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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200096, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495200

RESUMO

Biochar has been used to reuse the agro-industrial wastes and improve soil quality. Several studies have been carried out to show the impact of biochar on physical and chemical soil attributes. However, there are still gaps regarding the effects on as microbial biomass and enzymatic activities that are important to determine sensitive indicators to evaluate changes in management practices. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two biochars on the chemical, microbial biomass carbon, and the enzymatic activities in an Entisol cultivated with bean. We evaluate two types of coffee biochar: ground and husks, four doses (4, 8, 12, and 16 Mg ha-1) and control. All treatments received organic fertilization with cow manure. Husks biochar increase the soil pH, Ca, and K, also contributing to the reduction of toxic aluminum contents and raising the concentrations of P labile. The treatments that received ground biochar showed higher soil organic carbon, microbial biomass, ß-glucosidase, and fluorescein diacetate. Biochar produced from coffee residues increased sandy soil quality. We showed the first report on the beneficial impact of coffee biochar on enzymatic and microbiological quality of sandy soil cultivated with the bean.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Café , Areia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148363, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465051

RESUMO

The alpine meadow in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been seriously degraded due to human activities and climate change in recent decades. Understanding the changes of the soil microbial community in response to the degradation process helps reveal the mechanism underlying the degradation process of alpine meadows. We surveyed and analyzed changes of the vegetation, soil physicochemical properties, and soil microbial community in three degradation levels, namely, non-degradation (ND), moderate degradation (MD), and severe degradation (SD), of the alpine meadows in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that as the level of degradation increased, plant cover, plant density (PD), above-ground biomass (AGB), plant Shannon-Wiener index (PS), soil water content (SWC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) decreased significantly, while the soil pH increased from 7.20 to 8.57. Alpine meadow degradation significantly changed the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities but had no significant impact on the diversity of the microbial communities. Functional predictions indicated that meadow degradation increased the relative abundances of aerobic_chemoheterotrophy, undefined_saprotroph, and plant_pathogen, likely increasing the risk of plant diseases. Redundancy analysis revealed that in ND, the soil microbial community was mainly regulated by PS, PH, PD, SWC, and soil pH. In MD, the soil microbial community was regulated by the soil's available nutrients and SOC. In SD, the soil microbial community was not only regulated by the soil's available nutrients but also influenced by plant characteristics. These results indicate that during alpine meadow degradation, while the changes in the plants and soil environmental factors both affect the composition of the soil microbial community, the influence of soil factors is greater. The soil's available nutrients are the main driving factors regulating the change in the soil microbial community's composition alongside degradation levels.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Carbono/análise , Pradaria , Humanos , Nutrientes , Microbiologia do Solo , Tibet
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 639, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505936

RESUMO

Lower Shiwalik foothill ranges (Kandi regions) are dominated by different land use systems, varying in fertility status due to soil erosion owing to undulating topographical features. For assessment of soil nutrient status of study area, the soil sampling was conducted to investigate the variation in micronutrient status and physicochemical characteristics of soil. Long-range basis soil sampling was carried out in 11 blocks falling in the entire Shiwalik ranges of lower Himalaya under different land use systems (LUSs), viz., agriculture (AG), horticulture (HR), agri-horticulture (AH), grassland (GL), and agroforestry (AF) systems. A total of 440 soil samples were collected from two depths (0-15, 15-30 cm) for analysis. The results had reported that the soils were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (6.61 to 8.10) in the whole range. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was found to be varying from very low to very high (2.43 to 10.43 g kg-1). DTPA-extractable Fe and Mn were found to be in dominant concentrations in the soils whereas, the deficiency of Zn was found under all existing land uses. Interestingly, Fe (r = 0.62*), Cu (r = 0.44), and Mn (r = 0.35) micronutrients were positively correlated with clay content whereas Zn (r = - 0.02) was negatively correlated. Soil quality based on principal component analysis (SQI-PCA) reported clay, SOC, and Zn are major dominating parameters to be considered of soil in Shiwalik ranges.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Micronutrientes
5.
Science ; 373(6560): 1209-1210, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516807
6.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113485, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385114

