, the improvement in the environmental quality once the programme started was positive feedback to their recycling efforts. However, the ease at which recycled items could have been deposited was found to be the most essential factor. Inasmuch as the quantity of retrievals was a measure of the continued interest in recycling, a reliable estimate of the achieved fraction of beverage waste retrieval rates could not have been obtained with the most recent national waste characterization information. The reasons for this are explained.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Características da Família , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 18(1): 3-16, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941877

RESUMO

AIM: To synthesize the literature on the influence of family/parents characteristics on periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. METHODS: An electronic search for relevant literature published between 2007 and 2017 was undertaken in PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and Cochrane databases; the search was updated in April 2018. Two reviewers independently reviewed the abstracts of these; of which, 43 articles were reviewed in full. RESULTS: Of the 746 retrieved titles, 649 remained after removing duplicates. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria, and 13 were excluded. Also, two were included from the updated search. Data from the reviewed articles indicate that all three indicators of parent's socioeconomic status (income, education and occupation) are significantly associated with periodontal diseases in children. Better periodontal status was observed in children of parents with higher SES than those whose parents were of lower SES. Although the association between parent's smoking practices, level of periodontal diseases and children's periodontal status was explored only in few studies, findings indicate that children exposed to passive smoking and having parents with periodontal diseases are more likely to present with periodontal diseases as well. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the studies considered socioeconomic factors and had not attempted to explore the impact of parental psychosocial variables on periodontal diseases in children. The literature indicates that these variables significantly influence health practices, including oral hygiene practices, which could ultimately affect periodontal health. More studies are required to explore the association of these variables with periodontal outcomes in children.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Doenças Periodontais , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Pais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Ambio ; 49(1): 281-298, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852779

RESUMO

The main determinants of agricultural employment are related to households' access to private assets and the influence of inherited social-economic stratification and power relationships. However, despite the recommendations of rural studies which have shown the importance of multilevel approaches to rural poverty, very few studies have explored quantitatively the effects of common-pool resources and household livelihood capitals on agricultural employment. Understanding the influence of access to both common-pool resources and private assets on rural livelihoods can enrich our understanding of the drivers of rural poverty in agrarian societies, which is central to achieving sustainable development pathways. Based on a participatory assessment conducted in rural communities in India, this paper differentiates two levels of livelihood capitals (household capitals and community capitals) and quantifies them using national census data and remotely sensed satellite sensor data. We characterise the effects of these two levels of livelihood capitals on precarious agricultural employment by using multilevel logistic regression. Our study brings a new perspective on livelihood studies and rural economics by demonstrating that common-pool resources and private assets do not have the same effect on agricultural livelihoods. It identifies that a lack of access to human, financial and social capitals at the household level increases the levels of precarious agricultural employment, such as daily-wage agricultural labour. Households located in communities with greater access to collective natural capital are less likely to be agricultural labourers. The statistical models also show that proximity to rural centres and access to financial infrastructures increase the likelihood of being a landless agricultural labourer. These findings suggest that investment in rural infrastructure might increase livelihood vulnerability, if not accompanied by an improvement in the provisioning of complementary rural services, such as access to rural finance, and by the implementation of agricultural tenancy laws to protect smallholders' productive assets.


Assuntos
Pobreza , População Rural , Agricultura , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Emprego , Características da Família , Humanos , Índia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134403, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678873

RESUMO

One of the key challenges noted in the sustainable development goals for good health and wellbeing (SDGs 3) is both ambient and household air pollution. Household solid fuel combustion represents one of the biggest threat to human health in South Africa. This study helps to understand the impact of solid fuel burning in an indoor and ambient environment. Continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM4) was carried out in two houses, one used coal as a primary source of energy, while the other did not. For solid fuel burning (SFB) house the winter PM4 average 24-h concentration ranges between 60.9 µg m-3 and 207.5 µg m-3 while at non-solid fuel burning (NSFB) house it ranges between 15.3 µg m-3 and 84.2 µg m-3. In both houses, the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5 (40 µg m-3) were exceeded during winter. The summer PM4 levels ranged between 17.4 µg m-3 and 36.6 µg m-3 in the solid fuel burning house and between 14.2 µg m-3 and 39.9 µg m-3 at the non-solid fuel-burning house. During mornings and evenings, indoor concentrations were higher than the outdoor; these periods coincide with the fuel-burning pattern in this community. In the mid-afternoon, the outdoor PM levels sometimes went higher than the indoor levels, perhaps as a result of the pollution from the power plants in the neighbourhood. Using the linear regression model, there were no significant correlations between indoor/outdoor PM4 concentrations during the winter, but there were good correlations for both houses during the summer. There was an observed difference in the thermal comfort at the SFB and NSFB. The temperature at SFB went below the World Health Organisation standard in winter and above during the summer while at NSFB, the temperature was managed within the standard in both seasons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Carvão Mineral , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Poluição do Ar , Culinária , Características da Família , Calefação , Humanos , Centrais Elétricas , Estações do Ano , África do Sul , Madeira
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122319, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689612

