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1.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252250

RESUMO

Consumption of low-glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) may be superior to high-GI CHO before exercise by increasing fat oxidation and decreasing carbohydrate oxidation. We compared the effects of pre-exercise feeding of a low-GI lentil-based sports nutrition bar with a high-GI bar on metabolism and performance during a simulated soccer match. Using a randomized, double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design, participants (n = 8) consumed 1.5 g/kg available CHO from a low-GI bar (GI = 45) or high-GI bar (GI = 101) two hours before a 90 min simulated soccer match, and 0.38 g/kg body mass during a 15 min half-time break. The test involved alternating 6 min intervals of paced jogging, running, walking, and sprinting, and 3 min intervals of soccer-specific skills (timed ball dribbling, agility running, heading, kicking accuracy). Carbohydrate oxidation rate was lower during the match after consuming the low-GI compared to high-GI bar (2.17 ± 0.6 vs. 2.72 ± 0.4 g/min; p < 0.05). Participants performed better during the low-GI versus high-GI bar condition on the agility test (5.7 ± 0.4 versus 6.1 ± 0.6 s; p < 0.01) and heading (i.e., jumping height 24.7 ± 4.3 versus 22.2 ± 4.5 cm; p < 0.01) late in the soccer match (72 min). A low-GI lentil-based sports nutrition bar provides a metabolic benefit (lower carbohydrate oxidation rate) and a modest improvement in agility running and jumping height (heading) late in the test.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico , Futebol , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Recreação
2.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252374

RESUMO

Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) often differ in their diet composition, which may lead to conflicting results between randomized controlled trials. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of different degrees of carbohydrate (CHO) restriction on cardiometabolic risk markers in humans. The experimental LCDs of 37 human trials were classified as (1) moderate-low CHO diets (<45-40 E%, n = 13), (2) low CHO diets (<40-30 E%, n = 16), and (3) very-low CHO diets (<30-3 E%; n = 8). Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) in selected risk markers were calculated using random-effect meta-analyses. Differences between the LCD groups were assessed with univariate meta-regression analyses. Overall, the LCDs resulted in significant weight loss, reduced diastolic blood pressure BP, and increased total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), without significant differences between the three LCD groups. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were found with the very-low CHO diets compared to the moderate-low CHO diets. Decreases in triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were more pronounced with the low and very-low CHO diets, compared to the moderate-low CHO diets. Substitution of CHO by mainly saturated fatty acids (SFAs) increased total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C concentrations. Except for LDL-C and TAGs, effects were not related to the degree of CHO restriction. Potential effects of nutrient exchanges should be considered when following LCDs.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos
3.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 587-600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006375

RESUMO

Characterized by a wide range of behavioural, social and language problems, autism is a complex developmental disability that affects an individual's capacity to communicate and interact with others. Although the real causes that lead to the development of autism are still unclear, the gastrointestinal tract has been found to play a major role in the development of autism. Alterations in macrobiotic compositions have been reported in autistic children. Irregularities in carbohydrate digestion and absorption could also explain some of the gastrointestinal problems reported in autistic patients, although their role in the neurological and behavioural problems remains uncertain. A relationship between improved gut health and decrease of symptoms in autism has been reported as well. Studies done to evaluate the gluten-free diets, casein-free diets, pre- and probiotic and multivitamin supplementation have shown promising results. Probiotics have been thought to alleviate the progression of autism and reduce cognitive and behavioural deficits.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/dietoterapia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(3): e9039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077465

RESUMO

We previously reported that both the high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) given for two months promote lipid deposition and inflammation in the liver and brain of mice. The results obtained indicate a tissue-specific response to both diets. Herein, we compared the effects of HCD and HFD on fatty acid (FA) composition and inflammation in the gastrocnemius muscle. Male Swiss mice were fed with HCD or HFD for 1 or 2 months. Saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA), and n-6 PUFA were quantified. The activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1), Δ-6 desaturase (D6D), elongase 6, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. As for indicators of the inflammatory tissue state, we measured myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and gene expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10. The HCD led to a lower deposition of SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA compared to HFD. However, the HCD increased arachidonic acid levels, SFA/n-3 PUFA ratio, DNL, SCD-1, D6D, and MPO activities, and expression of IL-6, contrasting with the general idea that increased lipid deposition is associated with more intense inflammation. The HCD was more potent to induce skeletal muscle inflammation than the HFD, regardless of the lower lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos
5.
Animal ; 14(S1): s17-s28, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024574