RESUMO

Quantifying the decoupling states of carbon emissions from a multi-sectoral and dual-perspective can guide more detailed emission reduction strategies. Based on the single-regional input-output (SRIO), Tapio decoupling analysis (TDA), and structural decomposition analysis (SDA), this study investigated the dynamic variation feature and decoupling state of multi-sectoral carbon emissions, and revealed their driving factors of consumption-based emissions in Guangdong province from 2002 to 2017. The main discovery can be summarized as follows from results analysis. Firstly, electricity production sector and construction sector were the largest direct and embodied carbon emission sources, and capital formation was the most important factor with the contribution of approximately 100 % that led to embodied carbon emissions of construction. For most of the manufacturing and service sectors, the embodied carbon emissions caused by international export exceed 50 %. Secondly, the consumption structure, consumption per capita, and population effect promoted the embodied emissions during 2002-2012, while the emission intensity effect was the greatest offsetting factor for all sectors. Consumption structure effect was becoming a major driver to the increase of embodied carbon emissions for construction. Thirdly, agriculture, mining, energy transformation, and service sector showed the unsatisfactory decoupling relationship between direct carbon emissions and economic output. According to the decoupling states, the decoupling relationships in some secondary industries were overestimated under the situation of only considering direct carbon emissions. The obtained results and policy implications are expected to provide holistic reference for policymakers to promote the short-term carbon peak and long-term carbon neutrality of Guangdong province from the sectoral perspective.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Indústrias
7.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113490, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388547

RESUMO

This paper aims to examine the cross-correlation relationship between EU carbon market price and the economic policy uncertainty. The United Kingdom and the United State of America are chosen as the representative countries. We first conduct the linear analysis to explore the correlation of EU carbon market futures return with the economic policy uncertainty of the two countries. Our findings show that there is no linear correlation between EU carbon market return and economic policy uncertainty. Then, we apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis to examine the cross-correlation between the return of EU carbon market futures and economic policy uncertainty. The empirical results indicate that the cross-correlations really exist, and the cross-correlation behavior structure over different carbon trading phases are not the same. Moreover, the empirical results show that the anti-persistence between the EU carbon futures return and economic policy uncertainty changes from the UK and the USA are both relatively strong. The findings provide deeper insights and management implications for the carbon market from a new perspective.


Assuntos
Carbono , Políticas , Carbono/análise , Previsões , Incerteza , Reino Unido
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 107: 205-217, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412783

RESUMO

Interactions between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bacteria are central in the biogeochemical cycles of aquatic ecosystems; however, the relative importance of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) compared with other environmental variables in structuring the bacterial communities needs further investigation. Here, we investigated bacterial communities, chromophoric DOM (CDOM) characteristics and physico-chemical parameters as well as examined BDOC via bioassay incubations in large eutrophic Lake Taihu, China, to explore the importance of BDOC for shaping bacterial community structures and co-occurrence patterns. We found that the proportion of BDOC (%BDOC) correlated significantly and positively with the DOC concentration and the index of the contribution of recent produced autochthonous CDOM (BIX). %BDOC, further correlated positively with the relative abundance of the tryptophan-like component and negatively with CDOM aromaticity, indicating that autochthonous production of protein-like CDOM was an important source of BDOC. The richness of the bacterial communities correlated negatively with %BDOC, indicating an enhanced number of species in the refractory DOC environments. %BDOC was identified as a significant stronger factor than DOC in shaping bacterial community composition and the co-occurrence network, suggesting that substrate biodegradability is more significant than DOC quantity determining the bacterial communities in a eutrophic lake. Environmental factors explained a larger proportion of the variation in the conditionally rare and abundant subcommunity than for the abundant and the rare bacterial subcommunities. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering bacteria with different abundance patterns and DOC biodegradability when studying the interactions between DOM and bacteria in eutrophic lakes.


Assuntos
Carbono , Lagos , Bactérias , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444329

RESUMO

In this paper, we employ a directional distance function to estimate the opportunity cost arising from environmental regulations in China's industrial sector. The change of opportunity cost is decomposed mathematically into two components including technical change and input change. Our results show that the opportunity cost attributed to environmental regulation is nil in some regions. The change of opportunity cost is marginal at the national level, as the positive effect of technical change is canceled out by the negative impact of input change on opportunity cost. Built on our mathematical decomposition, we further estimate the effects of environmental regulations on opportunity cost using a mediation model. It shows that environmental regulation has a significantly positive direct effect and a significantly negative indirect effect through foreign direct investment on opportunity cost. Our findings suggest, firstly, that inward FDI in China's industrial sector represents relatively dirty production technology; and, secondly, industrial production has transited towards a less carbon-intensive input mix. This paper, therefore, provides new insights for the recent dynamics of carbon abatement performance of China's industrial sector with policy implications.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Investimentos em Saúde , Carbono/análise , China , Tecnologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148226, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412400

