Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.345
Filtrar
2.
Food Chem ; 298: 124745, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260966

RESUMO

The chemical and sensory profiles of wines prepared from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes at different ripening stages vary greatly. Here, the soluble cell wall carbohydrate (SCWC) and phenolic profiles of wines were analyzed in parallel with the sensory evaluation of their mouthfeel and taste characteristics. Both SCWCs and phenolic compounds correlated with wine mouthfeel. When analyses were extended to specific classes of cell wall carbohydrates, it was shown that rhamnogalacturonan I/II, arabinan, arabinogalactan types I and II and xyloglucan from grapes were the key determinants of overall mouthfeel descriptors, particularly viscosity, astringency and roughness, whereas heteromannan from grapes was associated with mouth coating and chalkiness. A perceived sour taste was notably associated with higher homogalacturonan contents. This finding provides insights into the contributions of non-phenolic compounds to wine mouthfeel. The data provide opportunities for the development of simple monosaccharide marker assays to monitor major mouthfeel characteristics in red wines.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Parede Celular/química , Paladar , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Adstringentes/análise , Galactanos/análise , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Boca , Pectinas/análise , Fenóis/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 292: 260-266, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054674

RESUMO

The presence of 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-imidazole (THI) in beverages has raised several concerns regarding its toxicity to humans. The sample preparation and detection of THI in complex matrices is challenging owing to its high water solubility. Here we reported a rapid sample preparation method based on dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-µ-SPE) using polymer cation exchange sorbent as sorbent for the extraction of THI from beverage samples. THI was detected by high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The experimental parameters of D-µ-SPE on extraction efficiency were carefully optimized. Under the optimized conditions, high recoveries (83.4-96.1%) and good reproducibility (%RSD ≤ 8.7%) were obtained using D-µ-SPE-HPAEC-PAD and D-µ-SPE-HPLC-MS/MS. Limit of quantification was 75 ng/mL for HPAEC-PAD and 5 ng/mL for HPLC-MS/MS. This work proves the potential application the newly developed method for the quantification of THI in beverages containing caramel color.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Imidazóis/análise , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Polímeros/química , Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Imidazóis/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
4.
Food Chem ; 292: 166-175, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054662

RESUMO

Compositional characterization was performed on seven 'Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio' (PPV) tomato landraces, a signature product of Campania (Italy) threatened by genetic erosion. Characterization encompassed determinations of macro-minerals, soluble carbohydrates, starch, acidity, lycopene, polyphenols, anthocyanins, protein and free amino acids. Exceptionally high dry matter (13.0 ±â€¯0.2%) and sugar content (101.3 ±â€¯3.8 µmol g-1 fw) and very low (0.007-0.009) Na/K ratio were invariably obtained across landraces, contrasted by significant variation in acidity (28.5-3.9 g kg-1 dw). Giagiù, Acampora and Riccia San Vito differentiated by high polyphenols content (131.8 ±â€¯2.5 mg 100 g-1) while Acampora, Cozzolino and Fofò by high lycopene content (13.3 ±â€¯10.6 mg 100 g-1 fw). Glutamate, GABA and glutamine represented 65% of the 22 detected amino acids mean total content. Glutamate, linked to umami taste, was highest (19.2 µmol g-1 fw) in Fofò. Our results will contribute towards the systematic documentation of sensory and functional quality profiles of an important collection of tomato landraces.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Itália , Licopeno/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100047

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the dietary intake of caramel colours and their by-products 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) and 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) for the Chinese population. Based on the typical and maximum reported use levels of caramel colours in 15 food categories, the dietary intakes of combined and single-class caramel colours of Classes I, III and IV were estimated with the food consumption data from the China National Nutrient and Health Survey. Using the mean values of 4-MEI and THI contents in Class III and Class IV Caramel colour samples, the exposures to 4-MEI and THI from dietary caramel colours were derived. The results showed that the combined and individual average dietary caramel colour intakes for the Chinese population of different age groups were estimated to be 232-60.3 mg kg-1 bw day-1 for combined caramels, 5.9-29.2 mg kg-1 bw day-1 for Class I, 7.7-29.6 mg kg-1 bw day-1 for Class III, 21.2-54.3 mg kg-1 bw day-1 for Class IV, which were far below the group acceptable daily intake (ADI) and respective ADIs. The combined intake of 4-MEI from Class III and IV caramel colours was estimated to be 3.8-5.2 µg kg-1 bw day-1 on average, and 12.9-27.1 µg kg-1 bw day-1 at 95th-97.5th percentile for the general population. The anticipated exposure to THI from Class III caramel colours was estimated to be 0.1-0.3 µg kg-1 bw day-1 on average and 0.5-1.7 µg kg-1 bw day-1 at 95th-97.5th percentile for the general population. The dietary caramel colours intakes and the exposures to 4-MEI and THI from dietary caramel colour for the Chinese population were considered to be of low health concern based on the present toxicological data. Soy sauce, vinegar and compound seasonings were found to be the main contributors to the dietary intake of caramel colours.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Imidazóis/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Corantes de Alimentos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1621-1630, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112300

