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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 366-374, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835963

RESUMO

Ultra-endurance athletes accumulate an energy deficit throughout their events and those competing in self-sufficient multi-stage races are particularly vulnerable due to load carriage considerations. Whilst urinary ketones have previously been noted in ultra-endurance exercise and attributed to insufficient carbohydrate (CHO) availability, not all studies have reported concomitant CHO intake. Our aim was to determine changes in blood glucose and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations over five days (240 km) of a self-sufficient multi-stage ultramarathon in combination with quantification of energy and macronutrient intakes, estimated energy expenditure and evaluation of energy balance. Thirteen runners (8 male, 5 female, mean age 40 ± 8 years) participated in the study. Glucose and ß-hydroxybutyrate were measured every day immediately post-running, and food diaries completed daily. CHO intakes of 301 ± 106 g·day-1 (4.3 ± 1.8 g·kg-1·day-1) were not sufficient to avoid ketosis (5-day mean ß-hydroxybutyrate: 1.1 ± 0.6 mmol.L-1). Furthermore, ketosis was not attenuated even when CHO intake was high (9 g·kg-1·day-1). This suggests that competing in a state of ketosis may be inevitable during multi-stage events where load reduction is prioritised over energy provisions. Attenuating negative impacts associated with such a metabolic shift in athletes unaccustomed to CHO and energy restriction requires further exploration.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Cetose/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suporte de Carga
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 352-367, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733858

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the effects of diet starch concentration and starch fermentability on inflammatory response markers and oxidant status during the early postpartum (PP) period and its carryover effects. Fifty-two multiparous Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized block design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were starch concentration and starch fermentability of diets; diets were formulated to 22% (low starch, LS) or 28% (high starch, HS) starch with dry-ground corn (DGC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) as the primary starch source. Treatments were fed from 1 to 23 d PP and then switched to a common diet until 72 d PP to measure carryover (CO) effects. Treatment period (TP) diets were formulated to 22% forage neutral detergent fiber and 17% crude protein. The diet for the CO period was formulated to 20% forage neutral detergent fiber, 17% crude protein, and 29% starch. Coccygeal blood was collected once a week during the TP and every second week during the CO period. Liver and adipose tissue biopsies were performed within 2 d PP and at 20 ± 3 d PP. Blood plasma was analyzed for concentrations of albumin, haptoglobin, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), and antioxidant potential (AOP), with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and TNFα evaluated during the TP only. Oxidative stress index (OSi) was calculated as RONS/AOP. Abundance of mRNA from genes involved in inflammation and glucose metabolism in liver and genes involved in lipogenesis in adipose tissue were determined. Data were analyzed separately for the TP and CO periods. During the TP, treatments interacted to affect concentrations of TNFα, haptoglobin, and LBP, with HMC increasing their concentrations for HS (9.38 vs. 7.45 pg/mL, 0.45 vs. 0.37 mg/mL, and 5.94 vs. 4.48 µg/mL, respectively) and decreasing their concentrations for LS (4.76 vs. 12.9 pg/mL, 0.27 vs. 0.41 mg/mL, and 4.30 vs. 5.87 µg/mL, respectively) compared with DGC. Effects of treatments diminished