RESUMO

Absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, i.e. black and brown carbon (BC and BrC), affected heavily on climate change, regional air quality and human health. The nationwide lockdown measures in 2020 were performed to against the COVID-19 outbreak, which could provide an important opportunity to understand their variations on light absorption, concentrations, sources and formation mechanism of carbonaceous aerosols. The BC concentration in Wuhan megacity (WH) was 1.9 µg m-3 during lockdown, which was 24% lower than those in the medium-sized cities and 26% higher than those in small city; in addition, 39% and 16-23% reductions occurred compared with the same periods in 2019 in WH and other cities, respectively. Fossil fuels from vehicles and industries were the major contributors to BC; and compared with other periods, minimum contribution (64-86%) mainly from fossil fuel to BC occurred during the lockdown in all cities. Secondary BrC (BrCsec) played a major role in the BrC light absorption, accounting for 65-77% in WH during different periods. BrCsec was promoted under high humidity, and decreased through the photobleaching of chromophores under higher Ox. Generally, the lockdown measures reduced the BC concentrations significantly; however, the variation of BrCsec was slight.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fuligem/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Water Res ; 203: 117544, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419921

RESUMO

Widespread increases in organic matter (OM) content of surface waters, as measured by color and organic carbon (OC), are a major issue for aquatic ecosystems. Long-term monitoring programs revealed the issue of "brownification", with climate change, land cover changes and recovery from acidification all suspected to be major drivers or contributing factors. While many studies have focused on the impact and drivers, fewer have followed up on whether brownification is continuing. As time-series of OM data lengthen, conventional data-analysis approaches miss important information on when changes occur. To better identify temporal OM patterns during three decades (1990-2020) of systematic monitoring, we used generalized additive models to analyze 164 time-series from watercourses located across Sweden. Increases in OC that were widespread during 1990-2010 ceased a decade ago, and most color increases ceased 20 years ago. These findings highlight the need to reassess the understanding of brownification's spatial and temporal extent, as well as the tools used to analyze lengthening time series.


Assuntos
Carbono , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Suécia , Água
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360165

RESUMO

Energy transition in the transport sector (TS) is important for the goals of achieving carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060 in China. A number of scholars have conducted studies to identify the potential energy savings of the TS and to improve its energy efficiency. Most of them concentrate on the direct energy use (EU). The indirect EU along the supply chain of the TS is often neglected. In this paper, the direct and indirect energy use, i.e., the embodied EU, of China's TS is measured by applying a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model, where they are investigated from both the provincial and sectoral perspectives. Results show that intermediate use is the major driving force for the TS's embodied EU in China. From the sectoral level, supply from sectors such as petroleum refining and coking and demand from the service sector are the main reasons of the TS's embodied EU. From the provincial perspective, the TS's embodied EU is driven by low transportation technologies in most provinces located in central and western China. By contrast, abundant economic and social activities are the primary reason for the TS's embodied EU in most provinces in eastern China. In the terms of interprovincial transfer, the energy embodied in the TS flows from resource-intensive provinces located in central and western China to resource-deficient provinces in eastern China. In addition, a close geographical connection exists in the transfer. Finally, several strategies from the sectoral and provincial levels are provided for policymakers.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Fenômenos Físicos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148220, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380245