RESUMO

A chickpea-based high protein, ready-to-eat snack was prepared using six chickpea types. The chickpea seeds and their corresponding snack products were analyzed for proximate composition, antinutrients, and select quality parameters. Chickpea types had: lipid (4.25% to 6.98%), moisture (6.63% to 9.15%), protein (23.33% to 30.95%), and carbohydrate (54.60% to 60.40%) contents exhibiting significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences. Ash content (1.94% to 2.41%) did not register significant differences. Chickpea types did not show variability in either polypeptide profile or in vitro protein digestibility. In the tested seeds, hemagglutinins and α-amylase inhibitors were not detected, while trypsin (12.73 to 19.58 units/mg sample) and chymotrypsin inhibitors (62.91 to 84.91 units/mg sample) activity varied significantly (P ≤ 0.05). The chickpea-based snack product had intermediate-moisture (23.31% to 27.81%), was low in lipids (5.09% to 5.84%), free of antinutrients, and was a good source of proteins (12.45% to 14.10%), carbohydrates (51.86% to54.96%), and minerals (1.53% to 2.43%). The L* , a* , and b* values of the products ranged from 75.97 to 79.38, 3.46 to 4.75, and 27.65 to 34.65, respectively. The hardness, springiness, and fracturability of the product were 700.89 to 955.23 g, 43.38% to 47.14%, and 5.26 to 5.90 mm, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Development of new bean-based products, such as a chickpea-based snack with an overall good nutrition and taste, may play an important role in increasing the consumption of underutilized dry beans in the United States, shown to promote better health and wellness.


Assuntos
Cicer/química , Lanches , Carboidratos/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Sementes/química
7.
Food Chem ; 289: 404-412, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955630

RESUMO

In the present study, the nutritional value, bioactive properties, and chemical composition of various cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) genotypes cultivated in central Greece were investigated. The results demonstrated that Cynara seeds are a good source of fat and protein, while they also contain considerable amounts of K, Mg, and Fe and low amount of Na. Sucrose, oxalic acid, and α-tocopherol were the only free sugar, organic acid, and tocopherol isoform respectively, found among the studied genotypes. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid, while PUFA was the most abundant fatty acid class. All the tested seeds contained only two phenolic compounds, namely 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, while significant antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and antimicrobial effects were also observed. In conclusion, cardoon seed extracts could be exploited in the food and pharmaceutical industries as alternative sources of natural compounds with bioactive properties.


Assuntos
Cynara , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cynara/química , Cynara/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genótipo , Grécia , Fenóis/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 290: 159-167, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000032

RESUMO

A comprehensive characterization of commercial green tea (CGT) with the employment of independent variables such as low molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC), soluble solids, color and antioxidant capacity has been performed in this manuscript. Within the manuscript, a convenient HILIC-MS method, suitable to perform a simultaneous identification and quantification of all mono-, di-, oligosaccharides and cyclitols observed in green tea was introduced. The method covers all key analytes in a single chromatographic analysis. Fifty-six samples from different origins (n = 10) were evaluated to explore differences based on origin. In addition, commercial samples processed by pan-firing and steaming were used for comparative purposes, allowing the identification of putative processing markers. The results obtained contribute to gain a better knowledge of the variations, according to origin and processing, in composition and quality of CGT, commodity widely appreciated by the consumers.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dissacarídeos/análise , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Chá/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987041

RESUMO

In order to study the effects of nitrogen stress on the lipid synthesis of Parachlorella kessleri TY02 and to understand the changes in growth, photosynthetic pigments, total protein and total carbohydrate contents during lipid accumulation, the cells of the strain were cultured in nitrogen-deficient (N-) and nitrogen-rich (N⁺) media for one week. Changes in cell growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, neutral lipid and total lipid content, total protein content and total carbohydrate content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that, under nitrogen stress, the algal strain grew slowly, and chlorophyll and total protein contents decreased, while total carbohydrate and total lipid contents increased. This indicated that, under nitrogen stress, most of the carbon flowed to the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates. Meanwhile, reducing the nitrogen content was a relatively economical and easy to operate method of promoting lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estresse Fisiológico , Carboidratos/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013676