RESUMO

Pregastric fermentation along with production practices that are dependent on high-energy diets means ruminants rely heavily on starch and protein assimilation for a substantial portion of their nutrient needs. While the majority of dietary starch may be fermented in the rumen, significant portions can flow to the small intestine. The initial phase of small intestinal digestion requires pancreatic α-amylase. Numerous nutritional factors have been shown to influence pancreatic α-amylase secretion with starch producing negative effects and casein, certain amino acids and dietary energy having positive effects. To date, manipulation of α-amylase secretion has not resulted in substantial changes in digestibility. The second phase of digestion involves the actions of the brush border enzymes sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. Genetically, ruminants appear to possess these enzymes; however, the absence of measurable sucrase activity and limited adaptation with changes in diet suggests a reduced capacity for this phase of digestion. The final phase of carbohydrate assimilation is glucose transport. Ruminants possess Na+-dependent glucose transport that has been shown to be inducible. Because of the nature of pregastric fermentation, ruminants see a near constant flow of microbial protein to the small intestine. This results in a nutrient supply, which places a high priority on protein digestion and utilization. Comparatively, little research has been conducted describing protein assimilation. Enzymes and processes appear consistent with non-ruminants and are likely not limiting for efficient digestion of most feedstuffs. The mechanisms regulating the nutritional modulation of digestive function in the small intestine are complex and coordinated via the substrate, neural and hormonal effects in the small intestine, pancreas, peripheral tissues and the pituitary-hypothalamic axis. More research is needed in ruminants to help unravel the complexities by which small intestinal digestion is regulated with the aim of developing approaches to enhance and improve the efficiency of small intestinal digestion.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Caseínas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fermentação , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
6.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943028

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of a grain-based (GB) and grain-free (GF) diet on protein utilization and taurine status in healthy Beagle dogs. Two practical dog diets sufficient in crude protein, sulfur amino acids, and taurine content were formulated with the same ingredients with exception of the carbohydrate sources. The GB contained sorghum, millet, and spelt while potatoes, peas, and tapioca starch were used in the GF. A total of 12 Beagle dogs were used in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment. The study consisted of an adaptation period of 2 wk followed by an experimental period of 28 d in which GB and GF were fed to the dogs. At the end of the adaptation period and every 2 wk after it (day 0, day 14, day 28), markers of taurine metabolism were analyzed in whole blood (taurine), plasma (taurine, methionine, and cystine), urine (taurine:creatinine), and fresh fecal samples (primary and secondary bile acids). Fecal samples were collected during the last 6 d of experimental period for digestibly assessment using titanium dioxide as an external marker. Taurine markers and digestibility data were analyzed in a repeated measures model and one-way ANOVA, respectively, using PROC GLIMMIX in SAS (version 9.4). Apparent crude protein digestibility was not affected by treatment, but dogs fed GF diet had lower apparent organic matter digestibility compared with those fed GB (P < 0.05). Greater plasma taurine concentrations were observed at days 14 and 28 compared with day 0; wherein dogs fed GF exhibited greater increase compared to those fed GB (P < 0.05). Whole blood taurine concentrations, plasma methionine concentrations, and urinary taurine:creatinine were also greater at days 14 and 28 compared with day 0 (P < 0.05), but no effect of diet was observed. Total bile acid excretion was similar between GF and GB groups, but dogs fed GF excreted a higher proportion of primary bile acids compared with those fed GB (25.49% vs. 12.09% at day 28, respectively). In summary, overall taurine status was not affected by dietary treatments, however, our results suggest that the higher content of oligosaccharides and soluble fibers in the GF diet may alter the composition of the fecal bile acid pool.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Masculino , Metionina/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Sorghum/metabolismo , Taurina/sangue
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 160: 108007, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953108