RESUMO

With changing numbers, compositions, emission standards and fuel quality of on-road vehicles, it is imperative to accordingly characterize and update vehicular emissions of carbonaceous aerosols for better understanding their health and climatic effects. In this study, a 7-day field campaign was conducted in 2019 in a busy urban tunnel (>30,000 vehicles day-1) in south China with filter-based aerosol samples collected every 2 h at both the inlet and the outlet for measuring carbonaceous aerosols and their light absorbing properties. Observed fleet average emission factor (EF) of total carbon (TC) was 13.4 ± 8.3 mg veh-1 km-1, and 17.4 ± 11.3 mg veh-1 km-1 if electric and LPG-driven vehicles were excluded; and fleet average EF of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) was 8.5 ± 6.6 and 4.9 ± 2.6 mg veh-1 km-1 (11.0 ± 8.8 and 6.3 ± 3.6 mg veh-1 km-1 if excluding electric and LPG vehicles), respectively. Regression analysis revealed an average TC-EF of 319.8 mg veh-1 km-1 for diesel vehicles and 2.1 mg veh-1 km-1 for gasoline vehicles, and although diesel vehicles only shared ~4% in the fleet compositions, they still dominate on-road vehicular carbonaceous aerosol emissions due to their over 150 times higher average TC-EF than gasoline vehicles. Filter-based light absorption measurement demonstrated that on average brown carbon (BrC) could account for 19.1% of the total carbonaceous light absorption at 405 nm, and the average mass absorption efficiency of EC at 635 nm and that of OC at 405 nm were 5.2 m2 g-1 C and 1.0 m2 g-1 C, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMO

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 547, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341861

RESUMO

Assessing carbon storage and sequestration is key for defining effective conservation actions to mitigate climate change. Forest species changes have direct impacts on carbon stocks and may lead to undesirable climate trade-offs. In this paper, we measure aboveground biomass (AGB) and the impact of forest changes on climate regulation through three land policy scenarios by 2030 in continental Portugal. We found that a High intervention scenario, supported by an important increase in "Other coniferous trees" class, will provide 29.5% more of carbon sequestration, whereas a Low intervention scenario, in which there is a moderate increase in all forest classes, will result in an increase of 5.7%. A business as usual (BAU) scenario, supported by an increase in eucalyptus forests and a decrease in autochthonous species, will decrease carbon sequestration (-2.7%), particularly Lisboa, Algarve and North regions. Economic valuation shows that the High intervention scenario will generate the highest economic outcome for climate regulation by 2030. This study provides a spatial-based methodology for monitoring carbon sequestration and new insights about the impact of policies for Green House Gas (GHG) mitigation, supporting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals achievement.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Portugal , Árvores
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 549, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345952

RESUMO

The study of the variability of physical and chemical factors of soil due to different intensities of livestock grazing can help in the management and maintenance of soil and vegetation. Accordingly, the effect of livestock grazing intensities on soil properties and vegetation in Bozdaghin rangelands of North Khorasan province was investigated. To investigate the effect of different livestock grazing intensities, Three 5-hectare plots in the study area were determined under different treatments (ungrazed (UG), moderate grazing (MG), and heavy grazing (HG)), and the effect of three grazing intensities on vegetation and soil physicochemical and erodibility properties (SPEP) was evaluated. The soil sampling process was performed at depths of 0-15, 15-30 cm and SPEP including soil saturation moisture (SSM), soil texture (percentage of clay, sand, and silt), absorbable potassium (K), electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic matter (SOM), absorbable phosphorus (P), acidity (pH), and bulk density were evaluated, and Soil Erodibility Index (SEI) was calculated by implementing the modified clay ratio relation. To assess the impact of various grazing intensities on all measured characteristics, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Duncan tests were utilized to compare the means and their grouping. The results showed that HG compared to MG causes worrying consequences in the first soil depth. Also with increasing grazing intensity, plant production percentage (P < 0.05) and vegetation density (P < 0.01) decreased, and the amount of bare soil (P < 0.01) increased. Also, with increasing grazing intensity, the amount of pH, EC, clay, saturated moisture, and N decreased (P < 0.01), but the amount of silt, sand, K, P, calcium (Ca), lime, and SOM increased (P < 0.01). UG improves soil quality, MG intensity causes optimal conservation and utilization of soil resources, and HG intensity causes severe changes in rangeland soil properties. In areas with MG intensity, due to the increase of the percentage of vegetation (an increase of SOM and prevents the direct impact of raindrops on the soil aggregates) and as a result improvement of soil structure and texture, an increase of water infiltration, and decrease of runoff, and the rate of soil erodibility and water erosion, the rangeland soil decreases and results in sustainable production. This results in optimal conservation and utilization of soil resources. So to sustainably exploit and balance the conservation of biodiversity, livestock production, and soil carbon and nitrogen management, MG is recommended.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Carbono/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Nitrogênio/análise
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360511