RESUMO

The traditional biochemical methods for analyzing cellular composition of oleaginous microorganisms are time-consuming, polluting, and expensive. In the present study, an FT-IR method was used to analyze the cellular composition of the marine oleaginous protist Aurantiochytrium sp. during various research processes, such as strains screening, medium optimization, and fermentation, and was evaluated as a green, low-cost, high throughput, and accurate method compared with the traditional methods. A total of 109 Aurantiochytrium sp. strains were screened for lipid and carbohydrate production and the best results were found for the strains No. 6 and No. 32. The yields and productivities could reach up to 47.2 g/L and 0.72 g/L/h for lipid, 21.6 g/L and 0.33 g/L/h for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the strain No. 6, and 15.4 g/L and 0.18 g/L/h for carbohydrate in the strain No. 32, under the optimal conditions, respectively. These results confirmed potentials of the two Aurantiochytrium sp. strains for lipid, DHA, and carbohydrate productions at industrial scales. The FT-IR method in this study will facilitate research on the oleaginous Aurantiochytrium sp., and the obtained two strains for lipid and carbohydrate productions will provide the foundations for their applications in medical, food, and feed industries.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/biossíntese , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/biossíntese , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estramenópilas/química
11.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 216: 249-257, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904632

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to apply ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to reveal feed molecular structure properties of oil-seeds and co-products and relationship with protein and carbohydrate degradation fractions in ruminant systems. The oil-seeds and co-products were from both various bio-processing industries in Canada and China. The protein and carbohydrate degradation fractions were evaluated with updated CNCPS system. Results showed that in the co-products from canola processing industries there are strong relationship between 1) soluble true protein (PA2) fraction and the following protein molecular structure spectral characteristics; spectral peak area of amide I and amide II (r = 0.56, P = 0.001), area of amide I (r = 0.67, P < 0.001), height of amide I (r = 0.74, P < 0.001), amide I and II ratio (r = 0.57, P = 0.001), α-helix (r = 0.82, P < 0.001), and ß-sheet (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), 2) slowly degradable true protein (PB2) fraction and height of amide I (r = -0.60, P = 0.001), α-helix (r = -0.72, P < 0.001), and ß-sheet (r = -0.51, P = 0.004), 3) soluble fiber (CB2) fraction and α-helix and ß-sheet height ratio (r = -0.63, P < 0.001), and 4) unavailable NDF (CC) fraction and height of amide I (r = 0.55, P = 0.002). These results indicated feed molecular structure spectral properties of the oil-seeds and co-products related to CNCPS protein and carbohydrate degradation fractions in ruminant systems.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Brassica rapa/química , Carboidratos/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Óleo de Brassica napus/metabolismo , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(10): 2149-2159, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848317

RESUMO

Crataegus products for food, nutritional, and pharmaceutical uses are available over the counter in the global market. The aerial parts are enriched with biochemicals and are used to treat cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disorders and cancer. Detailed study to understand the chemical composition and different levels within medicinally important plant tissues needs hours, such as plant response for metabolite flux and quality control purposes. Therefore, comprehensive metabolite profiling (qualitatively and quantitatively) of different tissues [leaves, flowers, stems, fruits (without seeds), and seeds; n = 5] of Crataegus rhipidophylla Gand. was performed by NMR techniques in one session. Fifty-eight compounds of different classes were unambiguously identified with the use of 1D and 2D NMR techniques (1H, 13C, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer with 135° angle, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) and quantified by a relative quantification method. Chemical compounds such as amygdalin (seeds), rutin (flowers), isovitexin (fruits), shikimic acid (leaves), and epicatechin (stems) were identified as authentication as well as discrimination markers for the respective C. rhipidophylla tissues. The fruits contain a significant mixture of important metabolites, followed by flowers and leaves. Trends of metabolite levels, upregulation, and downregulation in plant tissues were found, which highlights the responses of plant tissues in a specific time. NMR-based comprehensive metabolite information was used to develop the chemical signature, quality control chemical markers, and strategies to understand the chemical diversity of C. rhipidophylla. This chemical information from different aerial tissues will provide guidance for the extensive utilization of Crataegus.