over time for LBP and haptoglobin with no differences by the end of the TP and no main CO effects of treatment for haptoglobin. The opposite treatment interaction was observed for albumin, with HMC tending to decrease its concentration for HS (3.24 vs. 3.34 g/dL) and increase its concentration for LS (3.35 vs. 3.29 g/dL) compared with DGC, with no carryover effect. Feeding DGC increased the OSi during the first week of the TP compared with HMC, with this effect diminishing over time; during the CO period HMC increased OSi for HS and decreased it for LS compared with DGC, with this effect diminishing toward the end of CO. Feeding HMC increased the abundance of genes associated with inflammation and gluconeogenesis in liver for HS and decreased it for LS compared with DGC. Feeding HS increased the mRNA abundance of genes associated with adipose tissue lipogenesis compared with LS. Results during the TP suggest that feeding LS-DGC and HS-HMC elicited a more pronounced inflammatory response and induced an upregulation of genes associated with inflammation and gluconeogenesis in liver, without effects on OSi, but effects on plasma markers of inflammation diminished during the CO period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Amido/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/veterinária , Bovinos/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Leite/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 59, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: British Army Phase One training exposes men and women to challenging distances of 13.5 km·d- 1 vs. 11.8 km·d- 1 and energy expenditures of ~ 4000 kcal·d- 1 and ~ 3000 kcal·d- 1, respectively. As such, it is essential that adequate nutrition is provided to support training demands. However, to date, there is a paucity of data on habitual dietary intake of British Army recruits. The aims of this study were to: (i) compare habitual dietary intake in British Army recruits undergoing Phase One training to Military Dietary Reference Values (MDRVs), and (ii) establish if there was a relative sex difference in dietary intake between men and women. METHOD: Researcher led weighed food records and food diaries were used to assess dietary intake in twenty-eight women (age 21.4 ± 3.0 yrs., height: 163.7 ± 5.0 cm, body mass 65.0 ± 6.7 kg), and seventeen men (age 20.4 ± 2.3 yrs., height: 178.0 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.6 ± 8.1 kg) at the Army Training Centre, Pirbright for 8-days in week ten of training. Macro and micronutrient content were estimated using dietary analysis software (Nutritics, Dublin) and assessed via an independent sample t-test to establish if there was a sex difference in daily energy, macro or micronutrient intakes. RESULTS: Estimated daily energy intake was less than the MDRV for both men and women, with men consuming a greater amount of energy compared with women (2846 ± 573 vs. 2207 ± 585 kcal·day- 1, p < 0.001). Both sexes under consumed carbohydrate (CHO) when data was expressed relative to body mass with men consuming a greater amount than women (4.8 ± 1.3 vs. 3.8 ± 1.4 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p = 0.025, ES = 0.74). Both sexes also failed to meet MDRVs for protein intake with men consuming more than women (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p > 0.030, ES = 0.67). There were no differences in dietary fat intake between men and women (1.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p = 0.483, ES = 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Daily EI in men and women in Phase One training does not meet MDRVs. Interventions to increase macronutrient intakes should be considered along with research investigating the potential benefits for increasing different macronutrient intakes on training adaptations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190075, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778460

