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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320868

RESUMO

There have been recent calls for strategies to improve oral health in athletes. High carbohydrate diets, exercise induced dehydration and transient perturbations to immune function combine to increase oral disease risk in this group. We tested whether a single dose of nitrate (NO3-) would offset the reduction in salivary pH following carbohydrate ingestion before and after an exercise bout designed to cause mild dehydration. Eleven trained male runners ([Formula: see text] 53 ± 9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, age 30 ± 7 years) completed a randomised placebo-controlled study comprising four experimental trials. Participants ingested the following fluids one hour before each trial: (a) 140 ml of water (negative-control), (b) 140 ml of water (positive-control), (c) 140 ml of NO3- rich beetroot juice (~12.4 mmol NO3-) (NO3- trial) or (d) 140 ml NO3- depleted beetroot juice (placebo-trial). During the negative-control trial, participants ingested 795 ml of water in three equal aliquots: before, during, and after 90 min of submaximal running. In the other trials they received 795 ml of carbohydrate supplements in the same fashion. Venous blood was collected before and after the exercise bout and saliva was sampled before and repeatedly over the 20 min following carbohydrate or water ingestion. As expected, nitrite (NO2-) and NO3- were higher in plasma and saliva during the NO3- trial than all other trials (all P<0.001). Compared to the negative-control, salivary-pH was significantly reduced following the ingestion of carbohydrate in the positive-control and placebo trials (both P <0.05). Salivary-pH was similar between the negative-control and NO3- trials before and after exercise despite ingestion of carbohydrate in the NO3- trial (both P≥0.221). Ingesting NO3- attenuates the expected reduction in salivary-pH following carbohydrate supplements and exercise-induced dehydration. NO3- should be considered by athletes as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the risk of developing acidity related oral health conditions.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Nitritos/análise , Resistência Física , Corrida/fisiologia , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Nitratos/sangue , Nitritos/sangue , Saliva/química
2.
Metabolism ; 107: 154222, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246987

RESUMO

Fructose over-consumption contributes to the development of liver steatosis in part by stimulating ChREBPα-driven de novo lipogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which fructose activates ChREBP pathway remain largely undefined. Here we performed affinity purification of ChREBPα followed by mass spectrometry and identified DDB1 as a novel interaction protein of ChREBPα in the presence of fructose. Depletion and overexpression of Ddb1 showed opposite effects on the ChREBPα stability in hepatocytes. We next tested the impact of hepatic Ddb1 deficiency on the fructose-induced ChREBP pathway. After 3-week high-fructose diet feeding, both Ddb1 liver-specific knockout and AAV-TBG-Cre-injected Ddb1flox/flox mice showed significantly reduced ChREBPα, lipogenic enzymes, as well as triglycerides in the liver. Mechanistically, DDB1 stabilizes ChREBPα through CRY1, a known ubiquitination target of DDB1 E3 ligase. Finally, overexpression of a degradation-resistant CRY1 mutant (CRY1-585KA) reduces ChREBPα and its target genes in the mouse liver following high-fructose diet feeding. Our data revealed DDB1 as an intracellular sensor of fructose intake to promote hepatic de novo lipogenesis and liver steatosis by stabilizing ChREBPα in a CRY1-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Criptocromos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Frutose/farmacologia , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/genética , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Ubiquitinação
3.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 396: 114997, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259528