RESUMO

Modern agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, and agriculture has become the second biggest source of carbon emissions in China. In this context, it is necessary for China to study the nexus of agricultural economic growth and carbon emissions. Taking Jilin province as an example, this paper applied the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis and a decoupling analysis to examine the relationship between crop production and agricultural carbon emissions during 2000-2018, and it further provided a decomposition analysis of the changes in agricultural carbon emissions using the log mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. The results were as follows: (1) Based on the results of CO2 EKC estimation, an N-shaped EKC was found; in particular, the upward trend in agricultural carbon emissions has not changed recently. (2) According to the results of the decoupling analysis, expansive coupling occurred for 9 years, which was followed by weak decoupling for 5 years, and strong decoupling and strong coupling occurred for 2 years each. There was no stable evolutionary path from coupling to decoupling, and this has remained true recently. (3) We used the LMDI method to decompose the driving factors of agricultural carbon emissions into four factors: the agricultural carbon emission intensity effect, structure effect, economic effect, and labor force effect. From a policymaking perspective, we integrated the results of both the EKC and the decoupling analysis and conducted a detailed decomposition analysis, focusing on several key time points. Agricultural economic growth was found to have played a significant role on many occasions in the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while agricultural carbon emission intensity was important to the decline in agricultural carbon emissions. Specifically, the four factors' driving direction in the context of agricultural carbon emissions was not stable. We also found that the change in agricultural carbon emissions was affected more by economic policy than by environmental policy. Finally, we put forward policy suggestions for low-carbon agricultural development in Jilin province.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Produção Agrícola , Desenvolvimento Econômico
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3127-3135, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212638

RESUMO

To investigate the pollution characteristics and sources of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in Chongming Island, a background site of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China, PM2.5 samples collected from December 2018 to January 2019 were analyzed to determine their chemical compositions and optical properties. The results showed that the light absorption coefficient (Abs365,M) of BrC extracted by methanol at 365 nm was (5.39±3.33) M-1·m-1, which was 1.3 times of the water extracted BrC. Both increased significantly with the increase of pH values, suggesting that less acidic conditions can enhance the light absorption ability of BrC. In winter, both Abs365 and MAE365 (mass absorption efficiency) were higher in the nighttime than in the daytime. A strong linear correlation observed between Abs365 and levoglucosan (R2=0.72) indicated that many light absorbing substances in Chongming Island were derived from biomass burning emissions. During the campaign, nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) and PAHs accounted for (1.5±1.1) ng·m-3 and (8.3±4.7) ng·m-3, respectively, contributing to 0.1% and 0.067% of the absorption of the total BrC at 365 nm, respectively. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis further showed that biomass and fossil fuel combustions were the main sources of BrC in Chongming Island in winter, accounting for 56% of the total BrC, followed by secondary formation, accounting for 24% of the total BrC, with road dust contributing only 6%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carbono , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Combustíveis Fósseis
20.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113235, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298346

RESUMO

To achieve carbon neutrality, the Korean government has promoted regulatory policies on the transition toward a carbon free economy in 2050. Unfortunately, these policies face strong complaints from industries with respect to losing international competitiveness owing to extra cost burdens. Is it feasible to achieve a carbon neutral economy with these regulatory policies? This study tries answering the question by evaluating the CO2 emissions performances of the Korean manufacturing industry for feasible solutions toward a carbon neutral economy. For this purpose, we adopted the metafrontier Malmquist-Luenberger (MML) index to reflect group heterogeneity at the technology level. Forty subsectors of manufacturing industrial data were collected from 2012 to 2017, which were classified under four technological levels: high, middle-high, middle-low, and low. The CO2 emissions performance showed a poor effect from the policies, with an overall 0.8% deterioration (-0.8%) in the CO2 emissions. Under the group heterogeneity, the middle-high and middle-low technology groups showed a significantly slower upward trend, implying that the environmental regulatory regime did not have a strong effect on these groups. To obtain a feasible solution for this fine tuning, MML decomposition was implemented in the second stage. As the efficiency change is the main driver that influences the CO2 emissions performance, the Korean government should encourage the catching-up effect in industries via a green cultural revolution, as well as provide strong incentives to avoid negligible performance in the innovation effect, supported by more market-oriented emissions trading schemes (ETSs).


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Comércio , Indústrias , República da Coreia
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