RESUMO

A kind of reduced graphene oxide decorated with titanium-based (RGO/TiO2) composites are successfully synthesized and employed in this current study as a novel nonprecious metal catalyst for enhancing bioelectricity generation and cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Compared with commercial Pt/C, RGO/TiO2 shows obviously enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity due to the appropriately-permeated, large electrochemical active area, enough exposure of electrocatalytic active sites of RGO/TiO2. The air-cathode MFC with RGO/TiO2-1 cathode achieves 1786.7 mW m-3 of power density, 86.7% ±â€¯1.2% of COD removal and 31.6% ±â€¯1.1% of CE, which are higher than commercial Pt/C. Moreover, RGO/TiO2-1 cathode exhibits high-effective electrocatalytic activity, and the power density of RGO/TiO2-1 can keep a stable level and only has a minor decline (5.35%) during 30-cycles operation. These results indicate that RGO/TiO2-1 is a potential cathode catalyst, markedly enhancing cathode ORR, wastewater treatment efficiency, and bioelectricity generation of MFC.


Assuntos
Oxigênio , Titânio , Eletrodos , Características da Família , Grafite
9.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109807, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733472

RESUMO

This study explored willingness of households to adopt a greywater treatment and reuse system using the theory of planned behaviour in its original form and an extended model including personal norms. The study was conducted among 478 household heads in the central region of Ghana. The results indicate the original theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model explained about 54% of the variance in respondents' intentions to adopt this system and the extended model which includes personal norms explained 59% of the intentions. The extended model turned out to be the better model to predict willingness to adopt this household greywater and treatment system. The findings of this study shed more light on the role of personal norms in households' willingness to adopt a greywater treatment and reuse system and may inform interventions aimed at promoting such systems.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Teoria Psicológica , Características da Família , Gana , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122350, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744666

RESUMO

This study investigates the performance of a pyrite-based constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (PCW-MFC) in chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate (NO3--N), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), and total phosphorus (TP) removal and bioelectricity generation, and explores the mechanisms involved. Four microcosms were used: a constructed wetland (CW), a pyrite-based constructed wetland (PCW), a constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC), and a PCW-MFC. After 180 days' operation, the PCW-MFC exhibited enhanced simultaneous nitrate and phosphorus removal and bioelectricity output. The maximum COD, NO3--N, TIN, and TP removal efficiencies in the PCW-MFC were 71.9%, 70.1%, 63.2%, and 91.2%, respectively, for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 h. The mean bioelectricity output of the PCW-MFC was 19.0-28.4% higher than that of the CW-MFC. The nitrate removal rate constant of the PCW-MFC was 1.04 d-1, which is significantly higher than those of the others. Geobacter and sulfate-reducing bacteria were enriched in the PCW-MFC.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletrodos , Características da Família , Ferro , Fósforo , Sulfetos , Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas
11.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109679, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787365