RESUMO

High-fat high-fructose diet (HFF) in obesity can induce dyslipidemia and lipid accumulation both in kidney and liver which related to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity-induced cellular damage. We investigated whether dapagliflozin with or without atorvastatin could improve lipid accumulation-induced kidney and liver injury in HFF-induced insulin resistant rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HFF for 16 weeks and then received drug treatments for 4 weeks; vehicle, dapagliflozin, atorvastatin and dapagliflozin plus atorvastatin treatment groups. HFF rats demonstrated insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, liver injury and renal dysfunction associated with impaired renal lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Dapagliflozin and combination treatment could improve HFF-induced insulin resistance, lipogenesis and lipotoxicity-related renal oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis and apoptosis leading to kidney dysfunction recovery. Liver injury-associated inflammation was also improved by these two regimens. Notably, the reduced lipid accumulation in liver and kidney that linked to an improvement of lipid oxidation was prominent in the combination treatment. Therefore, dapagliflozin combined with atorvastatin treatment exert the beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity in liver and kidney injury via the attenuation of oxidative stress, fibrosis and apoptosis in insulin resistant model.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Western Blotting , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Frutose/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 800-805, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effects of very low carbohydrate (VLC) diets on appetite response in individuals with type 2 diabetes remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: A secondary analysis was conducted to determine appetite responses to an energy-restricted [30% of energy (%E) deficit] very low carbohydrate (VLC) diet compared with a higher carbohydrate (HC) diet in adults who were overweight or obese with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Forty-four men and 40 women (mean ± SD, age: 58.7 ± 6.6 y; weight: 100.4 ± 15.5 kg; BMI: 34.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2; glycated hemoglobin: 7.3 ± 1.0%; duration of diabetes: 6.7 ± 5.6 y) were randomly assigned to diets categorized as VLC [14%E carbohydrate (<50 g/d), 28%E protein, 58%E fat (<10%E saturated fat)], or energy-matched HC [53%E carbohydrate, 17%E protein, 30%E fat (<10%E saturated fat)] combined with progressive multicomponent exercise (60 min; 3 d/wk). Body weight, average weekly "daily fasting" and "daily overall" appetite perceptions (hunger, fullness, prospective consumption, and desire to eat-visual analog scales) were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 16 wk. Changes between diets over time were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Significant decreases in body weight did not differ between groups (VLC: -11.0 ± 5.4 kg/16 wk compared with HC: -10.1 ± 4.3 kg/16 wk, P = 0.40). Compared with HC, VLC had greater decreases in "daily overall" ratings of fullness (P time × diet < 0.01), such that scores were higher in HC at Week 4 (VLC:48 ± 3 vs HC:56 ± 3 mm, P = 0.001) and 16 (VLC:51 ± 2 vs HC:57 ± 3 mm, P = 0.019). Compared with HC, VLC had greater increases in prospective consumption ratings (P time × diet = 0.03), such that scores were lower in HC at Week 4 (VLC:33 ± 2 vs HC:28 ± 2 mm, P = 0.008), but not at Week 16 (VLC:33 ± 2 vs HC 31 ± 2 mm, P = 0.289). CONCLUSIONS: In the context of energy restriction, both HC and VLC energy-matched diets promoted comparable effects on fasting perceptions of appetite, but the HC diet resulted in greater "daily overall" fullness and reduced prospective consumption. Further research is required to evaluate the effects of ad libitum diets differing in amounts of carbohydrate on appetite response in populations with type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000369820.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115728, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888838

RESUMO

A water-soluble acidic polysaccharide, XB-PS3, was isolated from the twigs of Juniperus pingii var. Wilsonii with a molecular weight of 86.04 kDa. By means of monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation, 2D NMR spectroscopy and UPLC-MS analysis, we concluded that XB-PS3 had a backbone composed of →2,4)-α-Manp-(1→ and →4)-α-GalpA-(1→ (60 % esterified), with an araban branch attached to O-2 of →2,4)-α-Manp-(1→. The possible repeating units were further validated by oligosaccharide analysis and partial acid hydrolysis. XB-PS3 exhibited potent anticomplement activity with CH50 value of 117.23 ± 18.74 µg/mL and interacted with C3, C4, C5 and C9 in the complement activation cascade. However, the anticomplement activity was significantly weakened when the galacturonic acids were reduced (CH50: 268.55 ± 16.82 µg/mL) or the branches were removed by partial hydrolysis (CH50: 197.76 ± 21.81 µg/mL), indicating the important role of uronic acids and branch structure in the polysaccharide's anticomplement activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento/química , Juniperus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ácidos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Complemento C3/antagonistas & inibidores , Complemento C3/química , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrólise , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácidos Urônicos/química , Água/química
6.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(2): E286-E296, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891539

