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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12348-12356, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638788

RESUMO

Carbosulfan is a carbamate insecticide that has been widely used in agriculture. However, studies showed that carbosulfan could be highly toxic to aquatic organisms. The metabolism of carbosulfan in adult zebrafish is still largely unexplored, and the metabolites in individual or in combination may pose a potential threat to zebrafish. In the present study, the bioaccumulation and metabolism of carbosulfan in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were assessed, and the main metabolites, including carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran, were determined. The toxicity of carbosulfan and its metabolites individually or in combination to zebrafish was also investigated. The bioaccumulation and metabolism experiment indicated that carbosulfan was not highly accumulated in zebrafish, with a bioaccumulation factor of 18 after being exposed to carbosulfan for 15 days, and the metabolism was fast, with a half-life of 1.63 d. The two main metabolites were relatively persistent, with half-lives of 3.33 and 5.68 d for carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran, respectively. The acute toxicity assay showed that carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran had 96-h LC50 values of 0.15 and 0.36 mg/L, showing them to be more toxic than carbosulfan (96-h LC50 = 0.53 mg/L). Combinations of binary or ternary mixtures of carbosulfan and its metabolites displayed coincident synergistic effects on acute toxicity, with additive index (AI) values of 1.9-14.3. In the livers and gills of zebrafish exposed to carbosulfan, carbofuran, and 3-hydroxycarbofuran, activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly changed in most cases, and the content of malondialdehyde was greatly increased, indicating that carbosulfan and its metabolites induced varying degrees of oxidative stress. The metabolites were more persistent and toxic to zebrafish and exhibit coincident synergistic effects in combination. These results can provide evidence for the potential risk of pesticides and highlight the importance of a systematic assessment for the combination of the precursor and its metabolites.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/metabolismo , Carbamatos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Carbofurano/análogos & derivados , Carbofurano/metabolismo , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Catalase , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
2.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(11): 883-891, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311415

RESUMO

The characterization of soluble cholinesterases (ChEs) together with carboxylesterases (CEs) in Ficopomatus enigmaticus as suitable biomarkers of neurotoxicity was the main aim of this study. ChEs of F. enigmaticus were characterized considering enzymatic activity, substrate affinity (acetyl-, butyryl-, propionylthiocholine), kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and in vitro response to model inhibitors (eserine hemisulfate, iso-OMPA, BW284C51), and carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb, and carbaryl). CEs were characterized based on enzymatic activity, kinetic parameters and in vitro response to carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb, and carbaryl). Results showed that cholinesterases from F. enigmaticus showed a substrate preference for acetylthiocholine followed by propionylthiocholine; butyrylthioline was not hydrolyzed differently from other Annelida species. CE activity was in the same range of cholinesterase activity with acetylthiocholine as substrate; the enzyme activity showed high affinity for the substrate p-nytrophenyl butyrate. Carbamates inhibited ChE activity with propionylthiocholine as substrate to a higher extent than with acetylthiocoline. Also CE activity was inhibited by all tested carbamates except carbaryl. In vitro data highlighted the presence of active forms of ChEs and CEs in F. enigmaticus that could potentially be inhibited by pesticides at environmentally relevant concentration.


Assuntos
Anelídeos/enzimologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Colinesterases/química , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Animais , Anelídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/química , Carbamatos/química , Carbaril/química , Carbaril/toxicidade , Carbofurano/química , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cinética , Metomil/química , Metomil/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas/química
3.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 54: 338-344, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385350

RESUMO

Multi-component pesticide residues, especially pesticide residues with synergistic toxicity, are a serious threat to food safety. With risk assessment, we found that Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and Carbofuran (CBF) are 2 pesticide residues with highest risk for Actinidia chinensis planch. The results showed CPF and CBF have a synergistic neurotoxicity on neural cell SK-N-SH. The toxicity was partly depending on oxidative stress (OS) and had effects on cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the toxicity remained on long-term low-dose condition.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Actinidia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbofurano/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clorpirifos/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
4.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(1): 417-426, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276578

RESUMO

The study of the toxic effect of carbofuran and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on Astyanax ribeirae metabolism is of paramount importance due to the increasing use of this pesticide in agriculture and in the production of nanotubes within the material industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of carbofuran, MWCNT, and the combination of these compounds on specific oxygen consumption and excretion of ammonia in A. ribeirae. Therefore, 65 fish were divided into three groups of treatments at varying concentrations: carbofuran (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L), MWCNT (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L), and 0.5 mg/L of MWCNT added to carbofuran concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L). The average specific oxygen consumption in the groups exposed to carbofuran, compared to the control, increased 73.49% at the 0.01 mg/L concentration and decreased 63.86% and 91.57% with treatments of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. For groups exposed to the MWCNT, there was an 83.91% drop with the 1.0 mg/L treatment, and the carbofuran + MWCNT groups recorded a decrease of 71.09%, 92.77%, and 93.98% at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. In relation to specific ammonia excretion, in groups exposed to carbofuran compared to the control, there was an increase of 134.37% and 200% with the 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L treatments, respectively. The group exposed to carbofuran + MWCNT experienced a decrease of 60% and 80% with treatments of 0.1 mg/L carbofuran + 0.5 mg/L MWCNT and 0.5 mg/L carbofuran + 0.5 mg/L MWCNT, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that carbofuran + MWCNT interact, increasing the effects in Astyanax sp.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Caraciformes/metabolismo , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
5.
Neurotoxicology ; 70: 161-179, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471306

RESUMO

During the mammalian brain development, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are generated from neuroepithelium and migrate throughout the brain. Myelination is a tightly regulated process which involves time framed sequential events of OPCs proliferation, migration, differentiation and interaction with axons for functional insulated sheath formation. Myelin is essential for efficient and rapid conduction of electric impulses and its loss in the hippocampus of the brain may result in impaired memory and long-term neurological deficits. Carbofuran, a carbamate pesticide is known to cause inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis and memory dysfunctions in rats. Nonetheless, the effects of carbofuran on OPCs proliferation, fate determination, maturation/differentiation and myelination potential in the hippocampus of the rat brain are still completely elusive. Herein, we investigated the effects of sub-chronic exposure of carbofuran during two different time periods including prenatal and adult brain development in rats. We observed carbofuran hampers OPCs proliferation (BrdU incorporation) and oligodendroglial differentiation in vitro. Similar effects of carbofuran were also observed in the hippocampus region of the brain at both the time points. Carbofuran exposure resulted in reduced expression of key genes and proteins involved in the regulation of oligodendrocyte development and functional myelination. It also affects the survival of oligodendrocytes by inducing apoptotic cell death. The ultrastructural analysis of myelin architecture clearly depicted carbofuran-mediated negative effects on myelin compaction and g-ratio alteration. Conclusively, our study demonstrated that carbofuran alters myelination potential in the hippocampus, which leads to cognitive deficits in rats.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Etários , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/ultraestrutura , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Oligodendroglia/ultraestrutura , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Ecotoxicology ; 27(7): 834-844, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679314

RESUMO

As compared to their temperate counterparts, few toxicity tests have been conducted so far into the evaluation of the sensitivity of indigenous tropical species to pesticides. Especially mixture toxicity assessments appear to be scarce. To contribute to increase our knowledge in this arena, we evaluated the acute toxicity of diuron and carbofuran and their mixtures to the neotropical oligochaetes Allonais inaequalis and Dero furcatus, and the ostracod Strandesia trispinosa. Tests were performed with both the pure active ingredients, as well as their formulated products. The toxicity of the latter to the three test organisms was generally greater than that of the pure active ingredients, although absolute differences were rather small. The sensitivity of the indigenous species was slightly greater than temperate test species from the same taxonomic groups. The concentration addition conceptual model best described the results of the mixture toxicity data. Derived deviations of this model appeared to be dependent on the test organism and as to whether the pesticides were applied as active ingredients or their commercial products. Reported field concentrations of the two pesticides indicate risks to freshwater biota, especially if they are both present. The test species used in the present study are concluded to be suitable candidates as surrogate test organisms in local pesticide risk evaluations.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurona/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade
7.
Arch Toxicol ; 92(1): 401-409, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28725974

RESUMO

Glutamate receptor 2 (GluA2/GluR2) is one of the four subunits of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR); an increase in GluA2-lacking AMPARs contributes to neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxicity because of the receptor's high Ca2+ permeability. Carbofuran is a carbamate pesticide used in agricultural areas to increase crop productivity. Due to its broad-spectrum action, carbofuran has also been used as an insecticide, nematicide, and acaricide. In this study, we investigated the effect of carbofuran on GluA2 protein expression. The 9-day treatment of rat primary cortical neurons with 1 µM and 10 µM carbofuran decreased GluA2 protein expression, but not that of GluA1, GluA3, or GluA4 (i.e., other AMPAR subunits). Decreased GluA2 protein expression was also observed on the cell surface membrane of 10 µM carbofuran-treated neurons, and these neurons showed an increase in 25 µM glutamate-triggered Ca2+ influx. Treatment with 50 µM glutamate, which did not affect the viability of control neurons, significantly decreased the viability of 10 µM carbofuran-treated neurons, and this effect was abolished by pre-treatment with 300 µM 1-naphthylacetylspermine, an antagonist of GluA2-lacking AMPAR. At a concentration of 100 µM, but not 1 or 10 µM, carbofuran significantly decreased acetylcholine esterase activity, a well-known target of this chemical. These results suggest that carbofuran decreases GluA2 protein expression and increases neuronal vulnerability to glutamate toxicity at concentrations that do not affect acetylcholine esterase activity.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Ácido Glutâmico/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Espermina/análogos & derivados , Espermina/farmacologia
8.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 43(6): 1721-1731, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721486

RESUMO

In the current study, African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to a sublethal concentration of carbofuran (CF) to investigate its negative effects on biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers. Also, the putative role of lycopene (LYC) administration in alleviating these negative effects was evaluated. Fish were divided into six groups in triplicates as follows: group I was without treatment, group II was orally administered corn oil, group III was orally administered 18 mg LYC/kg body weight, group IV was exposed to 0.121 mg CF/L, group V was orally administered 9 mg LYC/kg body weight and exposed to 0.121 mg CF/L, and group VI was orally administered 18 mg LYC/kg body weight and exposed to 0.121 mg CF/L for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver and kidney) samples were collected and biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers were analysed. Also, histopathological changes were determined. Carbofuran caused significant increments of glucose, cortisol, aspartic amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine; meanwhile, serum acetylcholinesterase, total protein, albumin, and total lipids were significantly reduced. Significant increments in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and marked reduction in hepatic and renal catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were observed in CF-exposed fish comparing to the control group. Treatment with LYC attenuated the CF-induced oxidative stress, and this improvement was more pronounced in fish received the high LYC dose (18 mg/kg body weight). Further, congestion of the central vein with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, vacuolar necrosis, and haemorrhage was observed in the livers of CF-exposed fish. Oral administration of LYC reduced behavioural changes and histopathological alterations. All the altered biochemical parameters and antioxidant biomarkers were also restored to be near the normal levels. The obtained results evoked that LYC administration alleviated the destructive effects of carbofuran and reduced its toxicity effect on African catfish.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Peixes-Gato , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Licopeno , Malondialdeído , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1937-1945, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675957

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods. RESULTS: Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 µM Fe2+) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Curcuma , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 36(1): 73-86, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605332

RESUMO

Pesticide carbofuran (Furadan) is known to be an inhibitor of nerve impulses by its inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Oral administration of carbofuran also produced tissue damage as evidenced by the increased the activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) in tissues and serum. Against carbofuran, curcumin restored the activities of acetylcholinesterase, LDH, CK and γ- GT in animals. Curcumin also restored the reduced mitochondrial enzymes in rat liver caused by carbofuran. Liver carbohydrate metabolizing enzyme hexokinase was increased, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose 1,6 diphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase decreased after carbofuran treatment. Treatment with curcumin improved these enzyme activities in the liver. Carbofuran exposure resulted in increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), hydroperoxides, and conjugated diene in liver. Administration of curcumin during carbofuran administration lowered LPO, conjugated diene, and hydroperoxides. Moreover, levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione, which were significantly decreased after carbofuran exposure, were increased by curcumin administration. Marked impairment in the motor function was seen following carbofuran administration. Curcumin treatment significantly improved the carbofuran-induced neurobehavioral difficulties. These results indicate the ameliorating activity of carbofuran toxicity by curcumin.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Curcumina/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(18): 15315-15324, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502049

RESUMO

Coagulation-flocculation in water treatment has been relied upon aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) salts for treatment of contaminants present in source waters containing dissolved organic compounds. However, water quality deteriorates day by day which makes it urgent to improve the standards of the treatment procedure. Coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation performance of ferric chloride and alum was comparatively investigated for carbofuran treatment in simulated wastewater. Coagulation trails were performed in a jar test at several pH levels and coagulant doses to determine reduction efficiencies of carbofuran degradation and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Effect of carbofuran on proliferation, viability, and direct cytotoxicity was performed using human neuroblastoma cells U-87. Direct toxicity of carbofuran on human mononuclear cells and red blood cells (RBC) was also analyzed. Carbofuran and its derivatives were found to be relatively safe at low concentration (2-5 µM). However, at slightly higher concentration (8 µM), a moderate loss in viability and proliferative potential was observed. Taken together, these results suggest that carbofuran appears to be safe at moderate or low concentration with respect to viability of normal human lymphocytes and RBC.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Floculação , Humanos , Neuroblastoma , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 142: 312-321, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28433596

RESUMO

In aquatic environments, organisms are often exposed to mixtures of several pesticides. In this study, the effects of carbofuran and diuron and their mixtures on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata were investigated. For this purpose, toxicity tests were performed with the single compounds (active ingredients and commercial formulations) and their combinations (only active ingredients). According to the results, the toxicity of active ingredients and their commercial formulations to R. subcapitata was similar. In the single exposures, both carbofuran and diuron inhibited significantly the R. subcapitata growth and caused physiological (chlorophyll a content) and morphological (complexity and cell size) changes in cells, as captured by flow cytometry single-cell properties. Regarding the mixture toxicity tests, data fitted to both reference models, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), and evidenced significant deviations. After the CA fitting, dose-ratio dependent deviation had the best fit to the data, demonstrating synergism caused mainly by diuron and antagonism caused mainly by carbofuran. After fitting the IA model, a synergistic deviation represented the best fit for the diuron and carbofuran mixtures. In general, the two reference models indicated the occurrence of synergism in the mixtures of these compounds, especially when diuron was the dominant chemical in the combinations. The increased toxicity caused by the mixture of these pesticides could pose a greater environmental risk for phytoplankton. Thus, exposure to diuron and carbofuran mixtures must also be considered in risk assessments, since the combination of these compounds may result in more severe effects on algae population growth than single exposures.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurona/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Carbofurano/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Diurona/análise , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Microalgas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/química , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 621-627, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the single and combined effects of chlorpyrifos( CPF) and carbofuran( CF) pesticides on cell lines cultured in vitro, and clarify the pattern of joint action. METHODS: Rat pheochromocytoma( PC12 cells) were treated with different concentrations of CPF( 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 µmol/L) and CF( 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µmol/L) for 12 h separately, the combined effects of two kinds of pesticides should be studied respectively in the low dose( CPF 50 µmol/L, CF 25 µmol/L) and high dose( CPF 200 µmol/L, CF 100 µmol/L) levels. After exposure, detectingacetylcholinesterase( ACh E) activity and using fluorescent probe 2', 7'-dichlorfluorescin diacetate( DCFH-DA), thiobarbituric acid( TBA) method, xanthine oxidation, 5, 5 '-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid( DTNB) coloration to detect the intracellular reactive oxygen species( ROS) production, lipid peroxidation production malondialdehyde( MDA), activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase( SOD) and glutathione peroxidase( GPx), respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, CPF and CF could decrease the ACh E activity, induce ROS overproduction in a dose-effect way and increase the activity of SOD, GPx( P < 0. 01), but MDA content showed no significant change. Factorial ANOVA revealed that the combined effect of CPF and CF, there was no interaction at lower dose level, but interaction existed at higher dose level( P < 0. 01). The main mode of action was synergistic effect. CONCLUSION: Chlorpyrifos, carbofuran single or combined, has cytotoxicity effect. The main combined effect between chlorpyrifos and carbofuran is synergistic effect, oxidative stress damage may be one of the mechanisms.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Inseticidas , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 133: 481-8, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543744

RESUMO

Carbofuran is a nematicide insecticide with a broad spectrum of action. Carbofuran has noxious effects in several species and has been banned in the USA and Europe; however, it is still used in Brazil. Aquatic organisms are not only exposed to pesticides but also to manufactured nanoparticles, and the potential interaction of these compounds therefore requires investigation. The aim of this study was to examine the histopathological alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of exposure to carbofuran, nitric acid-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO3-MWCNTs) and the combination of carbofuran with nanotubes. Juvenile fish were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0mg/L), different concentrations of HNO3-MWCNTs (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/L) or different concentrations of carbofuran (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0mg/L) with 1.0mg/L of HNO3-MWCNTs. After 24h of exposure, the animals were removed from the aquarium, the spinal cord was transversely sectioned, and the second gill arch was removed for histological evaluation. Common histological changes included dislocation of the epithelial cells, hyperplasia of the epithelial cells along the secondary lamellae, aneurism, and dilation and disarrangement of the capillaries. All the groups exposed to carbofuran demonstrated a dose-dependent correlation in the Histological Alteration Index; the values found for carbofuran and carbon nanotubes were up to 25% greater than for carbofuran alone. This result indicates an interaction between these toxicants, with enhanced ecotoxic effects. This work contributes to the understanding of the environmental impacts of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms, which is necessary for the sustainable development of nanotechnologies.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Ciclídeos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Brasil , Europa (Continente) , Brânquias/citologia , Brânquias/patologia , Praguicidas
15.
Environ Pollut ; 213: 160-172, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26890484

RESUMO

Toxic effects of diuron and carbofuran on Paramecium caudatum were evaluated. Acute and chronic tests were conducted with diuron and carbofuran active ingredients and their commercial formulations, Diuron Nortox(®) 500 SC and Furadan(®) 350 SC, respectively. The sensitivity range of P. caudatum to reference substance sodium chloride was established. A preliminary risk assessment of diuron and carbofuran for Brazilian water bodies was performed. The tests indicated that toxicity of pure diuron and its commercial formulation was similar, while the commercial product carbofuran was more toxic than its pure form. In acute tests, readings were carried out at 2, 3, 4 and 6 h and showed an increase of mortality with increasing exposure time. The sensitivity of P. caudatum to NaCl ranged from 3.31 to 4.44 g L(-1), averaging 3.88 g L(-1). For diuron, the 6 h LC50 was 64.6 ± 3.3 mg L(-1) for its pure form and 62.4 ± 2.5 mg L(-1) for its commercial formulation. Carbofuran active ingredient was less toxic than that of diuron, presenting a 6 h LC50 of 142.0 ± 2.4 mg L(-1) for its pure form and 70.4 ± 2.2 mg L(-1) for its commercial product. Chronic tests showed that these pesticides cause significant decrease on population growth, generation number and biomass of P. caudatum. The 24 h IC50 was 7.10 ± 0.58 mg L(-1) for pure diuron, 6.78 ± 0.92 mg L(-1) for commercial diuron, 22.95 ± 3.57 mg L(-1) for pure carbofuran and 4.98 ± 0.62 mg L(-1) for commercial carbofuran. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that diuron and carbofuran present potential ecological risks for Brazilian water bodies. P. caudatum was a suitable and sensitive test organism to evaluate diuron and carbofuran toxicity to freshwater protozooplankton and, taking into account the relevant role of protozoans in aquatic environments, we strongly recommend its inclusion in ecotoxicological studies.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Diurona/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Paramecium caudatum/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Brasil , Água Doce/química , Água Doce/microbiologia
16.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 32(1): 7-14, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23847016

RESUMO

Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
17.
Chemosphere ; 144: 864-71, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421626

RESUMO

Biomixtures are used for the removal of pesticides from agricultural wastewater. As biomixtures employ high content of lignocellulosic substrates, their bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a novel approach for their enhancement. Nonetheless, the decrease in the concentration of the pesticide may result in sublethal concentrations that still affect ecosystems. Two matrices, a microcosm of rice husk (lignocellulosic substrate) bioaugmented with the fungus Trametes versicolor and a biomixture that contained fungally colonized rice husk were used in the degradation of the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CFN). Elutriates simulating lixiviates from these matrices were used to assay the ecotoxicological effects at sublethal level over Daphnia magna (Straus) and the fish Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Elutriates obtained after 30 d of treatment in the rice husk microcosms at dilutions over 2.5% increased the offspring of D. magna as a trade-off stress response, and produced mortality of neonates at dilutions over 5%. Elutriates (dilution 1:200) obtained during a 30 d period did not produce alterations on the oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion of O. mykiss, however these physiological parameters were affected in O. aureus at every time point of treatment, irrespective of the decrease in CFN concentration. When the fungally colonized rice husk was used to prepare a biomixture, where more accelerated degradation is expected, similar alterations on the responses by O. aureus were achieved. Results suggest that despite the good removal of the pesticide, it is necessary to optimize biomixtures to minimize their residual toxicity and potential chronic effects on aquatic life.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/isolamento & purificação , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Trametes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Agricultura , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Trametes/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 40(1): 220-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26151868

RESUMO

The current study has been designed to examine the effect of multifunctional drug therapy on carbofuran induced acute (2.187 mg/kg, s.c.) and sub-acute (0.2187 mg/kg, s.c.) neurotoxicity in male wistar rats. Drug treatment which includes nimodipine (Ca(2+) channel blocker), diazepam, ropinirole (dopamine agonist) and GSPE (antioxidant) was started 2h after carbofuran administration. Morris water maze was employed for aiming spatial memory. Narrow beam walk and rotarod were employed for testing motor functions. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase levels, and mitochondrial complexes were also estimated. Carbofuran treatment resulted in significant development of cognitive and motor functions manifested as impairment in learning and memory along with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species, nitrite levels and decreased acetylcholinesterase activity, reduced glutathione, catalase levels, and mitochondrial complexes. The standard antidote therapy (atropine) was not able to provide neuroprotection but was able to provide symptomatic relief. The multifunctional drug therapy attenuated carbofuran induced cognitive and motor dysfunction, acetylcholinesterase activity and other biochemical parameters. The triple combination in sub-acute study may be avoided in future as two drug combinations provide adequate neuroprotection. Thus it can be concluded that standard antidotal therapy may not provide neuroprotection while the multifunctional drug therapy offers neuroprotection against carbofuran and may dramatically increase survival and life quality.


Assuntos
Antídotos/farmacologia , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod
19.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 29(7): 1377-84, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26065625

RESUMO

The present study aimed to ascertain the cytotoxicity of pesticides commonly used in rice cultivation, through in vitro assays employing the ZF-L cell line. The in vitro analyses investigated three cellular targets (cell membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal stability) in cells exposed to concentrations of Roundup Transorb® (67.7 µg L(-1), 135.4 µg L(-1) and 270.8 µg L(-1)), Furadan 350 SC® (0.1 µg L(-1), 0.05 µg L(-1) and 0.02 µg L(-1)). We also tested these products in combination. We analyzed the defensive capacity of the cells by measuring the activity of xenobiotic extruder proteins, as well as the expression of these same proteins. Cytotoxic effects of both pesticides were observed individually, as well as with the mixture of both products; including an inhibitory effect on the activity of xenobiotic extrusion. When exposed to the insecticide Furadan, and also the mixture of Furadan and Roundup, there was an increase in the expression of P glycoproteins (P-gps). There was also a negative correlation with cytotoxicity, mainly exhibited by mitochondrial activity and lysosomal integrity, but also with respect to the activity of P-gps. We observed that concentrations below those allowed by law were toxic regarding all parameters tested in this study, with the exception of mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results suggest that toxicity may be due to the surfactants present in the commercial formulations.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 187(6): 388, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26024750

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two insecticides, namely, acetamiprid and carbofuran on the enzymatic activities of arylamidase (as glucose formed from sinigrin) and myrosinase (as ß-naphthylamine formed from L-leucine ß-naphthylamide) in the black and red clay soils collected from a fallow groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields in the Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was realized within the framework of the laboratory experiments in which the acetamiprid and carbofuran were applied to the soils at different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha(-1)). Initially, the physicochechemical properties of the soil samples were analyzed. After 10 days of pesticide application, the soil samples were analyzed for the enzyme activities. Acetamiprid and carbofuran stimulated the arylamidase and myrosinase activities at lower concentrations after 10 days incubation. Striking stimulation in soil enzyme activities was noticed at 2.5 kg ha(-1), persists for 20 days in both the soils. Overall, higher concentrations (5.0-10.0 kg ha(-1)) of acetamiprid and carbofuran were toxic or innocuous to the arylamidase and myrosinase activities. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the present study clearly indicate that the use of these insecticides (at field application rates) in the groundnut fields (black and red clay soils) stimulated the enzyme (arylamidase and myrosinase) activities.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piridinas/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Silicatos de Alumínio , Amidoidrolases/análise , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Carbofurano/análise , Argila , Monitoramento Ambiental , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Índia , Inseticidas/análise , Leucina/análogos & derivados , Leucina/análise , Leucina/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides , Piridinas/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Clima Tropical
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