Assuntos
Crataegus/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/análise , Crataegus/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 286: 522-529, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827642

RESUMO

The insoluble dietary fiber from ginseng residue (ginseng-IDF) was extracted using the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method with content of 68.61%. Ginseng-IDF had a polysaccharide content of 18.87%, uronic acid content of 7.85%, protein content of 6.52%, and had ideal water-holding capacity (17.66 g/g), swelling ability (15.05 mL/g), and oil-holding capacity (1.78 g/g). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses suggested that ginseng-IDF had the typical structures of hydrolysis fiber, polysaccharide functional groups, and crystal structure of cellulose. Different fiber components give ginseng-IDF a specified range of pyrolysis temperature, and it is suitable for application in food processing lower than 300 °C. In addition, ginseng-IDF exhibited notable glucose and sodium cholate adsorption, significantly improved nitrite adsorption at pH 2.0 and cholesterol adsorption at pH 7.0. The above results show that ginseng-IDF could be used as an ideal functional ingredient in food processing.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Panax/química , Adsorção , Carboidratos/análise , Colesterol/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucose , Estrutura Molecular
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2541-2554, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911753

RESUMO

Rotational grazing is a recommended practice for grazing livestock, but little is known about its benefits with respect to grazing horses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (CON) and rotational (ROT) grazing on forage nutrient composition and whether those concentrations influenced circulating glucose and insulin concentrations in the grazing horse. Twelve mature Standardbred mares were paired by age and weight and randomly assigned to 1 replicate of either a 1.5 ha cool-season grass CON or ROT system for a total of 3 mares in each system. Mares on CON were allowed to graze the entire system at all times, whereas mares on ROT were given access to a 0.4 ha pasture section and stress lot where they were confined during inclement weather and slow forage growth. Blood and feces from horses and forage from each system were sampled over one 24-h period in June, August, and October. Blood was assessed for plasma glucose (GLU) and serum insulin (INS), feces for pH, and forage for nutritional composition. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measures with significance set at P < 0.05. There were no treatment differences for water and ethanol soluble carbohydrates (WSC and ESC, respectively), starch, ADF, and NDF, but CP was lower in ROT compared to CON (P = 0.04). With respect to month, WSC were highest in June compared to August and October, whereas ESC were highest in June compared to only August. Starch was lower in October than in June and August. Concentrations of ADF and NDF were lowest in October compared to June and August. Crude protein was higher in October than June and August. Plasma GLU and serum INS were affected by season and time of day but not grazing system. For all horses, GLU was highest in August (105.6 ± 1.3 mg/dL), whereas INS was highest in October (0.21 ± 0.02 µg/L; P < 0.0001). Fecal pH only varied by season and was highest in August (7.06; P < 0.0001). Few consistent correlations between grazing systems were found with the exception of INS with ESC (R = 0.32 to 0.39; P < 0.04) and INS and GLU with ADF and NDF in August and October (R = -0.31 to -0.48; P < 0.04). In conclusion, grazing system did not affect the forage carbohydrate concentrations or GLU or INS in horses; however, season did have an effect on both forage nutrient content and glucose metabolism in horses.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Glicemia/análise , Cavalos/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carboidratos/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poaceae , Distribuição Aleatória , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917562

RESUMO

The production of rice-based beverages fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can increase the consumption of rice in the form of a dairy replacement. This study investigated volatile and nonvolatile components in rice fermented by 12 different LABs. Volatile compounds of fermented rice samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME), while nonvolatile compounds were determined using gas chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) after derivatization. The 47 identified volatile compounds included acids, aldehydes, esters, furan derivatives, ketones, alcohols, benzene and benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, and terpenes, while the 37 identified nonvolatile components included amino acids, organic acids, and carbohydrates. The profiles of volatile and nonvolatile components generally differed significantly between obligatorily homofermentative/facultatively heterofermentative LAB and obligatorily heterofermentative LAB. The rice sample fermented by Lactobacillus sakei (RTCL16) was clearly differentiated from the other samples on principal component analysis (PCA) plots. The results of PCA revealed that the rice samples fermented by LABs could be distinguished according to microbial strains.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Lactobacillales/fisiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lactobacillales/classificação , Oryza/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1972: 235-250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847796

RESUMO

DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis allows for accurate profiling of the asparagine-linked (N-) glycosylation patterns, a posttranslational modification present on many soluble and membrane proteins. This technique has been extensively tested to identify N-glycosylation patterns associated with serum proteins. Here we describe the use of DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis to identify the N-glycosylation patterns of prostate proteins in urine.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Eletroforese/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Glicômica/métodos , Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/instrumentação , Carboidratos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicosilação , Humanos , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/análise
17.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 35(1): 24-32, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844141