RESUMO

This study presents a methodology designed for selecting, from an environmental point of view, the best end-of-life scenario for electric and electronic equipment which breaks before the end of its life span. To this end, the environmental impact of the life cycle of the equipment is evaluated for two different end-of-life scenarios: repair & reuse vs. replacement. As a case study, the proposed methodology is applied to a representative sample of nine categories of small household electric and electronic equipment (120 appliances). Repair & reuse scenarios consider the life span and the typical failures and repairs associated with each electric and electronic equipment category and the use of the repaired equipment until the remaining life span after its breakage. Replacement scenarios also consider the life span associated to each electric and electronic equipment category and the replacement of the broken equipment by an equivalent during the remaining life span after its breakage. The environmental impact obtained for both scenarios for each small household electric and electronic equipment category is compared in order to identify the best end-of-life scenario. To do so, the life cycle assessment methodology is applied, using CML and ReCiPe as midpoint- and endpoint-impact assessment methods, respectively. The results indicate that for all the analysed categories, the repair & reuse scenarios generally prove environmentally better than replacement scenarios, as Directive 2012/19/EU promotes. However, for some types of failure, e.g. those related to motors or printed circuit boards, if the failure occurs at the end of its life span, replacement is a better option than repair & reuse, since the environmental impact of the repair activities is not offset by the environmental benefits of extending the useful life until the end of the life span.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Eletrônica , Meio Ambiente , Características da Família
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803340

RESUMO

Introduction: Estimation of dog population is relevant in Animal Health Planning; some of the benefits include rabies control and possible elimination, estimation of quantity of dog vaccines and drugs required in the state, policy development and implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the population of dogs in Nasarawa state; a local government area (LGA) was randomly selected from each of the three senatorial districts and two wards were selected randomly from the selected LGA's. Three hundred and thirteen questionnaires were administered through face to face interview with dog owners and their dogs in view. Results: Analysis indicated 97.7% of the dogs were local breeds, 1.7% mixed and 0.3% exotic breeds. Guard dogs were 77% and 23% were used for hunting. Majority of the dogs (67.5%) were owned/stray while 32.5% were owned/confined. In Nasarawa state, 21% of the dogs were vaccinated and 79% had no vaccination history. The low vaccination rate indicates possible threat to animal and human health; hunting dogs are possible source of rabies introduction into their immediate communities from contact with wild reservoirs of the virus. Majority of dogs were between 1-5 years (73%) and more female dogs (52.5%) than males (47.5%) were reported. The dog to household ratio was 1.1:1 while the dog to human ratio is 1.1:6. Estimated number of dogs in Nasarawa state was 462,586 dogs. Conclusion: Proper sensitization of dog owners on annual antirabies vaccination against rabies in dogs and postexposure prophylaxis in humans is recommended. The local authorities should institute effective measures for the control of stray dogs to prevent the risk of dog bites and other environmental hazards posed by such dogs. The state government should enact and enforce laws on responsible dog ownership to include compulsory annual vaccination of all dogs. This exercise should be replicated in other states of the federation for a comprehensive national dog ecological data necessary for planning, policy development and implementation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Raiva/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/veterinária
13.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 8(1): 87, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mixture of public vs. private financing of the healthcare system has important fiscal and economic welfare implications. The consequences of this mixture for access to health services and for equity have become highly debated policy issues. In the first decade of 2000s, Israel experienced a continuous upward trend in the proportion of private financing, reaching a peak of 37-38%, which has subsequently leveled off. The 38% level is significantly higher than the 26% average across the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. MAIN TEXT: A recent paper by Tur-Sinai et al. in this journal shows that private spending by Israelis on health care is positively related to the income of individuals and to the socioeconomic status of their place of residence. This commentary draws attention to studies that integrate into one model both demand-side and supply-side determinants of private expenditures on healthcare. It also discusses inequity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the financing of national health expenditures in Israel is slightly regressive, but the progressivity of public financing is almost enough to offset the regressive effect of out-of-pocket payments and payments for voluntary complementary insurance.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Gastos em Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Características da Família , Humanos , Israel
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762907

RESUMO

Introduction: Poor urban communities are likely to bear the brunt of climate change impacts on health and well-being. The City of Johannesburg, South Africa, is predicted to experience an average increase in ambient temperature of 4°C by 2100. Focusing on the urban environment, this study aimed to determine socio-economic, infrastructural and health-related risk factors for heat-related adverse health effects. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data of interest were collected using a pretested and validated questionnaire administered to parents of children attending schools participating in a school heat study. Information related to demographic, socio-economic and household-level determinants of health, which has an impact on the individual prevalence of adverse heat-health effects associated with hot weather, was collected for 136 households and 580 individuals. Results: Sweating (n = 208 individuals; 35%), headache and nausea (n = 111; 19%) and weakness, fatigue and dizziness (n = 87; 15%) were the most common heat-health effects reportedly experienced by individuals (n = 580) during hot weather. Individuals who suffered from hypertension (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.34 - 4.05, p = 0.003) and individuals older than 60 years (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-1.99, p < 0.001) compared to other age groups were more likely to experience 'any heat-health effects'. Living in government-sponsored detached housing and in houses with asbestos roofs were associated with an increase in reported experience of 'any heat-health effects' compared to living in other housing types. Conclusion: Heat-health awareness campaigns should target people suffering from pre-existing diseases and the elderly, as these groups are especially vulnerable to heat. Focus should also be given to appropriate roofing and insulation in government-sponsored housing since summertime temperatures are projected to increase.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 693, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667634

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollutants and heat stress from traditional cooking fires is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries globally and have an adverse effect on the environment. According to the World Health Organization, 3.8 million people die annually prematurely from illness related to household air pollution. Families living in poverty are at the highest risk, especially women and children. In this study, exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was measured among resource-poor women cassava processors. The test locations were chosen in the peri-urban settlements of Abeokuta in the Ogun State of Nigeria, where household women entrepreneurs roast garri (granulated cassava) for sale in the local market. The measurements were taken for two types of stoves which are generally existing in the study location. First, a rectangular stove (RS) with two operators and, second, a circular stove (CS) with one operator; both stoves used wood as fuel. The emissions were compared with a modern mechanical liquefied petroleum gas burner-based garri roaster (GS). Hours spent per day in front of garri stoves ranged from 6 to 12 h for both stoves, with a frequency of 1 to 3 days of operation per week. It was found that CS operators were spending significantly more time in producing garri, which is due to the low capacity of the CS. The average PM2.5 concentrations for RS and CS were 381 and 273 µg/m3, respectively, estimated to be 21 and 41 µg/m3 on an annual mean level basis. Similarly, for PM10, the mean concentration levels were 1580 and 594 µg/m3 for RS and CS, respectively. The annual mean levels for PM10 were about 89 µg/m3 for both types of stoves. CO exposure during garri processing was up to five times higher than the recommended concentrations with a 4-h mean of 48 and 50 mg/m3 for RS and CS, respectively. NO2 levels were very low, ~ 0 ppm. This investigative research concluded that wood-fired small-scale garri producers in Nigeria are exposed to very unhealthy levels of PM, CO and thermal stress. The concentration levels of both PM and CO were exceeding the global as well as Nigerian ambient air quality standard regulations. Along with air pollution, thermal stress was a significant issue, which is known to exacerbate the negative effect of air pollution on the human body.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Manihot , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Feminino , Fogo , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Nigéria , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise , Madeira/química
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1517, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health and well-being of military spouses directly contribute to a robust military force by enabling the spouse to better support the active duty member's career. In order to understand the overall health and well-being of military spouses, we assessed health indicators among military spouses using the Healthy People 2020 framework and examined associations of these health indicators with military experiences and psychosocial factors. METHODS: Using data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored survey of 9872 spouses of service members with 2-5 years of military service, we examined attainment of Healthy People 2020 goals for spouses and service members, including healthy weight, exercise, sleep, and alcohol and tobacco use. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed associations of spouse health indicators with stressful military life experiences and social support, adjusting for demographics and military descriptors. The spousal survey was administered nationwide in 2011. RESULTS: The majority of military spouses met each health goal assessed. However, less than half met the healthy weight and the strength training goals. Reporting greater perceived family support from the military was associated with better behavioral health outcomes, while having no one to turn to for support was associated with poorer outcomes. Using the Healthy People 2020 objectives as a framework for identifying key health behaviors and benchmarks, this study identified factors, including military-specific experiences, that may contribute to physical health behaviors and outcomes among military spouses. With respect to demographic characteristics, the findings are consistent with other literature that women are more likely to refrain from risky substance use and that greater education is associated with better overall health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that enhanced social and military support and tailored programming for military spouses may improve health outcomes and contribute to the well-being of military couples. Such programming could also bolster force readiness and retention.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Militares , Apoio Social , Cônjuges , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Treinamento de Resistência , Fatores Sexuais , Cônjuges/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692697

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, 50 million children under 5 were wasted; of which 16 million were severely wasted. A severely wasted child is at a nine times higher risk of dying. To prevent this problem, it is necessary to determine the magnitude and factors associated with childhood wasting. In Ethiopia specifically Wukro town, Tigray regional state there is no clear information regarding under five wasting. Therefore, the study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of wasting among under five children in Wukro town, North Ethiopia. Objective: to assess the prevalence of wasting and associated factors among under five children of Wukro town, Tigray, North Ethiopia, 2017/2018. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study design with a single population proportion formula was used with a total sample size of 400 children. Wukro town has three kebele, two kebelle were included in the study through simple random sampling method. There was proportional allocation of subjects to each kebelle and final study subject was selected using systematic method. In case there were more than one child in the household one child was selected randomly. The data were collected by face to face interview and measuring of weight and height after the instrument was pre-tested. The anthropometric results were entered in to Emergency nutritional assessment (ENA) to calculate Z-Score. The collected data and result of Z-score were entered in to Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Finally, results were presented in texts, graphs and tables. Results: A total of 394 under five children were participated in this study, which gave a response rate of 98.5%. The respondents were females 222 (56.3%) and 106(26.95%) were in the age group of 12-23 month. The overall prevalence of wasting was 28 (7.2%). Out of this 14 (3.6%) were wasted and 14 (3.6%) were severely wasted. Under five children those, whose family does not live together were 3.086 times more likely to be wasted compared to under five children those, whose family live together (P=.038, OR=3.086, & 95% CI= (1.061, 8.970). Under five children those, whose mother did not taken family planning were 2.530 times more likely to be wasted compared to under five children those, whose mother take family planning (P=.038, OR=2.530, & 95% CI= (1.054, 6.074)). Conclusion: Significant numbers of mothers were not taken extra food during pregnancy and lactation. There was significant prevalence of wasting of under five children in the study area. Living condition of family and usage of family planning were associated with increased risk of wasting.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 244, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692810

RESUMO

Introduction: Access to drinking water and sanitation has been a long-standing issue between many States. However, it represents a daily struggle for hundreds of thousands of city dwellers who live mainly in the developing countries. The government of Cameroon with the assistance of providers of funds have implemented strategies to make sanitation and access to safe drinking water a reality. We have therefore decided to assess sanitation and access to drinking water in Douala V sub division. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from May to June 2018. We used a two-stage random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The analysis was conducted using Epi Info Version 7.1.3.3. Results: Our study shows that 22.47% of subjects discharged waters into the natural environment after use. Then, 65,55% (493/752) of households consumed borehole water; 53.69% of households rode between 1 to 5 km, 49.25% walked more than 15 minutes to collect water and 85,50% of households did not use a water treatment method. Only 14.49% of subjects used a water treatment method. No household used solar water disinfection (SODIS); 2/752 households (0.26%) had no latrine. Most of the households (54.52%; 410/752) discharged domestic wastes onto the street. Conclusion: The creation of decentralized units: the drillings, waste disposal systems and water treatment education to meet basic needs are essential.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Saneamento/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desinfecção/métodos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1432, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the rise in prevalence of childhood tuberculosis (TB) globally, contact tracing should be a powerful strategy for early diagnosis and management, especially in children who are household contacts of active TB cases. Here, we aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with TB disease in children who are household contacts of TB cases. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study with data from the Malaysian TB Information System (TBIS) recorded from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017. All children aged 0-14 years who were registered in the TBIS with at least one household contact of TB cases were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) and for adjusting the confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 2793 children were included in the study. The prevalence of active TB was 1.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31, 1.77%). Children aged < 5 years [adj. OR 9.48 (95% CI: 3.41, 26.36) p < 0.001] with positive tuberculin skin test [adj. OR 395.73 (95% CI: 134.17, 1167.13), p < 0.001] and investigation period of > 6 weeks [adj. OR 7.48 (95% CI: 2.88, 19.43), p < 0.001] had significantly higher odds for TB disease. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of TB disease in children who were household contacts of TB cases is relatively low. However, contact tracing programmes should not only focus on children aged < 5 years and with positive tuberculin skin test results, but also be empowered to reduce the investigation period.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Características da Família , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
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