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine potential associations between the glycaemic index (GI), glycaemic load (GL), and carbohydrates and the incidence risk of type-2 diabetes (T2D) and the effect modification of obesity among Korean adults aged ≥40 years. METHOD: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for T2D were estimated in 8310 participants using a modified Poisson regression model. Dietary indices were averaged using repeated dietary assessments during follow-up. RESULT: After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive association between GI and T2D was found among women (IRR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.51 in the highest tertile (T3) vs. the lowest tertile (T1) for GI, p trend = 0.0310), but not for GL and carbohydrate intake. This positive association with GI was stronger in obese women (IRR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.15-3.19 in T3 vs. T1, p trend = 0.0137 for body mass index ≥23 kg/m2; IRR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.01-5.48, p trend = 0.0350 for waist circumference (WC) ≥ 85 cm). In men, there was no association before stratification by obesity, but IRRs of GI (T3 vs. T1) were significant and stronger with increased WCs (IRR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.02-4.98, p trend = 0.0439 for WC ≥ 90 cm). CONCLUSION: GI may be positively associated with the incidence of T2D in women, particularly in obese women. The association of GI with T2D incidence risk may also be positive even in men with high WC.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Carga Glicêmica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 545-554, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are produced by microbial fermentation of fiber in the colon. Evidence is lacking on how high-fiber diets that differ in macronutrient composition affect circulating SCFAs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of 3 high-fiber isocaloric diets differing in %kcal of carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat on circulating SCFAs. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that serum acetate, the main SCFA in circulation, increases on all high-fiber diets, but differently by macronutrient composition of the diet. METHODS: OmniHeart is a randomized crossover trial of 164 men and women (≥30 y old); 163 participants with SCFA data were included in this analysis. We provided participants 3 isocaloric high-fiber (∼30 g/2100 kcal) diets, each for 6 wk, in random order: a carbohydrate-rich (Carb) diet, a protein-rich (Prot) diet (protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat-rich (Unsat) diet. We used LC-MS to quantify SCFA concentrations in fasting serum, collected at baseline and the end of each diet period. We fitted linear regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine change in ln-transformed SCFAs from baseline to the end of each diet; differences between diets; and associations of changes in SCFAs with cardiometabolic parameters. RESULTS: From baseline, serum acetate concentrations were increased by the Prot (ß: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.35), Unsat (ß: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.33), and Carb (ß: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24) diets; between diets, only Prot compared with Carb was significant (P = 0.02). Propionate was decreased by the Carb (ß: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.03) and Unsat (ß: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.04) diets, not the Prot diet; between diet comparisons of Carb vs. Prot (P = 0.006) and Unsat vs. Prot (P = 0.002) were significant. The Prot diet increased butyrate (ß: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.09) compared with baseline, but not compared with the other diets. Increases in acetate were associated with decreases in insulin and glucose; increases in propionate with increases in leptin, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; and increases in butyrate with increases in insulin and glucose, and decreases in HDL cholesterol and ghrelin (Ps < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Macronutrient composition of high-fiber diets affects circulating SCFAs, which are associated with measures of appetite and cardiometabolic health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00051350.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Adulto , Apetite , Pressão Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Gorduras Insaturadas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 526-535, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prepregnancy diabetes, especially when severely dysregulated, is associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects in offspring. This suggests that glucose plays a role in embryonic heart development. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between midpregnancy dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of congenital heart defects in the offspring. METHODS: Offspring of mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort who filled out a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) covering midpregnancy dietary intake were included. Individual-level information on GI and GL, offspring congenital heart defects, and health and lifestyle covariates was linked. The association between GI and GL and offspring congenital heart defects was estimated by logistic regression. Further, we evaluated whether maternal intake of sugar-sweetened drinks increased the risk of offspring congenital heart defects. RESULTS: In total, 66,387 offspring of women who responded to the FFQ were included; among offspring, 543 had a congenital heart defect. The adjusted OR (aOR) of congenital heart defects among offspring of mothers belonging to the highest versus the lowest GI quintile was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.34; P-trend = 0.86). Results were similar for GL (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.24). A high intake of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (highest vs lowest intake-aOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.26, 4.64; P-trend = 0.03). No association was found with other types of beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not support an association between a high GI and GL in midpregnancy and increased offspring risk of congenital heart defects. Nevertheless, a statistically significant association between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages and a moderately increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects was observed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 536-544, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dynamic changes in body composition which occur during weight loss may have an influential role on subsequent energy balance behaviors and weight. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to consider the effect of proportionate changes in body composition during weight loss on subsequent changes in appetite and weight outcomes at 26 wk in individuals engaged in a weight loss maintenance intervention. METHODS: A subgroup of the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes) study (n = 209) was recruited from 3 European countries. Participants underwent an 8-wk low-calorie diet (LCD) resulting in ≥8% body weight loss, during which changes in body composition (by DXA) and appetite (by visual analog scale appetite perceptions in response to a fixed test meal) were measured. Participants were randomly assigned into 5 weight loss maintenance diets based on protein and glycemic index content and followed up for 26 wk. We investigated associations between proportionate fat-free mass (FFM) loss (%FFML) during weight loss and 1) weight outcomes at 26 wk and 2) changes in appetite perceptions. RESULTS: During the LCD, participants lost a mean ± SD of 11.2 ± 3.5 kg, of which 30.4% was FFM. After adjustment, there was a tendency for %FFML to predict weight regain in the whole group (ß: 0.041; 95% CI: -0.001, 0.08; P = 0.055), which was significant in men (ß: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15; P = 0.009) but not women (ß: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.07; P = 0.69). Associations between %FFML and change in appetite perceptions during weight loss were inconsistent. The strongest observations were in men for hunger (r = 0.69, P = 0.002) and desire to eat (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), with some tendencies in the whole group and no associations in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that composition of weight loss may have functional importance for energy balance regulation, with greater losses of FFM potentially being associated with increased weight regain and appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.


Assuntos
Apetite , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 352-367, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733858

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the effects of diet starch concentration and starch fermentability on inflammatory response markers and oxidant status during the early postpartum (PP) period and its carryover effects. Fifty-two multiparous Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized block design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were starch concentration and starch fermentability of diets; diets were formulated to 22% (low starch, LS) or 28% (high starch, HS) starch with dry-ground corn (DGC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) as the primary starch source. Treatments were fed from 1 to 23 d PP and then switched to a common diet until 72 d PP to measure carryover (CO) effects. Treatment period (TP) diets were formulated to 22% forage neutral detergent fiber and 17% crude protein. The diet for the CO period was formulated to 20% forage neutral detergent fiber, 17% crude protein, and 29% starch. Coccygeal blood was collected once a week during the TP and every second week during the CO period. Liver and adipose tissue biopsies were performed within 2 d PP and at 20 ± 3 d PP. Blood plasma was analyzed for concentrations of albumin, haptoglobin, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), and antioxidant potential (AOP), with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and TNFα evaluated during the TP only. Oxidative stress index (OSi) was calculated as RONS/AOP. Abundance of mRNA from genes involved in inflammation and glucose metabolism in liver and genes involved in lipogenesis in adipose tissue were determined. Data were analyzed separately for the TP and CO periods. During the TP, treatments interacted to affect concentrations of TNFα, haptoglobin, and LBP, with HMC increasing their concentrations for HS (9.38 vs. 7.45 pg/mL, 0.45 vs. 0.37 mg/mL, and 5.94 vs. 4.48 µg/mL, respectively) and decreasing their concentrations for LS (4.76 vs. 12.9 pg/mL, 0.27 vs. 0.41 mg/mL, and 4.30 vs. 5.87 µg/mL, respectively) compared with DGC. Effects of treatments diminished over time for LBP and haptoglobin with no differences by the end of the TP and no main CO effects of treatment for haptoglobin. The opposite treatment interaction was observed for albumin, with HMC tending to decrease its concentration for HS (3.24 vs. 3.34 g/dL) and increase its concentration for LS (3.35 vs. 3.29 g/dL) compared with DGC, with no carryover effect. Feeding DGC increased the OSi during the first week of the TP compared with HMC, with this effect diminishing over time; during the CO period HMC increased OSi for HS and decreased it for LS compared with DGC, with this effect diminishing toward the end of CO. Feeding HMC increased the abundance of genes associated with inflammation and gluconeogenesis in liver for HS and decreased it for LS compared with DGC. Feeding HS increased the mRNA abundance of genes associated with adipose tissue lipogenesis compared with LS. Results during the TP suggest that feeding LS-DGC and HS-HMC elicited a more pronounced inflammatory response and induced an upregulation of genes associated with inflammation and gluconeogenesis in liver, without effects on OSi, but effects on plasma markers of inflammation diminished during the CO period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Amido/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/veterinária , Bovinos/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Leite/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(1): 123-146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525940

RESUMO

The glycemic carbohydrates we consume are currently viewed in an unfavorable light in both the consumer and medical research worlds. In significant part, these carbohydrates, mainly starch and sucrose, are looked upon negatively due to their rapid and abrupt glucose delivery to the body which causes a high glycemic response. However, dietary carbohydrates which are digested and release glucose in a slow manner are recognized as providing health benefits. Slow digestion of glycemic carbohydrates can be caused by several factors, including food matrix effect which impedes α-amylase access to substrate, or partial inhibition by plant secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds. Differences in digestion rate of these carbohydrates may also be due to their specific structures (e.g. variations in degree of branching and/or glycosidic linkages present). In recent years, much has been learned about the synthesis and digestion kinetics of novel α-glucans (i.e. small oligosaccharides or larger polysaccharides based on glucose units linked in different positions by α-bonds). It is the synthesis and digestion of such structures that is the subject of this review.


Assuntos
Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glucanos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Amido
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 622-634, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing sugar in packaged foods and beverages could help protect children's future health. Clear methods for the development of feasible yet impactful sugar reduction program targets are needed. OBJECTIVES: To outline methods for the development of program targets that would reduce, by 20%, the total sugar content of packaged foods and beverages commonly consumed by children. New Zealand (NZ) is used as a case study. METHODS: Sugar content and pack size targets were developed using a 6-step process informed by the UK sugar and salt reduction programs. Food groups contributing ≥2% to children's total sugar intake were identified using national dietary survey data. Consumption volume, sugar content, and pack size were obtained from household panel data linked with a packaged food composition database. Category-specific targets were set as 20% reductions in sales-weighted means adjusted for feasibility, i.e., ∼1/3 of products already meeting the target, and alignment with existing, relevant targets. RESULTS: Twenty-two food groups were identified as major contributors to NZ children's total sugar intake. Mean reductions required in sugar content and pack size to meet the targets were 5.2 g  per 100 g/mL (26%) and 61.2 g/mL/pack (23%), respectively. The percentage of products already meeting the sugar targets ranged from 14% for electrolyte drinks and flavored dairy milk to 50% for cereal bars, and for pack size targets compliance ranged from 32% for chocolate confectionary to 62% for fruit juices and drinks. Estimated reductions in annual household sugar purchases if the sugar and pack size targets were met were 1459 g (23%) and 286 g (6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Methods for the development of sugar and pack size reduction targets are presented, providing a robust, step-by-step process for countries to follow. The results of the case study provide a suggested benchmark for a potential national sugar reduction program in NZ.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Açúcares/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/normas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Porção de Referência , Açúcares/metabolismo , Açúcares/normas
14.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 738-750, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827359

RESUMO

A common belief is that high intensity exercise (>60%VO2max) is best sustained by high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. The belief is based, in part, on an idea developed by Krogh and Lindhard in 1920. In the 100 years since, few studies have tested its validity. We tested the null hypothesis that performance in competitive recreational athletes exercising at >80% VO2max, during simulated 5-km running time trials (5KTT) would be impaired during a 6-week period of adaption to a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet, compared to their performances when they ate a diet higher in carbohydrate and lower in fat (HCLF). Seven male athletes (age 35.6 ± 8.4 years, height 178.7 ± 4.1 cm, weight 68.6 ± 1.6 kg) completed two maximal exercise (VO2max) tests (Day 1 and 39) and four 5KTT (Day 4, 14, 28, and 42) in a fasted state during two 6-week periods when they ate either a HCLF or a LCHF diet, in a randomized counterbalanced, crossover design. Exercise performance during the VO2max tests was unchanged on either diet (p = 0.251). Performance in the initial 5KTT was significantly slower on the LCHF diet (p = 0.011). There were no diet-related performance differences in the remaining three 5KTT (p > 0.22). Subjects exercised at ~82%VO2max. Carbohydrate oxidation provided 94% of energy on the HCLF diet, but only 65% on the LCHF diet. 5KTT performance at ~82%VO2max was independent of the runners' habitual diet. The HCLF diet offered no advantage over a diet with a high-fat content. Since these athletes run faster than 88% of recreational distance runners in the United States (U.S.), this finding may have wide general application.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia
15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(12): 1288-1298, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological association studies have reported inconsistent findings on the relationship between carbohydrate intake and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we aimed to conduct the first dose-response meta-analysis to investigate this effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic search in PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to June 01, 2019, together with relevant literature scrutiny, was performed to identify related studies for inclusion into the meta-analysis. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random effects model. Furthermore, subgroup, sensitivity, heterogeneity, and publication bias analyses were performed. This meta-analysis included 14 cross-sectional and four cohort studies, totaling 284,638 participants and 69,554 MetS cases. The highest versus the lowest carbohydrate intake values were associated with an increased risk of MetS (OR: 1.253, 95% CI: 1.147-1.368), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 54.5%). Using dose-response analysis, we found a linear association between carbohydrate consumption and MetS risk with a corresponding OR of 1.026 (95% CI, 1.004-1.048) and with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 82.0%) at 5% energy intake from carbohydrates. We have found similar results using subgroup analyses for major study characteristics and adjustment for confounders. Sensitivity analysis further enhanced the robustness of the results, and no publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION: Carbohydrate intake is associated with an increased risk of developing MetS. Therefore, additional large prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 485-504, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544530

RESUMO

The same food formulation processed to obtain two different starch gelatinisations (SG) and resistant starch (RS) contents was evaluated in old and adult dogs, regarding apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, fermentation products in faeces, and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. A diet with corn was ground and extruded in two different ways, obtaining Low RS (2.2 g/kg DM; 99.9% of SG) and High RS (15.3 g/kg DM; 62.6% of SG). Each diet was fed to adults (4.0 ± 0.7 years) or old beagle dogs (11.5 ± 0.4 years) in a 2 (ages) x 2 (RS amounts) factorial arrangement with 8 dogs per food. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance, and postprandial responses by analysis of variance of repeated measurements over time (p < 0.05). Diet × age interaction was observed for protein ATTD, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS than those for the other treatments (p < 0.05). No age or diet effect was verified for the ATTD of other nutrients and faecal score. Faecal moisture and pH were higher for adults than that for old dogs (p < 0.05). The High RS food increased acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations in faeces, regardless of age (p < 0.01). Old dogs presented lower acetate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and higher lactate and ammonia than adults (p < 0.05). Only for old dogs the intake of the High RS food reduced ammonia and increased faecal lactate (p < 0.05). An age × diet interaction was verified for glucose postprandial response, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS food (p < 0.05), while no differences were found for the other treatments. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion regardless of the diet (p < 0.05), and lower insulin increment at 180 min after the meal when fed the Low RS than when fed the High RS food (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the diet with lower SG and higher RS improved the intestinal microenvironment, with higher butyrate and total SCFA without altering faeces production or score. Old dogs presented less acetate and total SCFA and higher lactate and ammonia in faeces than adults. The High RS food increased lactate and reduced ammonia in faeces of old dogs, with possible positive influences for gut health. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion than that of adults to maintain blood glucose, and the diet with higher RS content reduced the postprandial glucose response of old dogs.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/química
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382709

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the effects of breed, diet energy source, and their interaction on adipose tissue transcriptome in growing Iberian and Duroc pigs. The study comprised 29 Iberian and 19 Duroc males, which were kept under identical management conditions except the nutritional treatment. Two isoenergetic diets were used with 6% high oleic sunflower oil (HO) or carbohydrates (CH) as energy sources. All animals were slaughtered after 47 days of treatment at an average live weight of 51.2 kg. Twelve animals from each breed (six fed each diet) were employed for ham subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-Seq analysis. The data analysis was performed using two different bioinformatic pipelines. We detected 837 and 1456 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) according to breed, depending on the pipeline. Due to the strong effect of breed on transcriptome, the effect of the diet was separately evaluated in the two breeds. We identified 207 and 57 DEGs depending on diet in Iberian and Duroc pigs, respectively. A joint analysis of both effects allowed the detection of some breed-diet interactions on transcriptome, which were inferred from RNA-Seq and quantitative PCR data. The functional analysis showed the enrichment of functions related to growth and tissue development, inflammatory response, immune cell trafficking, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and allowed the identification of potential regulators. The results indicate different effects of diet on adipose tissue gene expression between breeds, affecting relevant biological pathways.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Hibridização Genética , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Nutrigenômica , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412576

RESUMO

This review aimed to describe the potential mechanisms by which incretin hormones could mediate the relationship between glycemic index and cardiometabolic diseases. A body of evidence from many studies suggests that low glycemic index (GI) diets reduces the risk for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. In fact, despite the extensive literature on this topic, the mechanisms underlying unfavorable effects of high GI foods on health remain not well defined. The postprandial and hormonal milieu could play a key role in the relationship between GI and cardiovascular risk. Incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are important regulators of postprandial homeostasis by amplifying insulin secretory responses. Response of GIP and GLP-1 to GI have been studied more in depth, also by several studies on isomaltulose, which have been taken as an ideal model to investigate the kinetics of incretin secretion in response to foods' GI. In addition, extrapancreatic effects of these incretin hormones were also recently observed. Emerging from this have been exciting effects on several targets, such as body weight regulation, lipid metabolism, white adipose tissue, cardiovascular system, kidney, and liver, which may importantly affect the health status.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Índice Glicêmico , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Incretinas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incretinas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional
19.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 38(5): 435-444, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411571

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of oral curcumin, on bone health of rats fed a high-fructose diet. Suckling pups (males = 65, females = 63) were gavage with 0.5% DMSO, curcumin (500 mg/kg), fructose (20%, w/v) or a combination of curcumin and fructose daily from postnatal days 6 to 21. Then the rats were weaned onto normal rat feed for six weeks and each group was sub-divided into two subgroups: one had plain tap water and the other had fructose (20%, w/v) to drink. Blood was assayed for plasma total osteocalcin. Morphometry and radiographic bone density assessments were made on the femora and tibiae. The lengths, masses and Seedor indices of the bones were similar (p > 0.05, ANOVA) across the groups. Males that received curcumin with or without fructose during suckling and weaned onto a high-fructose diet had lower (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA) osteocalcin concentration versus the other males. Similarly, in females rats, curcumin alone or administered with fructose resulted in lower (p ≤ 0.05, ANOVA) osteocalcin concentration versus female rats administered the vehicle control. Neonatal curcumin-induced decrease in plasma total osteocalcin concentration may predispose to adverse consequences on glucose metabolism and bone health.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/farmacologia , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Osteocalcina/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Frutose/metabolismo , Frutose/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Desmame
20.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4751-4760, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309956

RESUMO

There is currently great interest in increasing provisions of healthier carbohydrate foods, particularly those that possess a low Glycaemic Index (GI) when measured in vivo. The metabolic response to many starch-rich foods is driven largely by differences in the rate and extent of starch amylolysis. Enzyme-kinetic parameters obtained from high-throughput in vitro amylolysis assays therefore have potential for rapid prediction of GI for starch-rich foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a starch digestibility screening method and resulting enzyme-kinetic parameters in comparing and predicting the GI of a range of carbohydrate-rich foods. Starch-rich foods (n = 20) with GI ranging from 36 to 81 were digested by porcine pancreatic α-amylase for 90 min under a fixed enzyme-substrate ratio (4 U/10 mg starch) at 37 °C on a rotary mixer. Starch digestion progress was determined by quantification of reducing sugar concentration in aliquots collected throughout the incubation. Indices of starch digestibility (C20, C60, C90, HI, C∞, and k) were obtained and compared with GI values. Digestibility curves revealed differences in the starch amylolysis for the broad range of foods tested. In vitro starch digestibility indices were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with GI, with the exception of the rate constant, k. Out of all the indices tested, C90 and C∞ were the most strongly correlated with in vivo rankings for GI of matched food products (Tb = 0.596, p < 0.001 and Tb = 0.599, p < 0.01, respectively), however the digestibility plots obtained for some of the more slowly digested foods were linear over 90 min meaning that C∞ and k could not be obtained from first order kinetic analysis. C90 was most strongly correlated with the absolute GI values (r = 0.724, p < 0.001). Overall starch digestibility profiles reflected differences in starch amylolysis for food with varying GI, and C90 provided the best indication of absolute and relative GI values across all product categories. The in vitro starch digestibility screening method shows potential for rapid prediction of GI values and is recommended for early stage food product development and for mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico , Cinética , alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/química , Amido/química , Suínos
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