RESUMO

Several studies have reported the beneficial effects of Lawsonia inermis on wound healing, but the mechanism of action is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a new ointment formulation of hydroethanolic extract leaves of L. inermis on wound healing by gene expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) and insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-1) in Wistar rats. The animals were topically treated with different doses of L. inermis. An experimentally induced circular excisional wound model of 314 mm2 surface area was surgically created. The percentage of wound contraction and histopathological changes was assessed at different time points following wound induction. The expression of Glut-1 and Igf-1 was evaluated by reverse-transcription PCR. Topical administration of L. inermis, dose dependently, shortened inflammatory phase, accelerated cellular proliferation, and enhanced wound contraction ratio. It also improved revascularization, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization rate and promoted intracytoplasmic carbohydrate storage (P < 0.05). Moreover, the mRNA levels of Igf-1 and Glut-1 were significantly higher in the L. inermis-treated groups than the control group (P < 0.05). Topical administration of L. inermis promoted the healing process by reducing tissue inflammation and increasing glucose uptake, which was mediated by up-regulating the expression of Igf-1 and Glut-1.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lawsonia (Planta)/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Água/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reepitelização/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 282: 211-221, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861451

RESUMO

The effects of Acremonium cellulase and L. plantarum A1 with ferulic acid esterase activity on corn stalk silage fermentation characteristics, carbohydrate composition and enzymatic saccharification were studied at 25 and 40 °C, respectively. Corn stalk was ensiled without additive (C), Acremonium cellulase (AC), L. plantarum A1 (Lp) and AC + Lp for 60 days. Pretreatment with Lp or AC + Lp promoted the better silage fermentation and the degradation of lignocellulose as indicated by high lactic acid and low pH and lignocellulose content compared to control silages at 25 °C. AC + Lp performed better in reducing lignocellulose and DM loss. In addition, Lp alone enhanced enzymatic saccharification of corn stalk silage. However, the influence of L. plantarum A1 on corn stalk silage was not obvious at 40 °C. Corn stalk ensiled with combined additive is a suitable pretreatment method for subsequent biofuel production at 25 °C, but addition of Acremonium cellulase alone at 40 °C may be a promising method.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/análise , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Celulase/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/enzimologia , Silagem , Zea mays/química , Acremonium/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Food Chem ; 283: 675-687, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722926

RESUMO

Carob is a legume tree of a considerable commercial importance for the flavor and sweet industry. In this context, it is cultivated mostly for its pods, which are known for their nutritive value and multiple health benefits. However, metabolite patterns, underlying these properties are still mostly uncharacterized. In this study, the role of geographical origin, ontogenetic changes and thermal processing on the Ceratonia siliqua pod metabolome was assessed by mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics. Thereby, a total of 70 fruits primary metabolites, represented mainly by carbohydrates, organic and amino acids were detected. Analysis of secondary bioactive metabolites assessed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HR-MS) revealed in total 83 signals. The major signals, most significantly contributing in discrimination of C. siliqua specimens were assigned to tannins and flavonoids. PCA models derived from either UHPLC-MS or GC-MS proved to be powerful tools for discrimination of C. siliqua specimens.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Taninos/análise
20.
J Dairy Res ; 86(1): 120-128, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729899

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of two factors on the ripening profiles of hard cooked cheeses: (F1) the growth medium for the primary and adjunct cultures, constituted by autochthonous strains: Lactobacillus helveticus 209 (Lh209) and Lactobacillus paracasei 90 (Lp90), respectively, and (F2) the addition of L. paracasei Lp90 as adjunct culture. Four types of cheeses were made: W and M cheeses in which only Lh209 was added after its growth in whey and MRS, respectively; Wa and Ma cheeses in which both strains (Lh209 and Lp90) were added after their growth in whey and MRS, respectively. Physicochemical and microbial composition, proteolysis and profiles of organic acids and volatile compounds were analyzed. According to the methodology of the cultures preparation, W and Wa cheeses showed a higher level of secondary proteolysis and lower level of primary proteolysis (P < 0·05), lower content of citric and acetic acids and higher amount of propionic acid (P < 0·05), in comparison with M and Ma cheeses. The incorporation of Lp90 increased the secondary proteolysis (P < 0·05), decreased the citric acid (P < 0·05), and increased the propionic acid only when was added after their growth in whey (P < 0·05). Both factors significantly modified the percentages of the volatile compounds grouped in chemical families; in addition, for the half of the compounds detected, significant differences were found. Based on the obtained results, the use of Lp90 as an adjunct in hard cooked cheeses, and the preincubation of the cultures in whey are strategies to accelerate the cheese ripening and to enhance the production of some characteristic compounds of this type of cheeses, such as propan-2-one, hexan-2-one, 2- and 3-methyl butanal, heptan-2-ol, acetic and 3-methylbutanoic acids and 3-hydroxy butan-2-one.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Lactobacillus helveticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus paracasei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Acético/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Ácido Cítrico/análise , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus helveticus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus paracasei/metabolismo , Propionatos , Proteólise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA