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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235975, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649704

RESUMO

Rice cultivar "Weiyou916" (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica) were cultured with control (10 mM NO3-) and nitrate deficient solution (0 mM NO3-) for four weeks. Nitrogen (N) deficiency significantly decreased the content of N and P, dry weight (DW) of the shoots and roots, but increased the ratio of root to shoot in O. sativa. N deficiency decreased the photosynthesis rate and the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm), however, increased the intercellular CO2 concentration and primary fluorescence (Fo). N deficiency significantly increased the production of H2O2 and membrane lipid peroxidation revealed as increased MDA content in O. sativa leaves. N deficiency significantly increased the contents of starch, sucrose, fructose, and malate, but did not change that of glucose and total soluble protein in O. sativa leaves. The accumulated carbohydrates and H2O2 might further accelerate biosynthesis of lignin in O. sativa leaves under N limitation. A total of 1635 genes showed differential expression in response to N deficiency revealed by Illumina sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that 195 DEGs were found to highly enrich in nine GO terms. Most of DEGs involved in photosynthesis, biosynthesis of ethylene and gibberellins were downregulated, whereas most of DEGs involved in cellular transport, lignin biosynthesis and flavonoid metabolism were upregulated by N deficiency in O. sativa leaves. Results of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) further verified the RNA-Seq data. For the first time, DEGs involved oxygen-evolving complex, phosphorus response and lignin biosynthesis were identified in rice leaves. Our RNA-Seq data provided a global view of transcriptomic profile of principal processes implicated in the adaptation of N deficiency in O. sativa and shed light on the candidate direction in rice breeding for green and sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Fotossíntese , Carboidratos/análise , Clorofila A/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/química , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485615

RESUMO

COMBINING HYDRAULIC: and carbon-related measurements can help elucidate drought-induced plant mortality. To study drought mortality mechanisms, seedlings of two woody species, including the anisohydric Robinia pseudoacacia and isohydric Quercus acutissima, were cultivated in a greenhouse and subjected to intense drought by withholding water and mild drought by adding half of the amount of daily water lost. Patterns of leaf and root gas exchange, leaf surface areas, growth, leaf and stem hydraulics, and carbohydrate dynamics were determined in drought-stressed and control seedlings. We detected a complete loss of hydraulic conductivity and partial depletion of total nonstructural carbohydrates contents (TNC) in the dead seedlings. We also found that intense drought triggered a more rapid decrease in plant water potential and a faster drop in net photosynthesis below zero, and a greater TNC loss in dead seedlings than mild drought. Additionally, anisohydric R. pseudoacacia suffered a rapider death than the isohydric Q. acutissima. Based on these findings, we propose that hydraulic conductivity loss and carbon limitation jointly contributed to drought-induced death, while the relative contributions could be altered by drought intensity. We thus believe that it is important to illustrate the mechanistic relationships between stress intensity and carbon-hydraulics coupling in the context of isohydric vs. anisohydric hydraulic strategies.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Secas , Quercus/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Água/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557958

RESUMO

The effects of inclusion of persimmon peel (PP) in total mixed ration (TMR) silage on its nutrient composition, tannin content, and in vitro ruminal fermentation were studied. Four types of TMR silages containing 0, 50, 100, and 150 g/kg of PP on a dry matter basis were prepared. The dietary contents of non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) decreased, while soluble protein fraction increased after ensiling of the TMR. In the TMR silages, the content of insoluble tannin increased (p < .05) with increasing PP level. The fraction of soluble protein decreased linearly (p < .01), while that of neutral detergent insoluble protein increased linearly (p < .01) with increasing the PP level in the TMR silages. The total gas and methane yields from the in vitro rumen fermentation of the TMR silages were lower (p < .01) than those of pre-ensiled TMR and declined linearly (p < .01) with increasing PP level. These results indicate that adding PP to TMR silage may resist the breakdown of dietary protein during the ensiling process, although the ruminal fermentability of TMR possibly decreased after ensiling due to the loss of NFC.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Fermentação , Rúmen/fisiologia , Silagem/análise , Taninos/análise , Animais , Biocombustíveis/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , Metano/análise , Solubilidade
4.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 69(1): 48-51, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460510

RESUMO

The free and protein-bound amino acid composition of the herb and roots of Smallanthus sonchifolius was analyzed by HPLC method. Fourteen free and fifteen protein-bound amino acids were determined in yacon herb, and three free and fourteen protein-bound amino acids in the roots. Among the free amino acids, proline (0.44 µg/mg) and aspartic acid (0.12 µg/mg) were dominant in the herb and proline (0.28 µg/mg) in the roots. Among the protein-bound amino acids, aspartic acid (18.58 µg/mg), glutamic acid (16.33 µg/mg) and proline (14.52 µg/mg) prevailed in the herb, and proline (3.14 μg/mg) in the roots. Fructose, sucrose and arabinose were identified in free form in the herb of S. sonchifolius applying gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The polysaccharide complex was obtained from yacon herb, its yield was 5.13 ± 0.09%. Fructose (3.11 µg/mg) was the only monosaccharide identified in the hydrolysate of the obtained complex.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Asteraceae/química , Carboidratos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Extratos Vegetais
5.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 980-988, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180222

RESUMO

Thermal processing of pulse crops influences the type and levels of prebiotic carbohydrates present. Pulses such as common bean and chickpea are rich sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, including sugar alcohols (SAs), raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), resistant starch (RS), and amylose. This study determined the changes in prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations of seven common bean and two chickpea market classes after thermal processing (cooking, cooling, and reheating). A 100-g serving of common bean provides 0.7 to 10.6 mg of SAs, 3.9 to 5.2 g of RFOs, 57 to 143 mg of FOSs, 2.6 to 3.9 g of RS, and 25 to 33 g of amylose; cooling and reheating reduced RFOs but increased SAs, FOSs, and RS in many cases. A 100-g serving of chickpea (cooked at 90 °C for 4 hr) provides 1.2 to 1.7 g of SAs, 2.5 to 3.2 g of RFOs, 26 to 43 mg of FOSs, 3.6 to 5.3 g of RS, and 24 to 30 g of amylose; cooling and reheating reduced SAs and RFOs but increased FOSs, RS, and amylose concentrations. Processing methods change the nutritional quality of pulse crops by changing the type and quantity of prebiotic carbohydrates.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Cicer/química , Phaseolus/química , Prebióticos/análise , Rafinose/análise , Amilose/análise , Culinária/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Temperatura Alta , Valor Nutritivo , Transição de Fase , Sementes/química , Amido/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 317: 126387, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086121

RESUMO

The outstanding amount of phenolics and pectins of okra seeds and seedless pods, respectively, is well-known. However, their impact on bread nutritional quality, and particularly on slowing down α-amylase activity during crumb digestion, has never been studied. In this work, the phenolic and carbohydrate fractions of developed fine and coarse flours from okra seeds (OS) and seedless pods (OP) were investigated as well as their impact on wheat bread physical and nutritional quality. The use of okra flours dramatically increased the amount of extractable (EPP) and non-extractable hydrolyzable phenolics (HPP) of wheat breads, attaining up to 210.8 and 2944.8 mg/100 g of EPP and HPP, respectively, with only a 5% replacement with OS. Interestingly, breads made with fine OS and OP exhibited a second digestion rate upon 50 min of digestion, indicating a time-dependence hypoglycemic effect of okra constituents whereby OS-breads presented the slowest digestion rate and extension among all breads.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/química , Pão/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum , Carboidratos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Hidrólise , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química
7.
Food Chem ; 317: 126373, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087514

RESUMO

Over 3200 discrete soybean samples were obtained from production locations around the United States during the years 2012-2016. Ground samples were scanned on near infrared spectrometers (NIRS) and analyzed by HPLC for total isoflavone and total saponin composition, as well as total carbohydrate composition. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis of preprocessed spectral data was used to develop optimized models to predict isoflavone content. The selection of a suitable calibration model was based on a high regression coefficient (R2), and lower standard error of calibration (SEC) values. Robust validated predictions were obtained for isoflavones, however less than robust calibrations were obtained for the total saponins. The correlations were not as robust for predicting the carbohydrate composition. NIRS is a suitable, rapid, nondestructive method to determine isoflavone composition in ground soybeans. Useful isoflavone composition predictions for large numbers of soybean samples can be obtained from quickly obtained NIRS scans.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/análise , Saponinas/análise , Soja/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Carboidratos/análise , Modelos Lineares , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1619: 460941, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044124

RESUMO

Carbohydrates (such as levoglucosan) are a class of important water-soluble organic compounds in atmosphere. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was applied to characterize carbohydrates in aerosol particles. Since carbohydrate was a kind of compound with low response in mass spectrometry, the conventional HPLC-MS/MS method was not sensitive enough to determine it. When acetate acid was added into mobile phase as buffer, the transition of [M+CH3COO]-→[M-H]- could be selected as the quantification ions. In the range from 1.0 µg L-1 to 20 µg mL-1, the coefficients of regression (r2) were more than 0.990, and relative standard deviations (RSD) for replicated injections were lower than 2%. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were lower than 2.5 ng L-1 and 10 ng L-1, respectively. The precision and accuracy were examined by spiked samples at three different concentration levels (10 µg L-1, 100 µg L-1, and 500 µg L-1) in five replicates. Recovery ratios ranged from 85% to 115% with RSD lower than 16%. Matrix effects of different carbohydrates ranged from 62% to 120%. The most sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to analyze 40 aerosol samples successfully. The carbohydrates including three sugar alcohols (threitol, arabitol and sorbitol), one monosaccharide sugar (inositol), two disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose), one anhydrosugar (levoglucosan) and one 2-methyltetrols (2-Methylbutane-1,2,3,4-tretraol) were successfully quantified.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Atmosfera/química , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água/química
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1616: 460783, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952813

RESUMO

Royal Jelly (RJ) constitutes one of the most popular beehive products and for this reason the use of inexpensive sweeteners during its production remains an important quality issue. In the present study we report results of metabolic profiling of RJ samples obtained after the application of artificial bee-feeding using different feeding protocols. The hydrophilic content of RJ samples was assessed by applying (HILIC)UPLC-MS/MS. In total 96 crude RJ samples were analysed with the developed method. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed clear differentiation between the RJ samples obtained from control (non-fed) bees and samples obtained after feeding. In total 27 out of 57 detected molecules were statistically found to be significantly altered in the different comparisons. Among them some amino acids (e.g. tryptophan, lysine), amino acid derivatives (pyroglutamic acid), amines (cadaverine, TMAO, etc.), carbohydrates and vitamins were found as potential markers. The results of the study could be further used for the development of an LC-MS based analytical tool for RJ quality control assessment.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/química , Aminas/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitaminas/análise
10.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986161

RESUMO

Soaking hay fodder to reduce dust and soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents prior to feeding is common practice among horse owners. Soaking can increase bacteria load in hay but no information exists on how this process alters the bacteria profile, which could pose a health risk or digestive challenge, to horses by introducing foreign bacteria into the gastrointestinal tract and so altering the normal profile. The current objectives were to map the bacterial profile of 3 different hays and determine how soaking alters this with the aim of improving best practice when feeding stabled horses. A Perennial Rye grass hay and two meadow s hays were soaked for 0, 1.5, 9 or 16 hours. Pre and post treatment, hays were analysed for WSC and total aerobic bacteria (CFU/g), and differences in bacteria family profiles were determined using ANOVA with significance set at P<0.05. Bacteria were identified via genomic DNA extraction and 16S library preparation (V3 and V4 variable region of 16S rRNA) according to the Illumina protocol. Differences in family operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between individual dry hays and different soaking times were identified via paired t-tests on the DESeq2 normalised data and false discovery rates accounted for using Padj (P<0.05). Mean % WSC losses and actual g/kg lost on DM basis (+/- SE) increased with soaking time being 18% = 30 (10.7), 38% = 72 (43.7), and 42% = 80 (38.8) for 1.5, 9 and 16 hours soak respectively. No relationship existed between WSC leaching and bacteria growth or profile. Grass type influenced bacterial profiles and their responses to soaking, but no differences were seen in richness or Shannon diversity indices. PCA analyses showed clustering of bacteria between meadow hays which differed from the perennial rye grass hay and this difference increased post soaking. Soaking hay pre-feeding causes inconsistent WSC leaching, bacteria growth and alterations in bacterial profiles which are unpredictable but may decrease the hygienic quality of the fodder.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Bactérias Aeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Aeróbias/genética , Lolium/microbiologia , Molhabilidade , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Sequência de Bases , Carboidratos/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Cavalos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Água
11.
Food Chem ; 310: 125852, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735464

RESUMO

The objective was to characterize the effect of wooden breast (WB) myodegeneration on the metabolite profile of chicken meat by 1H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The results displayed that the metabonome of chicken breast consisted predominantly of 30 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, nucleosides and their derivatives. WB-affected samples showed higher leucine, valine, alanine, glutamate, lysine, lactate, succinate, taurine, glucose, and 5'-IMP levels, but lower histidine, ß-alanine, acetate, creatine, creatinine, anserine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels compared to normal fillets (p < 0.05). In conclusion, results indicated that WB-affected fillets possessed a unique biochemical signature. This unique profile could identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into biochemical processes leading to WB myopathy in commercial broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/química , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Anserina/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Creatina/análise , NAD/análise
12.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(2): 133-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702437

RESUMO

Watermelon seed is the potential source of value-added proteins, oils, and carbohydrates. The present study evaluates the extraction, and functional properties of watermelon seed protein (WMSP) obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method from watermelon seed (WMS). The optimization of various operating parameters, such as pH (9), WMS powder to solvent ratio (1:50 w/v), temperature (30 ± 2 °C), ultrasound power (90 W), frequency (25 kHz), and duty cycle (75%) has been carried out. The extraction yield obtained was 87% and the extraction time was lowered down to 9 min from 120 min of conventional batch extraction. It contains all essential amino acids in an adequate amount required for adults as per FAO/WHO guidelines while for 2-5 years old children, the content of valine and isoleucine are above the required range. Methionine and lysine contents are adequate for both children and adults. Functional properties of ultrasonic extracted proteins were found superior to conventionally extracted proteins.highlightsThe UAE method is more efficient for watermelon seed protein extraction.Impact of extraction parameters on the extraction yield was studied.Protein isolate with enhanced functional properties was obtained.Essential amino acid content was determined.


Assuntos
Citrullus/embriologia , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Sonicação , Adulto , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Temperatura
13.
Food Chem ; 306: 125595, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610324

RESUMO

Assessing the authenticity of honey is a serious problem that has gained much interest internationally because honey has frequently been subject to various fraudulent practices, including mislabelling of botanical and geographical origin and mixing with sugar syrups or honey of lower quality. To protect the health of consumers and avoid competition, which could create an unstable market, consumers, beekeepers and regulatory bodies are interested in having reliable analytical methodologies to detect non-compliant honey. This paper gives an overview of the different approaches used to assess the authenticity of honey, specifically by the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectrometric, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods coupled with chemometric interpretation of the data. Recent development in honey analysis and application of the honey authentication process in the Romanian context are highlighted, and future trends in the process of detecting and eliminating fraudulent practices in honey production are discussed.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Romênia , Análise Espectral
14.
Food Chem ; 309: 125686, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670130

RESUMO

Reducing sugars can react with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) to form sugar-PMP derivatives, which can be detected by HPLC-UV or HPLC-DAD due to their high UV absorbance at 248 nm. Six different sugars were synthesized with PMP with aid of response surface methodology (RSM), by which the parameters of the synthesis were designed within temperature ranged between 60 °C and 90 °C, and time from 60 to 180 min, respectively. Consequently, optimal conditions of the glucose (Glu)-, glucosamine (GluN)-, galactose (Gal)-, glucuronic acid (GluA), galacturonic acid (GalA) and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P-PMP) reactions were determined at 71 °C for 129 min, 73 °C for 96 min, 70 °C for 117 min, 75 °C for 151 min, 76 °C for 144 min, and 70 °C for 154 min, respectively. Experiments demonstrated that unique functional groups and delicate differences of carbohydrates' inner pH environment could significantly influence the sugar-PMP reactions. However, sugar stereoisomers did not have remarkable impacts on the reactions.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Carboidratos/química , Edaravone/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Galactose/análise , Galactose/química , Glucosamina/análise , Glucosamina/química , Glucose/análise , Glucose/química , Glucose-6-Fosfato/análise , Glucose-6-Fosfato/química , Ácido Glucurônico/análise , Ácido Glucurônico/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/análise , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Estereoisomerismo
15.
Food Chem ; 309: 125585, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708344

RESUMO

Seed samples from 117 genetically diverse pea breeding lines were used to determine the robustness of Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) for the rapid nutritional profiling of seeds. The FT-MIR results were compared to wet chemistry methods for assessing the concentrations of total protein, starch, fiber, phytic acid, and carotenoids in pea seed samples. Of the five partial least square regression models (PLSR) developed, protein, fiber and phytic acid concentrations predicted by the models exhibited correlation coefficients greater than 0.83 when compared with data obtained using the wet chemistry methods for both the calibration and validation sets. The starch PLSR model had a correlation greater than 0.75, and carotenoids had correlation of 0.71 for the validation sets. The methods implemented in this research show the novelty and usefulness of FT-MIR as a simple, fast, and cost-effective technique to determine multiple seed constituents simultaneously.


Assuntos
Ervilhas/química , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Carboidratos/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Amido/análise
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783508

RESUMO

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed is a valuable source of protein and oil worldwide. Traditionally, the natural variations were heavily used in conventional soybean breeding programs to select desired traits. However, traditional plant breeding is encumbered with low frequencies of spontaneous mutations. In mutation breeding, genetic variations from induced mutations provide abundant sources of alterations in important soybean traits; this facilitated the development of soybean germplasm with modified seed composition traits to meet the different needs of end users. In this study, a total of 2366 'Forrest'-derived M2 families were developed for both forward and reverse genetic studies. A subset of 881 M3 families was forward genetically screened to measure the contents of protein, oil, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. A total of 14 mutants were identified to have stable seed composition phenotypes observed in both M3 and M4 generations. Correlation analyses have been conducted among ten seed composition traits and compared to a collection of 103 soybean germplasms. Mainly, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis had a strong impact on the seed-composition correlation that was observed among the 103 soybean germplasms, which offers multiple benefits for the soybean farmers and industry to breed for desired multiple seed phenotypes.


Assuntos
Metanossulfonato de Etila/efeitos adversos , Mutação , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/genética , Proteínas de Soja/análise , Proteínas de Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/química , Soja/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225845, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800608

RESUMO

Bacteria within the digestive tract of adult honey bees are likely to play a key role in the digestion of sugar-rich foods. However, the influence of diet on honey bee gut bacteria is not well understood. During periods of low floral abundance, beekeepers often supplement the natural sources of carbohydrate that honey bees collect, such as nectar, with various forms of carbohydrates such as sucrose (a disaccharide) and invert sugar (a mixture of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose). We compared the effect of these sugar supplements on the relative abundance of bacteria in the gut of bees by feeding bees from a single colony, two natural diets: manuka honey, a monofloral honey with known antibacterial properties, and a hive diet; and artificial diets of invert sugar, sucrose solution, and sucrose solutions containing synthesised compounds associated with the antibacterial properties of manuka honey. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based sequencing showed that dietary regimes containing manuka honey, sucrose and invert sugar did not alter the relative abundance of dominant core bacteria after 6 days of being fed these diets. However, sucrose-rich diets increased the relative abundances of three sub-dominant core bacteria, Rhizobiaceae, Acetobacteraceae, and Lactobacillus kunkeei, and decreased the relative abundance of Frischella perrara, all which significantly altered the bacterial composition. Acetogenic bacteria from the Rhizobiaceae and Acetobacteraceae families increased two- to five-fold when bees were fed sucrose. These results suggest that sucrose fuels the proliferation of specific low abundance primary sucrose-feeders, which metabolise sugars into monosaccharides, and then to acetate.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Abelhas , Carboidratos/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Mel/análise , Sacarose/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Microbiota , Nova Zelândia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(28): 7461-7472, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616968

RESUMO

Five commercial ionic liquid (IL) columns have been evaluated for the first time for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of low molecular weight carbohydrate (LMWC) standards (mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, inositols, and iminosugars). A previous derivatization step was necessary to convert the LMWCs into their volatile and stable derivatives. Compared with conventional GC stationary phases, such as HP-1 and Supelcowax® 10, IL columns have shown a different selectivity in the separation of target compounds. Among the IL columns, only SLB™-IL82 allowed the elution of all the LMWCs studied. Its performance in terms of peak width and asymmetry, evaluated under different oven temperature conditions, was shown to be dependent on the carbohydrate class considered. As an example of application, a SLB™-IL82 column was successfully used to separate the complex mixtures of LMWCs in hyacinth and mulberry extracts. This column is an interesting alternative to the conventional stationary phases used in the GC analysis of LMWCs in real-world samples. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Temperatura
19.
Se Pu ; 37(9): 996-1003, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642305

RESUMO

A method of gradient elution ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection for simultaneous determination of twenty amino acids and six carbohydrates in soy sauce was established. The effects of column temperature, pH value of solution, and standing time were studied, and then the suitable gradient elution conditions were found for the determination. In the conditions that the flow rate is 0.25 mL/min, pH value of solution is in the range of 5.2-6.7, temperature of column is 35℃, the linear relationships of the 26 components are good and the correlation coefficients are not less than 0.995. Except glutamine, leucine, isoleucine and methionine, the limits of detection (S/N=3) of the other 22 components are less than 0.03 mg/L. The recoveries of the 26 components in soy sauce are 84.2%-109% at the spiked levels of 0.20, 0.50, 2.00 mg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) are in the range of 2.7%-7.8%. The method is efficient, easy, sensitive, and accurate for simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in soy sauce, and can provide an effective research technique for adulterated soy sauce.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica
20.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(11): 1063-1071, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611511

RESUMO

In this study, some physico-chemical properties, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars and mineral contents of sorghum, millet and lupin seeds. Sorghum (red, white and yellow) and millet seeds were purchased from market in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh). Lupin seeds were provided from in Turkey (Konya). Protein contents of seed samples ranged from 8.6% (yellow sorghum) to 37.7% (lutop) (p < 0.05). The extractable phenolics contents for gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of grains ranged between 1.43 mgGAE/g (white sorghum) to 8.23 mgGAE/g (red sorghum), and hydrolysable phenolics contents for GAE of grains varied between 1.48 mgGAE/g (white sorghum) to 26.10 mgGAE/g (red sorghum (p < 0.05). Total phenol contents of seeds were found between 2769 mg GAE/g (bablon) to 6087 mgGAE/g (yellow sorghum) (p < 0.05). Amino acid contents of millet changed between 0.02% (ornithine) and 2.07% (glutamic acid), while amino acid contents of yellow sorghum range from 0.02% (hydroxyproline) to 1.71% (glutamic acid), amino acid values of white sorghum changed between 0.02% (hydroxyproline) and 2.21% (glutamic acid), amino acid values of lutop seed changed between 0.02% (ornithine) and 6.77% (glutamic acid) (p < 0.05).While the oleic acid contents change between 25.27% (white sorghum) and 53.50% (Bablone), linoleic acid contents ranged from 14.60% (Bablone) to 42.67% (Millet) (p < 0.05). However, the amount of potassium in the seeds varied between 1831.34 mg/kg (while sorghum) and 11895.8 mg/kg (Lutop). Generally, protein, oleic acid, amino acid and mineral contents of lupin varieties were higher as compared to those of millet phenol, anthocyanin and sorghum seeds.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Lupinus/química , Milhetes/química , Minerais/análise , Sementes/química , Sorghum/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Ácido Gálico/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Arábia Saudita , Turquia
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