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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122260, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473260

RESUMO

Importance: Domestic violence (DV) has become a growing public health concern during the COVID-19 pandemic because individuals may be sheltering in place with abusers and facing mounting economic and health-related stresses. Objective: To analyze associations of the 2020 COVID-19 stay-at-home (SH) order with DV police reporting and resource availability, including differences by community area racial/ethnic composition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study assessed DV police reports (January-June 2020) obtained from the Chicago, Illinois, Police Department and DV resource availability (March and August 2020) obtained from the NowPow community resource database, both for 77 community areas in Chicago. Data were analyzed July through December 2020. Exposures: The COVID-19 SH order effective March 21, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of DV police reports and DV resource availability per 100 000 persons. Results: Of 77 community areas in Chicago, 28 (36.4%) were majority Black, 19 (24.7%) majority Hispanic/Latinx, 18 (23.4%) majority White, and 12 (15.6%) a different or no majority race/ethnicity, representing an estimated population of 2 718 555 individuals. For each community area, the SH order was associated with a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 21.8 (95% CI, -30.48 to -13.07) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. Compared with White majority community areas, Black majority areas had a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 40.8 (95% CI, -62.93 to -18.75) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. The SH order was also associated with a decrease in DV resource availability at a rate of 5.1 (95% CI, -7.55 to -2.67) resources per 100 000 persons, with the largest decreases for mental health (-4.3 [95% CI, -5.97 to -2.66] resources per 100 000 persons) and personal safety (-2.4 [95% CI, -4.40 to -0.41] resources per 100 000 persons). The Black majority south side of Chicago had a larger decrease in resource availability (-6.7 [95% CI, -12.92 to -0.46] resources per 100 000 persons) than the White majority north side. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal cohort study, the rate of DV police reports decreased after the SH order was implemented in Chicago. This decrease was largely observed in Black majority communities, whereas there was no significant change in White majority communities. These findings may reflect decreased DV incidence but may also reflect an exacerbation of underreporting. In addition, DV resource availability decreased disproportionately on the predominantly Black south side of Chicago.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Chicago/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência Doméstica/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1220-1222, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473679

RESUMO

In-person instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic concerns educators, unions, parents, students, and public health officials as they plan to create a safe and supportive learning environment for children and adolescents (1). Los Angeles County (LAC), the nation's largest county, has an estimated population of 10 million, including 1.7 million children and adolescents aged 5-17 years (2). LAC school districts moved to remote learning for some or all students in transitional kindergarten* through grade 12 (TK-12) schools during the 2020-21 school year (3). Schools that provided in-person instruction were required by LAC Health Officer orders to implement prevention measures such as symptom screening, masking, physical distancing, cohorting, and contact tracing (4). This analysis compares COVID-19 case rates in TK-12 schools among students and staff members who attended school in person with LAC case rates during September 2020-March 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1611, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neighborhood social cohesion (NSC) is the network of relationships as well as the shared values and norms of residents in a neighborhood. Higher NSC has been associated with improved cardiovascular health, largely among Whites but not African Americans. In a bi-racial cohort, we aimed to study the association between NSC and chronic disease awareness and engagement in healthy self-management behaviors, two potential mechanisms by which NSC could impact cardiovascular health outcomes. METHODS: Using the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), we cross-sectionally examined the association between NSC and awareness of three chronic conditions (diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and hypertension) and engagement in healthy self-management behaviors including physical activity, healthy eating, and cigarette avoidance. RESULTS: Study participants (n = 2082) had a mean age of 56.5 years; 38.7% were White and 61.4% African American. Of the participants, 26% had diabetes, 70% had hypertension and 20.2% had CKD. Mean NSC was 3.3 (SD = 0.80) on a scale of 1 (lowest score) to 5 (highest score). There was no significant association between NSC and any chronic disease awareness, overall or by race. However, each higher point in mean NSC score was associated with less cigarette use and healthier eating scores, among Whites (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: =0.76, 0.61-0.94; beta coefficient [ßc]:, 95% CI: 1.75; 0.55-2.97, respectively) but not African Americans (aOR = 0.95, 0.79-1.13; ßc: 0.46, - 0.48-1.39, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.08 and 0.06). Among both Whites and African Americans, higher NSC scores were associated with increases in self-reported physical activity (ßc: 0.12; 0.08-0.16; Pinteraction = 0.40). CONCLUSIONS: Community engagement and neighborhood social cohesion may be important targets for promotion of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular disease prevention. More research is needed to understand the different associations of NSC and healthy behaviors by race.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Características de Residência , Afro-Americanos , Doença Crônica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1621, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has examined individual-level and place characteristics as correlates of subjective wellbeing, with many studies concluding that individual factors (e.g. health, finances) are more strongly related to wellbeing. However, this 'dualistic' approach has been challenged, with some arguing that it is impossible to disentangle the effects of the two domains, and that wellbeing should be considered as part of a network of mutually reinforcing relationships between individual, community and place characteristics. We used network analysis to explore these complex associations. METHODS: Data were from a large sample of adults from a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of the United Kingdom (N = 4319). Wellbeing was assessed using the 7-item version of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMWBS). Mixed graphical networks were estimated including wellbeing, place and individual-characteristic variables as nodes. RESULTS: We found a densely connected network in which wellbeing was associated, both directly and indirectly, with all of the individual, community and place characteristics assessed. Wellbeing was most strongly connected with individual characteristics, in particular financial difficulty and subjective physical health. However, controlling for all other variables in the network model, wellbeing was positively associated with local greenspace usage, civic agency, and neighbourhood cohesion, and negatively associated with housing disrepair. Greater specificity in these associations was observed when the wellbeing construct was broken down into its constituent parts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the complex relationships that exist between individual, community and place characteristics in the context of subjective wellbeing, and that all domains need to be considered when developing population-level strategies to improve wellbeing. Further consideration needs to be given to how this might happen in practice, for example through a combination of consistent use of community engagement methodologies alongside Health in All Policy (HiAP) approaches.


Assuntos
Habitação , Características de Residência , Adulto , Humanos , Reino Unido
5.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(9): 1541-1549, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465152

RESUMO

AIMS: While a centralized system for the care of patients with a sarcoma has been advocated for decades, regional variations in survival remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate regional variations in survival and the impact of national policies in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in the UK. METHODS: The study included 1,775 patients with a STS who were referred to a tertiary sarcoma centre. The geographical variations in survival were evaluated according to the periods before and after the issue of guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2006 and the relevant evolution of regional management. RESULTS: There had been a significant difference in survival between patients referred from the North East, North West, East Midlands, West Midlands, South West, and Wales in the pre-NICE era (five-year disease-specific survival (DSS); South West, 74% vs North East, 47% (p = 0.045) or West Midlands, 54% (p = 0.049)), which was most evident for patients with a high-grade STS. However, this variation disappeared in the post-NICE era, in which the overall DSS for high-grade STS improved from 47% to 68% at five years (p < 0.001). Variation in the size of the tumour closely correlated with the variation in DSS, and the overall size of the tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis also decreased after the national policies were issued. CONCLUSION: The survival of patients with a STS improved and regional variation corrected after the introduction of national policies, as a result of a decreasing size of tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis, particularly in patients with a high-grade STS. This highlights the positive impact of national guidelines on regional variation in the presentation, management, and outcome in patients with a STS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1541-1549.


Assuntos
Extremidades , Política de Saúde , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360264

RESUMO

Few studies have examined associations between neighborhood built environments (BE) and longitudinally measured cognition. We examined whether four BE characteristics were associated with six-year change in global cognition and processing speed. We obtained data on 1816 participants without dementia from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. BE measures included social destination density, walking destination density, proportion of land dedicated to retail, and network ratio (street connectivity). Global cognition was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) and processing speed with the Digit Symbol Coding test (DSC). Multivariable random intercept logistic models tested associations between neighborhood BE at 2010-2012 and maintained/improved cognition (versus decline) from 2010-2018, and mediation by minutes of physical activity (PA)/week. The sample was an average of 67 years old (standard deviation = 8.2) (first cognitive measurement) and racially/ethnically diverse (29% African American, 11% Chinese, 17% Hispanic, 44% White). Compared to individuals with no walking destinations in the 1-mile surrounding their residence, those with 716 walking destinations (maximum observed) were 1.24 times more likely to have maintain/improved DSC score (Odds ratio: 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.45). No other associations were observed between BE and cognition, and PA minutes/week did not mediate the association between walking destination density and DSC change. This study provides limited evidence for an association between greater neighborhood walking destinations and maintained/improved processing speed in older age and no evidence for associations between the other BE characteristics and cognition. Future studies with finer grained BE and cognitive measures and longer-term follow up may be required.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Ambiente Construído , Idoso , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Características de Residência , Caminhada
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360391

RESUMO

Noise from neighbours has been shown to be one of the most noise annoying sources in Germany, but research on the influencing factors for the annoyance ratings is scarce. Therefore, we investigated whether different personal and contextual (social, physical) factors contribute to neighbour noise annoyance to better understand the neighbour noise annoyance situation. A population-representative survey in four areas in Germany was conducted, with each area further stratified according to their density of agglomeration (inner city, urban outskirt, rural area). Randomly selected residents from each area were invited by mail to participate in the study, either online or via a paper-pencil mode. Noise annoyance was assessed for different noise sources (e.g., neighbourhood, road, railway, aircrafts, different types of industry). In total, 1973 questionnaires were completed. We identified several factors to be predictive of neighbour noise annoyance: satisfaction with the neighbourhood, relationship with neighbours, residential satisfaction, noise sensitivity, and density of agglomeration for people living in the inner city in comparison to rural areas. Particularly, social aspects such as the relationship with neighbours and satisfaction with the neighbourhood have been shown to affect neighbour noise annoyance.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Aeronaves , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360438

RESUMO

In order to reduce health inequities, a socio-ecological approach and community engagement are needed to develop sustained interventions with a positive effect on the health of disadvantaged groups. This qualitative study was part of the development phase of a community health promotion programme. The study aimed to provide insight into the perceptions of parents in a disadvantaged neighbourhood about health, and their priorities for the community health programme. It also described the process of integrating these perceptions in the development of a multilevel plan for this programme. Participatory methods were applied to enable the engagement of all groups involved. Ten parents from a low-income neighbourhood in the Netherlands participated in five panel sessions. Parents' priorities for improving family health were reducing chronic stress and not so much healthy eating and physical activity. They prioritised solutions to reduce their financial stress, to provide a safe place for their children to meet and play and to establish good quality communication with authorities. The programme development process resulted in objectives in which both parents and professionals were willing to invest, such as a safe playground for children. This study shows that target population engagement in health programme development is possible and valuable.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Promoção da Saúde , Criança , Humanos , Países Baixos , Pobreza , Características de Residência
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360492

RESUMO

Outdoor physical activity duration is a key component of outdoor physical activity behavior of older adults, and therefore, an important determinant of their total physical activity levels. In order to develop a successful outdoor physical activity program, it is important to identify any heterogeneity in preferences for outdoor physical activity duration patterns among older adults. In addition, more insight is needed in the influence of environmental characteristics on duration choice for creating supportive neighborhood environments matching individuals' preferences. To this end, a mixed multinomial logit model is estimated based on one-week data collected among 336 respondents aged 60 or over in 2017 in Dalian, China. The present model formulation accounts for heterogeneity in individuals' preferences and allows for the analysis of substitution and complementary relationships between the different patterns of outdoor physical activity duration. Results indicate that older adults vary significantly in their preferences for each outdoor physical activity duration pattern. Moreover, short walking duration, short exercise duration and medium exercise duration are substitutes for medium walking duration while short walking duration and short exercise duration are complements for medium exercise duration in terms of individuals' outdoor physical activity duration preferences. In addition, we find that distance to the nearest park, footpath conditions and neighborhood aesthetics are associated with older adults' outdoor physical activity duration choice.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Caminhada , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Características de Residência
10.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(3): 446-453, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409825

RESUMO

The study of the living conditions of the elderly living alone or together with other family relatives is relevant to the organization of medical and social care and the strengthening of coordination between medical and social services. We analysed information of 1 261 people aged 80 years and older in ambulatory care settings, of whom 40% lived alone and 60% lived in the family. The proportion of single residents increases with age. It was determined several socio-demographic characteristics of patients, including age, gender, and household composition, calculated the prevalence of senile asthenia syndrome and the main chronic non-infectious diseases for single and family patients, and identified gender differences. Single men in the «Age is not a hindrance¼ screening more often revealed senile asthenia and had more severe pain syndrome compared to men living in a family. In contrast to men, senile asthenia and pain summation were more frequently registered for women living in a family than for women living alone. For the organization of medical and social care, it is important to consider the relationship between gender and marital status, as well as how this relationship changes over time.


Assuntos
Distância Psicológica , Características de Residência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Seguridade Social , Serviço Social
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16533, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400713

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly modified our urban territories. One of the most strongly affected parameters was outdoor noise, caused by traffic and human activity in general, all of which were forced to stop during the spring of 2020. This caused an indubitable noise reduction both inside and outside the home. This study investigates how people reacted to this new unexpected, unwanted and unpredictable situation. Using field measurements, it was possible to demonstrate how the outdoor sound pressure level clearly decreased. Furthermore, by means of an international survey, it was discovered that people had positive reaction to the lower noise level. This preference was generally not related to home typology or location in the city, but rather to a generalized wish to live in a quieter urban environment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444095

RESUMO

Neighborhood effects research is plagued by the inability to circumvent selection effects -the process of people sorting into neighborhoods. Data from two British Birth Cohorts, 1958 (ages 16, 23, 33, 42, 55) and 1970 (ages 16, 24, 34, 42), and structural equation modelling, were used to investigate life course relationships between body mass index (BMI) and area deprivation (addresses at each age linked to the closest census 1971-2011 Townsend score [TOWN], re-calculated to reflect consistent 2011 lower super output area boundaries). Initially, models were examined for: (1) area deprivation only, (2) health selection only and (3) both. In the best-fitting model, all relationships were then tested for effect modification by residential mobility by inclusion of interaction terms. For both cohorts, both BMI and area deprivation strongly tracked across the life course. Health selection, or higher BMI associated with higher area deprivation at the next study wave, was apparent at three intervals: 1958 cohort, BMI at age 23 y and TOWN at age 33 y and BMI at age 33 y and TOWN at age 42 y; 1970 cohort, BMI at age 34 y and TOWN at age 42 y, while paths between area deprivation and BMI at the next interval were seen in both cohorts, over all intervals, except for the association between TOWN at age 23 y and BMI at age 33 y in the 1958 cohort. None of the associations varied by moving status. In conclusion, for BMI, selective migration does not appear to account for associations between area deprivation and BMI across the life course.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444114

RESUMO

Some U.S.-based park equity studies reveal that affluent and White neighborhoods have privileged access to greenspace. In such studies in the U.S. and elsewhere, park access indicators are typically examined in relation to measures of income, housing tenure, and broad race/ethnicity categories (e.g., Hispanic/Latino, Black, and White in the U.S.). The treatment of people as monolithic ethnic groups in park equity research is potentially misleading, particularly in global cities where ethnic populations are highly heterogeneous. In this study, we assess inequities in access to park space within the diverse Hispanic/Latino population of the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) based on national origin. We specified multivariable generalized estimating equations to examine social correlates of area-weighted park access at the census tract level. Our first model includes a variable for the proportion of the tract population of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, which we substitute in the second model with variables representing the proportions of the tract population from the most populous country-of-origin groups in the MSA applicable to the Hispanic/Latino population. Our first model indicates robust negative relationships for the proportion Hispanic/Latino and Black/African American variables with area-weighted park access, adjusting for median household income, renter-occupancy, and old and young population composition. Our second model indicates negative relationships based on Cuban and Venezuelan neighborhood composition, while the four other country-of-origin subgroup variables exhibit statistically non-significant associations with area-weighted park access. Study findings have implications for the analysis of ethnicity categories in park equity research and interventions to promote park equity, especially in global cities.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Hispano-Americanos , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Renda , Características de Residência
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444130

RESUMO

(1) Objectives: Using cross-sectional datasets, we investigated whether better self-perceived physical and social neighborhood environment was associated with perceived health status and health-related behaviors among Chinese rural residents. (2) Study Design: The study was based on the 2016 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) survey. The sample consisted of 7191 rural residents over 18 in China. (3) Methods: The article measured physical neighborhood environment from the two aspects of dwelling environment (DE) and public facilities convenience (PFC), and social neighborhood environment from public security (PS) and neighborhood relationship (NR). Associations between health status/health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical/social neighborhood environment were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. (4) Results: The results suggested that rural residents who live in a good neighborhood environment reported having a better health status. Specifically, rural residents who reported living in good DE were less likely to have a depressive mood and poor health conditions. Those who reported good PFC were less likely to have depressive mood, poor self-rated health and chronic diseases. Rural residents who reported having good PS were less likely to have a depressive mood. Those who reported good NR were less likely to have a depressive mood, poor self-rated health, chronic diseases and obesity. Regarding neighborhood environment and health-related behaviors, the results showed that rural residents who reported good PFC were more likely to do physical exercise. Notably, the regression results of the education level variable showed that education level significantly promoted the health-related behaviors (time sleeping weekday, physical exercise and smoking) of rural residents. (5) Conclusions: This article suggested that there was strong evidence for a relationship between physical and social neighborhood environment and the general health of rural residents due to all causes. According to the conclusion of this article, in order to improve the health of rural residents, policy interventions should give priority to improving the neighborhood environment. In addition, the improvement in the degree that rural residents are exposed to education is of the same importance, which helps more rural residents to maintain good health-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Meio Social , China , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444148

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Weather can be a barrier to walking. Understanding how perceptions of weather as a barrier and measured temperature are associated with walking can inform monitoring and promotion strategies. The objective of this study is to examine the association between perceptions of weather as a barrier to walking and measured weather with the volume of leisure and transportation walking. METHODS: The 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) assessed participation in and volume of walking (transportation, leisure) in the past week and frequency of reporting weather as a barrier to walking. Data were collected over the entire year. In 2019, we merged month-specific temperature data from the PRISM climate group with individual NHIS records. We examined associations using logistic (participation) and linear regression models (volume). RESULTS: Participation in walking increased as frequency of reporting weather as a barrier to walking decreased, from 'almost always' (transportation: 23%, leisure: 42%) to 'a little of the time' (transportation: 40%, leisure: 67%). Among adults reporting walking, walking volume increased as frequency of reporting weather as a barrier decreased from 'almost always' (transportation: 51 min/week, leisure: 64 min/week) to 'never' (transportation: 69 min/week, leisure: 98 min/week). Month-specific temperature was significantly associated with leisure walking with lower participation at the lowest and highest temperature quintiles, although the strength of the association differed by frequency of reporting weather as a barrier. CONCLUSIONS: In general, prevalence and volume of leisure and transportation walking decreased as the perception of weather as a barrier increased. Low and high temperature conditions were also associated with leisure walking participation, particularly among adults with increased perceptions of weather as a barrier. Our findings highlight the importance of including strategies to help adults overcome perceived and actual weather-related barriers in walking promotion efforts.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Caminhada , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Percepção , Características de Residência , Transportes , Estados Unidos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444153

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the self-perceived health status and the presence of chronic diseases of adult Roma living in settlements in Greece, and to explore associated social determinants of health. Data were derived from the Hprolipsis Health Survey. Multivariable regression models were applied. In total, 534 adults, 287 women, and 247 men were recruited from twelve Roma settlements in four prefectures. Although 62% of the participants perceived their health status as good/very good, about half of them had been diagnosed with at least one chronic disease. Several structural and intermediary social determinants of health were found to be significantly associated with the health outcomes; prefecture, settlement type, sex, age group, living with a partner, presence of depression symptoms, food insecurity, and alcohol consumption were associated with self-perceived health status; settlement type, sex, age group, presence of anxiety symptoms, food insecurity and number of persons living in the house with the presence of a chronic disease. This is one of the few studies assessing the self-perceived health status and presence of chronic diseases in Roma settlements in Greece and investigating the associated social determinants of health in the world. Community-based participatory action research and health literacy programs are needed to mitigate health inequalities in Roma settlements.


Assuntos
Roma (Grupo Étnico) , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 285: 114269, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether perceived neighborhood cohesion (the extent to which neighbors trust and count on one another) buffers against the mental health effects of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The XXX University National COVID-19 and Mental Health Study surveyed US adults (N = 3965; M age = 39 years), measuring depressive symptoms, staying home more during than before the 2020 pandemic, and perceived neighborhood cohesion. RESULTS: A series of linear regressions indicated that perceiving one's neighborhood as more cohesive was not only associated with fewer depressive symptoms, but also attenuated the relationship between spending more time at home during the pandemic and depressive symptoms. These relationships persisted even after taking into account several individual-level sociodemographic characteristics as well as multiple contextual features, i.e., median household income, population density, and racial/ethnic diversity of the zip codes in which participants resided. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood cohesion may be leveraged to mitigate pandemic impacts on depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Humanos , Pandemias , Características de Residência , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1443-1447, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464195

RESUMO

To investigate how heat-health behaviors changed in summer 2020 compared with previous summers, our community-academic partnership conducted telephone surveys to collect data on cooling behaviors, safety concerns, and preferences for cooling alternatives for 101 participants living in Alabama. Participants indicating they would visit cooling centers declined from 23% in previous summers to 10% in summer 2020. The use of cooling centers and other public spaces may be less effective in reducing heat-related illness because of safety concerns amid the COVID-19 pandemic and police brutality.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Alabama , COVID-19/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 284: 114242, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333404

RESUMO

Adolescent mental health is becoming a critical concern. Mental illness rates are rising and many psychological disorders first present symptoms during teenage years. Studies consistently show associations between the built environment and mental health, including internalising mental health disorders in adults, but the evidence for adolescents is less robust and few studies attempt to isolate causality. This review examines the relationship between the urban public realm and adolescent mental health and wellbeing. Our search yielded 24 studies for inclusion. We undertook qualitative synthesis of 20 cross-sectional studies and conducted a separate quality analysis of four longitudinal studies. Greenspace and neighbourhood quality are associated with adolescent mental health and wellbeing although this may be due more to residual confounding, selection effects and same-source bias than evidence for a causal effect. Furthermore, the few longitudinal studies that seek to test causality remain prone to these biases. Overall, we find little evidence of an effect of the urban public realm on adolescent mental health and wellbeing, which, we argue, reflects the difficulty of researching complex pathways between environments and health and highlights a challenge to the field. To address this challenge, we propose a research agenda that prioritises more and better data drawn from diverse study designs, and more and better theories developed from diverse epistemologies.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Características de Residência
20.
JAMA ; 326(7): 611-612, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402826
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