RESUMO

Increased myocardial partitioning of dietary fatty acids (DFA) and decreased left ventricular (LV) function is associated with insulin resistance in prediabetes. We hypothesized that enhanced myocardial DFA partitioning and reduced LV function might be induced concomitantly with reduced insulin sensitivity upon a 7-day hypercaloric (+50% in caloric intake), high-saturated fat (~11%energy), and simple carbohydrates (~54%energy) diet (HIGHCAL) versus an isocaloric diet (ISOCAL) with a moderate amount of saturated fat (~8%energy) and carbohydrates (~50%energy). Thirteen healthy subjects (7 men/6 women) underwent HIGHCAL versus ISOCAL in a randomized crossover design, with organ-specific DFA partitioning and LV function measured using the oral 14(R,S)-[18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid and [11C]acetate positron emission tomography methods at the end of both interventions. HIGHCAL induced a decrease in insulin sensitivity indexes with no significant change in body composition. HIGHCAL led to increased subcutaneous abdominal (+4.2 ± 1.6%, P < 0.04) and thigh (+2.4 ± 1.2%, P < 0.08) adipose tissue storage and reduced cardiac (-0.31 ± 0.11 mean standard uptake value [(SUV), P < 0.03] and skeletal muscle (-0.17 ± 0.08 SUV, P < 0.05) DFA partitioning without change in LV function. We conclude that early increase in adipose tissue DFA storage protects the heart and skeletal muscles from potential deleterious effects of DFA.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 228: 115381, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635744

RESUMO

Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides, acidic water-soluble polysaccharides extract from Sargassum fusiforme, are mainly composed of alginic acid, fucoidan and laminaran. Alginic acid is carboxyl-containing polysaccharide formed by joining ß-D-mannuronic acid and α-L-guluronic acid through ß-(1→4)/α-(1→4) glycosidic bond. Fucoidan, a natural water-soluble sulfated heteropolysaccharide with fucose and sulfuric acid groups as the core structure, is mainly linked by L-fucose through α-(1→3) glycosidic bond and has the strongest biological activity. Laminaran is mainly composed of ß-D-glucose through ß-(1→3) glycosidic bond linkage. Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides have a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, promoting immunity, anti-aging, prompting bone growth, lowering blood glucose, anti-coagulation, anti-virus, anti-bacteria, anti-fatigue, promoting growth and development, and skin protection. These activities are closely related to the functions of fucoidan in Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides, which fucoidan is able to strengthen immune system and antioxidation in human body. In this review, the composition, the isolation and purification, and the biological activities of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides are discussed and can bereference for further study.


Assuntos
Ácido Algínico , Glucanos , Polissacarídeos , Sargassum/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Algínico/química , Ácido Algínico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Algínico/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Carboidratos da Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/isolamento & purificação , Glucanos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 819-826, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739074

RESUMO

Garlic was used as raw material to extract garlic polysaccharide (P) with hot water extraction method. IR and NMR spectra showed that the preparation of sulfated garlic polysaccharide (SP), phosphorylated garlic polysaccharide (PP) and carboxymethylated garlic polysaccharide (CMP) was successful. The sugar content of P, SP, PP and CMP was determined, and their degree of substitution was measured. Hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, superoxide anion scavenging ability, significant reduction capacity, and anti-lipid peroxidation ability of P, SP, PP, CMP and VC were determined. It showed that the introduction of substituents had different effects on the antioxidant activities of P.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alho/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Açúcares/química , Sulfatos/química , Superóxidos/química
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 813-818, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726132

RESUMO

Garlic polysaccharide-Fe(III) complex (FePS) was synthesized by co-thermal synthesis with garlic polysaccharide (PS) and ferric trichloride. The complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The scavenging activity of PS and FePS on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and lipid peroxidation were studied. The scavenging hydroxyl radical activity of PS and FePS was similar, that was to say, FePS had not obvious raised compared with PS. The inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation of FePS was lower than that of PS at low concentration. With the increase of concentration, the inhibitory effect of FePS increased rapidly and exceeded that of PS. The scavenging ability of FePS on superoxide anion radicals was obviously raised than that of PS, which showed a good synergistic effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Alho/química , Ferro/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Superóxidos/química
10.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(2): 244-252, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with coeliac disease, FODMAPs in gluten-containing foods, and participant anticipation of a harmful ('nocebo') effect, may contribute to acute symptoms after gluten challenge. AIM: To establish acute gluten-specific symptoms linked to immune activation in coeliac disease METHODS: We included 36 coeliac disease patients on a gluten-free diet receiving placebo in the RESET CeD trial. Double-blind, bolus vital wheat gluten (~6-g gluten protein) and sham challenges low in FODMAPs were consumed 2 weeks apart. Assessments included daily Coeliac Disease Patient Reported Outcome (CeD PRO) symptom scores (0-10), adverse events and serum interleukin-2 (baseline and 4 hours). RESULTS: Median CeD PRO score for nausea increased most (sham: 0 vs gluten: 5.5; P < .001). Apart from tiredness (1 vs 4, P = .005) and headache (0 vs 2, P = .002), changes in other symptoms were small or absent. Only nausea increased significantly in occurrence with gluten (11% vs 69%, P < .001). Without nausea, only tiredness and flatulence were common after gluten. Nausea (6% vs 61%, P < .001; median onset: 1:34 hours) and vomiting (0% vs 44%, P < .001; 1:51 hours) were the only adverse events more common with gluten than sham. Interleukin-2 was always below the level of quantitation (0.5 pg/mL) at baseline, and after sham. Interleukin-2 was elevated after gluten in 97% of patients (median fold-change: 20), and correlated with severity of nausea (rs  = .49, P = .0025) and occurrence of vomiting (P = .0005). CONCLUSIONS: Nausea and vomiting are relatively specific indicators of acute gluten ingestion, and correlate with immune activation. IBS-like symptoms without nausea are unlikely to indicate recent gluten exposure.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/etiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Doença Celíaca/metabolismo , Doença Celíaca/terapia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Glutens/farmacologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Nocebo , Placebos
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 141-144, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870875

RESUMO

The antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from bitter gourd were studied. It was found that bitter gourd polysaccharide could significantly increase SOD and CAT contents in serum, liver and brain of mice, and reduce MDA levels in serum, liver and brain to a certain extent in vivo. So, bitter gourd polysaccharide should be a potential antioxidant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Momordica charantia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Soro/efeitos dos fármacos , Soro/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
J Nutr Sci ; 8: e36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798864

RESUMO

Fasting is increasingly popular to manage metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Despite the role that the human gut microbiota plays in health and diseases, little is known about its composition and functional capacity during prolonged fasting when the external nutrient supply is reduced or suppressed. We analysed the effects of a 10-d periodic fasting on the faecal microbiota of fifteen healthy men. Participants fasted according to the peer-reviewed Buchinger fasting guidelines, which involve a daily energy intake of about 1046 kJ (250 kcal) and an enema every 2 d. Serum biochemistry confirmed the metabolic switch from carbohydrates to fatty acids and ketones. Emotional and physical well-being were enhanced. Faecal 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that fasting caused a decrease in the abundance of bacteria known to degrade dietary polysaccharides such as Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. There was a concomitant increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria (Escherichia coli and Bilophila wadsworthia), known to use host-derived energy substrates. Changes in taxa abundance were associated with serum glucose and faecal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), suggesting that fasting-induced changes in the gut microbiota are associated with host energy metabolism. These effects were reversed after 3 months. SCFA levels were unchanged at the end of the fasting. We also monitored intestinal permeability and inflammatory status. IL-6, IL-10, interferon γ and TNFα levels increased when food was reintroduced, suggesting a reactivation of the postprandial immune response. We suggest that changes in the gut microbiota are part of the physiological adaptations to a 10-d periodic fasting, potentially influencing its beneficial health effects.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Jejum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Intestinos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810219

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the possible glycemic effect of apple preload on acute postprandial glycemic responses (GRs) of a following rice meal, comparing with its co-ingestion counterpart and an apple sugar solution preload, based on equal carbohydrates intake. In a randomized crossover trial, 18 healthy female subjects consumed (1) rice, (2) co-ingestion of apple and rice (A+R), (3) apple preload and rice (PA+R), and (4) rice with sugar solution preload (same sugar profile as in apple) (PSS+R). Acute postprandial GR tests and subjective satiety tests were carried out for each test food. Compared with rice reference, the PA+R achieved a 50% reduction of the iAUC0-120, a 51.4% reduction of the average peak value, and a 52.6% reduction of glycemic excursion in 240 min, while the PSS+R showed 29.7% and 31.6% reduction of peak value and glycemic excursion, respectively. No significant differences were found between R and PA+R in any of the satiety characteristics. Compared with rice control, apple preload of 15 g available carbohydrates remarkably lowered the acute postprandial GR without negative effect on satiety. The sugar component may partly contribute to the glycemic suppressing effect of the apple preload.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Índice Glicêmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Oryza/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial , Resposta de Saciedade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(6): 61-67, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860200

RESUMO

The study of mechanisms of the metabolic disorders in conditions of deficiency or excess of individual nutrients in the diet is a live issue. The influence of the simultaneous excess sucrose intake and protein deficiency in the diet on the functional state of the liver remains poorly understood. The aim of the research was to study the rate of generation of the superoxide radicals, the content of triglycerides and glycogen in the liver, as well as the activity of enzymatic markers of the liver state in rats fed diets with different protein and sucrose content. Material and methods. The studies were conducted over 28 days on 48 white non-linear rats, randomized into 4 groups: 1 - animals fed full-value semi-synthetic ration (14% protein); 2 - animals receiving low-protein ration (4.7% protein); 3 - animals receiving high-sucrose diet (40% sucrose), 4 - animals receiving low-protein high-sucrose diet. Serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was determined by the kinetic method in the reaction of NADH-dependent reduction of D-fructose to D-sorbitol. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity and aspartate aminotransferase was evaluated using a kit of reagents (Ukraine). Results and discussion. It was found that in rats fed low protein diet, no changes in the de Ritis coefficient were observed, while the activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase in blood serum increased 1.7 fold. However, no changes in the rate of superoxide radical formation, as well as glycogen and triglyceride level in the liver were observed. In animals fed highsugar diet, a rise in the de Ritis coefficient on the background of increased serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activity (more than 3.5 times) was revealed. At the same time, the rate of the superoxide radical formation in the liver mitochondria enhanced by 3 fold, with an increased accumulation of glycogen and triglycerides. The most pronounced changes in liver state were observed in animals fed low-protein/high-sugar diet: a marked increase in the de Ritis coefficient with a 5-fold increase in the activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase, and a 6-fold elevation in the intensity of the superoxide radical generation in liver mitochondria. The triglyceride content in the liver doubled, while the glycogen content remained at the level of control values. Conclusion. The data obtained represent disturbances of the functional liver state as a consequence of the relatively short-term excessive consumption of sucrose, especially in combination with a alimentary protein deficiency. It was found that the leading factor in the formation of destructive changes in the liver was excessive sucrose consumption, while the concomitant protein deficiency exacerbated the functional changes in hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Ratos , Sacarose/efeitos adversos
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15761, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673045

RESUMO

Stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a key enzyme in lipogenesis as it catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), mainly oleate (18:1n9) and palmitoleate (16:1n7) from saturated fatty acids (SFA), stearate (18:0) and palmitate (16:0), respectively. Studies on SCD1 deficiency in mouse models demonstrated beneficial metabolic phenotypes such as reduced adiposity and improved glucose tolerance. Even though, SCD1 represents a potential target to resolve obesity related metabolic diseases; SCD1 deficiency causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates unfolded protein response (UPR). The induction of ER stress in response to SCD1 deficiency is governed by the cofactor, PGC-1α. However, the mechanism by which SCD1 deficiency increases PGC-1α and subsequently induces ER stress still remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that despite reduced lipogenesis, liver specific SCD1 deficiency activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) along with induction of PGC-1α and ER stress. Further, mTORC1 inhibition attenuates SCD1 deficiency-mediated induction of both PGC-1α and ER stress. Similar observations were seen by restoring endogenously synthesized oleate, but not palmitoleate, suggesting a clear mTORC1-mediated regulation of ER stress during SCD1 deficiency. Overall, our results suggest a model whereby maintaining adequate levels of hepatic oleate is required to suppress mTORC1-mediated ER stress. In addition, the activation of mTORC1 by SCD1 deficiency reveals an important function of fatty acids in regulating different cellular processes through mTORC1 signaling.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Fígado/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/deficiência , Animais , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
17.
Adv Nutr ; 10(Suppl_4): S332-S339, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728492

RESUMO

Dietary modification has been the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention since the middle of the last century when the American Heart Association (AHA) first issued recommendations. For the vast majority of that time the focus has been on saturated fat, with or without concomitant guidance for total or unsaturated fat. Over the past few years there has been a renewed debate about the relation between dietary saturated fat and CVD risk, prompted by a series of systematic reviews that have come to what appears to be different conclusions. This triggered a robust discourse about this controversy in the media that in turn has led to confusion in the general public. The genesis of the different conclusions among the systematic reviews has been identified in several studies on the basis of isocaloric substitution analyses. When the data were analyzed on the basis of polyunsaturated fat replacing saturated fat, there was a positive relation between dietary saturated fat and CVD. When the data were analyzed on the basis of carbohydrate replacing saturated fat, there was a null relation between dietary saturated fat and CVD. When the substitution macronutrient was not taken into consideration, the differential effects of the macronutrient substitution went unrecognized and the relations judged as null. The lack of distinction among substituted macronutrients accounted for much of what appeared to be discrepancies. Dietary guidance consistent with replacing foods high in saturated fat with foods high in unsaturated fat, first recommended more than 50 y ago, remains appropriate to this day.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Política Nutricional , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/farmacologia , Dissidências e Disputas , Substitutos da Gordura , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Adipocyte ; 8(1): 386-391, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771407

RESUMO

This study is the first to identify the effects of FTO genotype on the interactions between the level of macro-nutrients intake and the expression level of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) and homeobox transcription factor iriquois-3 (IRX3) genes This longitudinal study was carried out on 84 overweight and obese adolescent boys in Tehran, Iran. The rs9930506 SNP in FTO was genotyped at baseline and the level of FTO and IRX3 expression in PBMCs and macro-nutrients' intake were assessed at baseline and after 18 weeks of the intervention. The results identified that the higher carbohydrates intake significantly up-regulated the FTO gene (P = 0.001) and down-regulated the IRX3 gene (P = 0.01). Protein intake up-regulated the FTO gene (P = 0.001). In carriers of GG genotype of FTO gene, the amount of dietary carbohydrate had a positive association with FTO gene expression (p = 0.001, and p = 0.04, respectively). In AA/AG carriers, dietary protein was positively associated with FTO gene expression (p = 0.001) and dietary carbohydrate was negatively associated with IRX3 gene expression (P = 0.04). Therefore, dietary carbohydrateseems to be associated with FTO and IRX3 genes expression. These associations are influenced by FTO genotype.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Obesidade/genética , Sobrepeso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Regulação para Cima
19.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(5): 689-711.e1, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611148

RESUMO

Historically, low-carbohydrate (CHO) and very-low-CHO diets have been used for weight loss. Recently, these diets have been promoted for type 2 diabetes (T2D) management. This scientific statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence base available from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of low-CHO and very-low-CHO diets on body weight, lipoprotein lipids, glycemic control, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. In addition, evidence on emerging risk factors and potential safety concerns of low-CHO and very-low-CHO diets, especially for high-risk individuals, such as those with genetic lipid disorders, was reviewed. Based on the evidence reviewed, low-CHO and very-low-CHO diets are not superior to other dietary approaches for weight loss. These diets may have advantages related to appetite control, triglyceride reduction, and reduction in the use of medication in T2D management. The evidence reviewed showed mixed effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with some studies showing an increase. There was no clear evidence for advantages regarding effects on other cardiometabolic risk markers. Minimal data are available regarding long-term (>2 years) efficacy and safety. Clinicians are encouraged to consider the evidence discussed in this scientific statement when counseling patients on the use of low-CHO and very-low-CHO diets.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta Cetogênica , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029859, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical guidelines recommend that patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) learn carbohydrate counting or similar methods to improve glycaemic control. Although systematic educating in carbohydrate counting is still not offered as standard-of-care for all patients on multiple daily injections (MDI) insulin therapy in outpatient diabetes clinics in Denmark. This may be due to the lack of evidence as to which educational methods are the most effective for training patients in carbohydrate counting. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of two different educational programmes in carbohydrate counting with the usual dietary care on glycaemic control in patients with T1D. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is designed as a randomised controlled trial with a parallel-group design. The total study duration is 12 months with data collection at baseline, 6 and 12 months. We plan to include 231 Danish adult patients with T1D. Participants will be randomised to one of three dietician-led interventions: (1) a programme in basic carbohydrate counting, (2) a programme in advanced carbohydrate counting including an automated bolus calculator or (3) usual dietary care. The primary outcome is changes in glycated haemoglobin A1c or mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions from baseline to end of the intervention period (week 24) between and within each of the three study groups. Other outcome measures include changes in other parameters of plasma glucose variability (eg, time in range), body weight and composition, lipid profile, blood pressure, mathematical literacy skills, carbohydrate estimation accuracy, dietary intake, diet-related quality of life, perceived competencies in dietary management of diabetes and perceptions of an autonomy supportive dietician-led climate, physical activity and urinary biomarkers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03623113).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Dieta para Diabéticos/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Autogestão/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino
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