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different carbohydrate and lipid (CHO/L) ratios on the performance and energy metabolism of hybrid catfish (♂Pseudoplatystoma corruscans × â™€ Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum). One hundred and sixty-eight fish (104.9±16.5 g BW) were distributed into 24 100-L tanks. The experiment was performed using a randomised block design with four CHO/L ratios (0.45, 1.00, 1.66 and 2.85) and six replications. Growth performance, protein content, glucose and triglycerides in plasma, muscle and liver, and the hepatic activity of the malic and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzymes were measured after 60 feeding days. No significant differences were observed in growth performance, protein and triglycerides of plasma and muscle, hepatic protein or malic enzyme activity. CHO/L: 2.85 provided the highest plasma and liver glucose, while CHO/L: 0.45 showed high liver triglycerides. A linear effect was found for the hepatic activity of G6PD and dietary starch levels (R2=0.93). The hepatic activity of G6PD was greater in CHO/L=2.85 than for CHO/L: 0.45. In conclusion, the limit of dietary starch inclusion and lipids were 15% and 9.00%, respectively (CHO/L: 1.66), and this level did not affect the energy metabolism of the juvenile hybrid catfish.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Peixes-Gato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carboidratos da Dieta/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue
5.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 50, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699159

RESUMO

Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg- 1·d- 1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg- 1·d- 1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg- 1·d- 1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h- 1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h- 1; protein, 5-10 g·h- 1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h- 1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L- 1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Corrida/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Resistência Física , Corrida/classificação , Sociedades
6.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 48, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the effect of marine protein hydrolysate (MPH) supplementation to promote recovery after high intensity performance training is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MPH supplementation to whey protein (WP) and carbohydrate (CHO): (CHO-WP-MPH), on short-term recovery following high intensity performance, compared to an isoenergetic and isonitrogenous supplement of WP and CHO: (CHO-WP), in male cyclists. METHODS: This was a double-blinded crossover study divided into three phases. Fourteen healthy men participated. In phase I, an incremental bicycle exercise test was performed for establishment of intensities used in phase II and III. In phase II (9-16 days after phase 1), the participants performed first one high intensity performance cycling session, followed by nutrition supplementation (CHO-WP-MPH or CHO-WP) and 4 hours of recovery, before a subsequent high intensity performance cycling session. Phase III (1 week after phase II), was similar to phase II except for the nutrition supplementation, where the participants received the opposite supplementation compared to phase II. Primary outcome was difference in time to exhaustion between the cycling sessions, after nutrition supplementations containing MPH or without MPH. Secondary outcomes were differences in heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate concentration and glucose. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 45.6 years (range 40-58). The maximal oxygen uptake (mean ± SD) measured at baseline was 54.7 ± 4.1 ml∙min- 1∙kg- 1. There were no significant differences between the two nutrition supplementations measured by time to exhaustion at the cycling sessions (meandiff = 0.85 min, p = 0.156, 95% confidence interval (CI), - 0.37, 2.06), HR (meandiff = 0.8 beats pr.min, p = 0.331, 95% CI, - 0.9, 2.5), RER (meandiff = - 0.05, p = 0.361, 95% CI -0.07 - 0.17), blood lactate concentration (meandiff = - 0.24, p = 0.511, 95% CI, - 1.00, 0.53) and glucose (meandiff = 0.23, p = 0.094, 95% CI, - 0.05, 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: A protein supplement with MPH showed no effects on short-term recovery in middle-aged healthy male cyclists compared to a protein supplement without MPH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered 02.05.2017 at ClinicalTrials.gov (Protein Supplements to Cyclists, NCT03136133 , https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03136133?cond=marine+peptides&rank=1 .


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(12): 1288-1298, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological association studies have reported inconsistent findings on the relationship between carbohydrate intake and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we aimed to conduct the first dose-response meta-analysis to investigate this effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic search in PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to June 01, 2019, together with relevant literature scrutiny, was performed to identify related studies for inclusion into the meta-analysis. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random effects model. Furthermore, subgroup, sensitivity, heterogeneity, and publication bias analyses were performed. This meta-analysis included 14 cross-sectional and four cohort studies, totaling 284,638 participants and 69,554 MetS cases. The highest versus the lowest carbohydrate intake values were associated with an increased risk of MetS (OR: 1.253, 95% CI: 1.147-1.368), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 54.5%). Using dose-response analysis, we found a linear association between carbohydrate consumption and MetS risk with a corresponding OR of 1.026 (95% CI, 1.004-1.048) and with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 82.0%) at 5% energy intake from carbohydrates. We have found similar results using subgroup analyses for major study characteristics and adjustment for confounders. Sensitivity analysis further enhanced the robustness of the results, and no publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION: Carbohydrate intake is associated with an increased risk of developing MetS. Therefore, additional large prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 46, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst the ergogenic effects of carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise are well-documented, few investigations have studied the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during cross-country skiing, a mode of exercise that presents unique metabolic demands on athletes due to the combined use of large upper- and lower-body muscle masses. Moreover, no previous studies have investigated exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during cross-country skiing. The current study investigated the effects of a 13C-enriched 18% multiple-transportable carbohydrate solution (1:0.8 maltodextrin:fructose) with additional gelling polysaccharides (CHO-HG) on substrate utilization and gastrointestinal symptoms during prolonged cross-country skiing exercise in the cold, and subsequent double-poling time-trial performance in ~ 20 °C. METHODS: Twelve elite cross-country ski athletes (6 females, 6 males) performed 120-min of submaximal roller-skiing (69.3 ± 2.9% of [Formula: see text]O2peak) in -5 °C while receiving either 2.2 g CHO-HG·min- 1 or a non-caloric placebo administered in a double-blind, randomized manner. Whole-body substrate utilization and exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was calculated for the last 60 min of the submaximal exercise. The maximal time-trial (2000 m for females, 2400 m for males) immediately followed the 120-min submaximal bout. Repeated-measures ANOVAs with univariate follow-ups were conducted, as well as independent and paired t-tests, and significance was set at P < 0.05. Data are presented as mean ± SD. RESULTS: Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation contributed 27.6 ± 6.6% to the total energy yield with CHO-HG and the peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate reached 1.33 ± 0.27 g·min- 1. Compared to placebo, fat oxidation decreased by 9.5 ± 4.8% with CHO-HG, total carbohydrate oxidation increased by 9.5 ± 4.8% and endogenous carbohydrate utilization decreased by 18.1 ± 6.4% (all P < 0.05). No severe gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in either trial and euhydration was maintained in both trials. Time-trial performance (8.4 ± 0.4 min) was not improved following CHO-HG compared to placebo (- 0.8 ± 3.5 s; 95% confidence interval - 3.0 to 1.5 s; P = 0.46). No sex differences were identified in substrate utilization or relative performance. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of an 18% multiple-transportable carbohydrate solution with gelling polysaccharides was found to be well-tolerated during 120 min of submaximal whole-body exercise, but did not improve subsequent maximal double-poling performance.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Esqui/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Atletas , Bebidas , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 43, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare nutritional intakes against recommended values as well as between the perceived intake and needs of female lacrosse players. METHODS: Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse players (20.0 ± 1.7 yrs., 169.7 ± 6.4 cm; 69.9 ± 10.7 kg; 27.5 ± 3.3% fat) completed a four-day monitoring period during in-season. Athletes were outfitted with an activity monitor over four consecutive days and completed four-day food records to assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and dietary intake. Body composition was assessed and used to calculate recommended dietary intakes. Actual intake was self-reported using a commercially available food tracking program (MyFitnessPal©, USA). Daily average values were calculated for total and relative energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake. These values were then compared to published nutritional recommendations established by the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Appropriate pairwise comparisons were made depending on the normality of the distribution. RESULTS: Athletes ate significantly less than recommended values for energy, carbohydrates and protein. (p < 0.001). Significant discrepancies (p < 0.001) were also observed between perceptions of intake versus actual intake. CONCLUSIONS: Athletes significantly underestimated perceived intake of dietary fat and carbohydrate when compared to perceived needs. Massive standard deviations and ranges were observed, suggesting that some athletes lack a basic understanding of their daily needs. Results from this data suggest that collegiate athletes lack appropriate understanding of basic nutrition needs and could benefit from basic nutrition education as it pertains to their health and performance.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Esportes com Raquete , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(3): 613-628, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the degree of satisfaction of the daily demand for energy and chosen nutrients in the diets of women with schizophrenia, depending on the nutritional state of the subjects, assessed on the basis of the chosen anthropometric and metabolic parameters. METHODS: The study covered 102 women aged 21-64 (50 women diagnosed with schizophrenia and 52 healthy volunteers) aged 21-64 years. A 24-hour diet recall was used in the quantitative nutritional assessment. The anthropometric and biochemical measurements and the body composition analysis were used in the assessment of the nutritional state. RESULTS: The food rations of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were characterized by a significantly higher intake of saturated fatty acids and a lower intake of vitamin C, B12, folates, and sodium as compared to healthy women. It was noted at the same time that the food rations of patients from both groups provided too low amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, folates, potassium, calcium, iron, and dietary fiber. Too high intake was observed in the case of vitamin A, B2, B6, sodium, and phosphorus in both groups. Total fat body mass of women with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with intake of saturated fatty acids, whereas the visceral adipose tissue content was significantly correlated with the carbohydrate intake, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue content - with the total fat and saturated fatty acids intake. CONCLUSIONS: The diet of women diagnosed with schizophrenia did not deviate from the diet of healthy persons, although the nutritional mistakes that were made by them suggest to choose the nutritional therapy individually for each patient, after carrying out a detailed nutritional interview.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medwave ; 19(4): e7637, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483132

RESUMO

Objetive: To describe health determinants in adults from the jurisdictions of the North and South Pacific Health Networks in the city of Chimbote. Methods: A non-controlled descriptive study was carried out. Health determinants were classified in the following categories: bio-socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, and social and community support. For the descriptive analysis of categorical variables, relative and absolute frequencies were used. Results: A total of 1 496 adults were included in the study. In the bio-socioeconomic determinants category, 62.2% were women and 53.3% were older adults. In the lifestyle determinants category, 52.4% did not smoke and had not ever smoked regularly, 50.5% did not consume alcoholic bever-ages, and 66.9% had 6 to 8 hours of sleep. In the social/community support determinants category, 53% had been treated at a health facility in the previous 12 months, 47.5% considered the distance between the health facility where they were treated and their home to be average, and 64.6% had public health insurance (SIS) from Perus Ministry of Health (MINSA). Conclusion: Most participants completed high school but this level of education did not result in access to higher-scale salaries. In addition, most partici-pants owned their own homes as well as access to basic services but lived in overcrowded conditions. A sedentary lifestyle and high-carbohydrate diet were predominant in this sample, highlighting the need for education to improve health.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Med Food ; 22(9): 907-918, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390269

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera is a natural plant with high nutritional and pharmacological value. Leaves of M. oleifera contain a variety of active substances. In our previous research, we had obtained a polysaccharide separated from M. oleifera leaf, namely MOs-2-a (1.35 × 104 Da). In this study, this polysaccharide was administrated daily to 6 week-old ICR mice for 4 weeks. Then, the body weight, immunity, intestinal digestion, and intestinal microenvironment of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were investigated. After 4 weeks of feeding intervention with the polysaccharide, the immune and intestinal digestive ability of the ICR mice were significant as shown by the organ index, digestive enzymes, and reduction of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and diamine oxidase levels. The polysaccharide could regulate the microbial composition of the intestinal tract in mice by increasing the bacteria that have been reported for antiobesity effects, short chain fatty acid production, and lactic acid production. These findings indicate that the polysaccharide of M. oleifera leaf might be a promising prebiotic that exhibits health promotion effects.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
13.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398808

RESUMO

AIM: We studied the effect of the addition of an oral nutrition supplement (ONS) on the rate of hypoglyemia among hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all DM patients with hypoalbuminemia (albumin < 3.5 g/dL) admitted to internal medicine "E" at Wolfson Medical Center between 1 June 2016 and 30 April 2017 were included. One bottle of ONS (Glucerna, 330 KCAL, 28 g carbohydrates, 17 g protein, 17 g fat) was added to the morning meal. The consumption of the ONS was verified during the morning rounds. All glucose measurements were recorded automatically in the patients' electronic medical records. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the effect of the nutrition support on the occurrence of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: 218 patients (mean age 77.4 ± 12.0 years, 63.3% female, mean albumin 3.13 ± 0.32 g/dL), of whom 27.9% had documented hypoglycemia during hospitalization were included. The patients consumed 69.5% ± 37.1 of the ONS provided, and ONS was started 4.3 ± 5.3 days from admission. A logistic regression model indicated that age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.048, 95% CI 1.014-1.083, p = 0.005), insulin treatment (OR 3.059, 95% CI 1.497-6.251, p = 0.002), and the day of ONS started from admission (OR 1.094, 95% CI 1.021-1.173, p = 0.011) were associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Complete consumption of the ONS was associated with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia: OR 0.364, 95% CI 0.149-0.890, p = 0.027. Age, other DM medications and serum albumin did not affect the risk. CONCLUSION: The intake of a complete serving of ONS may be associated with a reduction of the risk of hypoglycemia among diabetes in-patients with hypoalbuminemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoalbuminemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/terapia , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/análise
14.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 34, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that consuming a food bar (FB) containing whey protein and the plant fiber isomalto-oligosaccharides [IMO] had a lower glycemic (GI) but similar insulinemic response as a high GI carbohydrate. Therefore, we hypothesized that ingestion of this FB before, during, and following intense exercise would better maintain glucose homeostasis and performance while hastening recovery in comparison to the common practice of ingesting carbohydrate alone. METHODS: Twelve resistance-trained males participated in an open label, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover trial with a 7-d washout period. Participants consumed a carbohydrate matched dextrose comparitor (CHO) or a FB containing 20 g of whey, 25 g of IMO, and 7 g of fat 30-min before, mid-way, and following intense exercise. Participants performed 11 resistance-exercises (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of 1RM) followed by agility and sprint conditioning drills for time. Participants donated blood to assess catabolic and inflammatory markers, performed isokinetic strength tests, and rated perceptions of muscle soreness, hypoglycemia before, and following exercise and after 48 h of recovery. Data were analyzed using general linear models (GLM) for repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI) with a one-way analysis of variance. Data are reported as mean change from baseline with 95% CI. RESULTS: GLM analysis demonstrated that blood glucose was significantly higher 30-min post-ingestion for CHO (3.1 [2.0, 4.3 mmol/L,] and FB (0.8 [0.2, 1.5, mmol/L, p = 0.001) while the post-exercise ratio of insulin to glucose was greater with FB (CHO 0.04 [0.00, 0.08], FB 0.11 [0.07, 0.15], p = 0.013, η2 = 0.25). GLM analysis revealed no significant interaction effects between treatments in lifting volume of each resistance-exercise or total lifting volume. However, analysis of mean changes from baseline with 95% CI's revealed that leg press lifting volume (CHO -130.79 [- 235.02, - 26.55]; FB -7.94 [- 112.17, 96.30] kg, p = 0.09, η2 = 0.12) and total lifting volume (CHO -198.26 [- 320.1, - 76.4], FB -81.7 [- 203.6, 40.1] kg, p = 0.175, η2 = 0.08) from set 1 to 3 was significantly reduced for CHO, but not for the FB. No significant interaction effects were observed in ratings of muscle soreness. However, mean change analysis revealed that ratings of soreness of the distal vastus medialis significantly increased from baseline with CHO while being unchanged with FB (CHO 1.88 [0.60, 3.17]; FB 0.29 [- 0.99, 1.57] cm, p = 0.083, η2 = 0.13). No significant GLM interaction or mean change analysis effects were seen between treatments in sprint performance, isokinetic strength, markers of catabolism, stress and sex hormones, or inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: Pilot study results provide some evidence that ingestion of this FB can positively affect glucose homeostasis, help maintain workout performance, and lessen perceptions of muscle soreness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, # NCT03704337 . Retrospectively registered 12, July 2018.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Treinamento de Resistência , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Alimentos , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Mialgia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
15.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 38(5): 435-444, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411571

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of oral curcumin, on bone health of rats fed a high-fructose diet. Suckling pups (males = 65, females = 63) were gavage with 0.5% DMSO, curcumin (500 mg/kg), fructose (20%, w/v) or a combination of curcumin and fructose daily from postnatal days 6 to 21. Then the rats were weaned onto normal rat feed for six weeks and each group was sub-divided into two subgroups: one had plain tap water and the other had fructose (20%, w/v) to drink. Blood was assayed for plasma total osteocalcin. Morphometry and radiographic bone density assessments were made on the femora and tibiae. The lengths, masses and Seedor indices of the bones were similar (p > 0.05, ANOVA) across the groups. Males that received curcumin with or without fructose during suckling and weaned onto a high-fructose diet had lower (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA) osteocalcin concentration versus the other males. Similarly, in females rats, curcumin alone or administered with fructose resulted in lower (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA) osteocalcin concentration versus female rats administered the vehicle control. Neonatal curcumin-induced decrease in plasma total osteocalcin concentration may predispose to adverse consequences on glucose metabolism and bone health.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/farmacologia , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Osteocalcina/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Frutose/metabolismo , Frutose/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Desmame
16.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(12): 1866-1880, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430404

RESUMO

Repeated periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) intake using a diet-exercise strategy called the sleep-low model can potentially induce mitochondrial biogenesis and improve endurance performance in endurance-trained individuals. However, more studies are needed to confirm the performance-related effects and to investigate the sustained effects on maximal fat oxidation (MFO) rate and proteins involved in intramuscular lipid metabolism. Thirteen endurance-trained males (age 23-44 years; V ˙ O2 -max, 63.9 ± 4.6 mL·kg-1 ·min-1 ) were randomized into two groups: sleep-low (LOW-CHO) or high CHO availability (HIGH-CHO) in three weekly training blocks over 4 weeks. The acute metabolic response was investigated during 60 minutes of exercise within the last 3 weeks of the intervention. Pre- and post-intervention, 30-minute time-trial performance was investigated after a 90-minute pre-load, which as a novel approach included nine intense intervals (and estimation of MFO). Additionally, muscle biopsies (v. lateralis) were obtained to investigate expression of proteins involved in intramuscular lipid metabolism using Western blotting. During acute exercise, average fat oxidation rate was ~36% higher in LOW-CHO compared to HIGH-CHO (P = .03). This did not translate into sustained effects on MFO. Time-trial performance increased equally in both groups (overall time effect: P = .005). We observed no effect on intramuscular proteins involved in lipolysis (ATGL, G0S2, CGI-58, HSL) or fatty acid transport and ß-oxidation (CD-36 and HAD, respectively). In conclusion, the sleep-low model did not induce sustained effects on MFO, endurance performance, or proteins involved in intramuscular lipid metabolism when compared to HIGH-CHO. Our study therefore questions the transferability of acute effects of the sleep-low model to superior sustained adaptations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Resistência Física , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Atletas , Exercício , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Periodicidade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(6): 1919-1931, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407136

RESUMO

To explore features of carbohydrate metabolism and evolution of carbohydrate metabolism-associated genes in herbivorous fishes, the open reading frames (ORF) of PKL, PKMa, and PKMb genes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were obtained, encoding 538, 528, and 532 amino acids, respectively. Comparative genomic analysis showed that adjacent PK genes were highly conserved between fish and mammals. Gene expression profiles were quite different between the three PK genes in tissues and at developmental stages. PKL, PKMa, and PKMb had the highest expression levels in the liver, heart, and muscle, respectively. During embryogenesis, high expression levels of PKMa and PKMb were detected in unfertilized and fertilized eggs. Following a non-expression period, PKMa and PKMb exhibited high expressions again after the hatching stage. In contrast, PKL transcripts could not be detected in early developmental stages, and expression levels continued to increase from the hatching stage to 144 h post hatching. After the 8-week feeding trial with 18%, 30%, and 42% dietary carbohydrate levels, the concentrations of glucose and insulin in serum, pyruvate kinase enzymes, and gene expression levels in brain, muscle, and liver tissues all increased with the increase in carbohydrate levels in the diets. Furthermore, high carbohydrate levels (30% and 42% carbohydrate diets) had a greater effect on grass carp growth. This indicated that PKL, PKMa, and PKMb genes were not only very important in catalytic enzymes, which can be up-regulated by high carbohydrate dietary conditions, but also exhibited a complex and detailed division of labor in different tissues and developmental stages.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino
18.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No3): 8-12, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368329

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: the term "sugars" describes a specific group of carbohydrates and one of the most controversial components of our diet, as public health authorities worldwide acknowledge that there is an excessive intake. Reformulation practices with low and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) are being carried out worldwide. However, a lack of information about the present market status and evolution is highly recognized. Materials and methods: review of the most recent studies. Results: there is a lack of comprehensive Food Composition Tables (FCT) and Databases (DB) including sugar contents and many countries have developed their own for the estimation of sugar intakes or with the aim of monitoring changes in processed food composition. Moreover, surveys assessing carbohydrate and sugar consumption and their dietary sources are scarce and sometimes not comparable due to the different methodologies, FCT and DB used, and non-harmonised use of terms and nomenclature, especially for the estimation of added sugars. Results from studies show that total and added sugar intakes around the world are quite comparable in terms of percentage of total energy from diet and major dietary sources. WHO's recommendations are being exceeded, especially amongst the younger population groups. Conclusions: future research on sweeteners, both caloric and low or non-caloric, should comprise the development of comprehensible, harmonized and updated databases of added sugar and LNCS, the evaluation of the frequent consumption of LNCS from foods and beverages and its potential association with an improved food model/pattern and lifestyles. Finally, intervention studies with LNCS are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Adoçantes não Calóricos/análise , Política Nutricional , Espanha , Edulcorantes/análise
19.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(3): 520-532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is well known that dietary factors affect the development of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the associations between carbohydrate intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2009. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 6,648 Chinese adults aged 18-60 were divided into five groups based on carbohydrate intake (% of energy). Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate the risk factors in relation to carbohydrate intake, and mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: When age was adjusted, carbohydrate intake was negatively correlated with total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. However, there were positive associations of carbohydrate intake with waist circumference, body mass index, and blood pressure in women. After additional adjustment for urbanicity index, income, physical activity, education, alcohol and smoking, and dietary intake, the 5th quintile of carbohydrate intake reduced the risk for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.99) compared with the 1st quintile. However, the top quintile of carbohydrate intake increased the risk for impaired glucose tolerance in men (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 4.16) compared with the lowest quintile after adjusting for all confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Higher-carbohydrate diets may associate with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Moderate carbohydrate intake is recommended for daily consumption. These results suggest that improving dietary patterns may be an important approach to the prevention of cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) drinks (6% per volume) sweetened with maple (syrup or sap) to a commercial sports drink, glucose, and a control solution (water) on cognitive flexibility during high-intensity intermittent exercise. METHODS: Eighty-five active men completed six 3-min bouts at 95% of their maximal aerobic power on a stationary bike, with 3 min of passive rest between efforts. Subjects were randomly allocated to an ingestion condition. Following each exercise bout, subjects ingested 166 mL of the experimental solution, drinking a total of 1 L of the same solution throughout the experimentation. Cognitive flexibility was measured using reaction time and accuracy on the Stroop task. The cognitive task was performed a total of 10 times, including 15 and 30 min post-exercise. Glycemia and cerebral oxygenation were also measured at each time point. Statistical analyses were performed using a two-way ANOVA (Condition × Time) with repeated measures. RESULTS: The ingestion of maple products and the commercial sports drink led to a lesser increase in glycemia than glucose ingestion. CHO ingestion, when compared to water, induced a slight reduction in reaction times on the cognitive task, especially in the switching trials. CHO ingestion had no impact on cerebral oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that CHO ingestion, regardless of its type, tends to improve cognitive performance throughout exercise, especially during difficult cognitive tasks.


Assuntos
Acer/química , Bebidas , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cognição , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigênio/sangue , Exsudatos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Exsudatos de Plantas/sangue , Exsudatos de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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