Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.539
Filtrar
1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(4): 1871-1882, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in the serum of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients responding to carboplatin (CAR) plus paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapy compared to non-responders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum from 8 responders and 6 non-responders was subjected to proteomic analysis by label-free liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and validated by western blotting. CAR/PTX-resistant human H1792 and A549 cells were used for evaluating gene expression. RESULTS: Fifty-two proteins were differentially expressed between responders and non-responders. Alpha 1 antitrypsin antibody, alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (A1AG1), afamin, protein S100-A9 and immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (IGHG3) were validated. IGHG3 was elevated (p=0.037) while A1AG1 was reduced (p=0.003) in responders as compared to non-responders. Gene expression of IGHG3 and ORM1 in resistant cells showed consistent results with the proteomics profiles. CONCLUSION: Serum expression levels of IGHG3 and A1AG1 proteins may be useful to recruit an NSCLC subpopulation that can benefit from CAR plus PTX standard therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Orosomucoide/análise , Proteômica , Células A549 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807309

RESUMO

Platinum compounds have found wide application in the treatment of various types of cancer and carboplatin is one of the main platinum-based drugs used as antitumor agents. The anticancer activity of carboplatin arises from interacting with DNA and inducing programmed cell death. However, such interactions may occur with other chemical compounds, such as vitamins containing aromatic rings with lone-pair orbitals, which reduces the anti-cancer effect of carboplatin. The most important aspect of the conducted research was related to the evaluation of carboplatin affinity to vitamins from the B group and the potential impact of such interactions on the reduction of therapeutic capabilities of carboplatin in anticancer therapy. Realized computations, including estimation of Gibbs Free Energies, allowed for the identification of the most reactive molecule, namely vitamin B6 (pyridoxal phosphate). In this case, the computational estimations indicating carboplatin reactivity were confirmed by spectrophotometric measurements.


Assuntos
Carboplatina/química , Nucleotídeos/química , Complexo Vitamínico B/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Fosfato de Piridoxal , Riboflavina , Tiamina , Vitamina A , Vitamina B 6/química , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD010383, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation positive (M+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an important subtype of lung cancer comprising 10% to 15% of non-squamous tumours. This subtype is more common in women than men, is less associated with smoking, but occurs at a younger age than sporadic tumours. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness of single-agent or combination EGFR therapies used in the first-line treatment of people with locally advanced or metastatic EGFR M+ NSCLC compared with other cytotoxic chemotherapy (CTX) agents used alone or in combination, or best supportive care (BSC). The primary outcomes were overall survival and progression-free survival. Secondary outcomes included response rate, symptom palliation, toxicity, and health-related quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2020, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to 27th July 2020), Embase (1980 to 27th July 2020), and ISI Web of Science (1899 to 27th July 2020). We also searched the conference abstracts of the American Society for Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology (July 2020); Evidence Review Group submissions to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; and the reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Parallel-group randomised controlled trials comparing EGFR-targeted agents (alone or in combination with cytotoxic agents or BSC) with cytotoxic chemotherapy (single or doublet) or BSC in chemotherapy-naive patients with locally advanced or metastatic (stage IIIB or IV) EGFR M+ NSCLC unsuitable for treatment with curative intent. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently identified articles, extracted data, and carried out the 'Risk of bias' assessment. We conducted meta-analyses using a fixed-effect model unless there was substantial heterogeneity, in which case we also performed a random-effects analysis as a sensitivity analysis. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-two trials met the inclusion criteria. Ten of these exclusively recruited people with EGFR M+ NSCLC; the remainder recruited a mixed population and reported results for people with EGFR M+ NSCLC as subgroup analyses. The number of participants with EGFR M+ tumours totalled 3023, of whom approximately 2563 were of Asian origin. Overall survival (OS) data showed inconsistent results between the included trials that compared EGFR-targeted treatments against cytotoxic chemotherapy or placebo. Erlotinib was used in eight trials, gefitinib in nine trials, afatinib in two trials, cetuximab in two trials, and icotinib in one trial. The findings of FASTACT 2 suggested a clinical benefit for OS for participants treated with erlotinib plus cytotoxic chemotherapy when compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy alone, as did the Han 2017 trial for gefitinib plus cytotoxic chemotherapy, but both results were based on a small number of participants (n = 97 and 122, respectively). For progression-free survival (PFS), a pooled analysis of four trials showed evidence of clinical benefit for erlotinib compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR) 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 0.39 ; 583 participants ; high-certainty evidence). A pooled analysis of two trials of gefitinib versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin showed evidence of clinical benefit for PFS for gefitinib (HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.48 ; 491 participants high-certainty evidence), and a pooled analysis of two trials of gefitinib versus pemetrexed plus carboplatin with pemetrexed maintenance also showed evidence of clinical benefit for PFS for gefitinib (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.74, 371 participants ; moderate-certainty evidence). Afatinib showed evidence of clinical benefit for PFS when compared with chemotherapy in a pooled analysis of two trials (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.53, 709 participants high-certainty evidence). All but one small trial showed a corresponding improvement in response rate with tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) compared to chemotherapy. Commonly reported grade 3/4 adverse events associated with afatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib and icotinib monotherapy were rash and diarrhoea. Myelosuppression was consistently worse in the chemotherapy arms; fatigue and anorexia were also associated with some chemotherapies. Seven trials reported on health-related quality of life and symptom improvement using different methodologies. For each of erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib, two trials showed improvement in one or more indices for the TKI compared to chemotherapy. The quality of evidence was high for the comparisons of erlotinib and gefitinib with cytotoxic chemotherapy and for the comparison of afatinib with cytotoxic chemotherapy. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib and icotinib are all active agents in EGFR M+ NSCLC patients, and demonstrate an increased tumour response rate and prolonged PFS compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. We found a beneficial effect of the TKI compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy in adverse effect and health-related quality of life. We found limited evidence for increased OS for the TKI when compared with standard chemotherapy, but the majority of the included trials allowed participants to switch treatments on disease progression, which will have a confounding effect on any OS analysis. Single agent-TKI remains the standard of care and the benefit of combining a TKI and chemotherapy remains uncertain as the evidence is based on small patient numbers. Cytotoxic chemotherapy is less effective in EGFR M+ NSCLC than erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib or icotinib and is associated with greater toxicity. There are no data supporting the use of monoclonal antibody therapy. Icotinib is not available outside China.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Afatinib/efeitos adversos , Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Viés , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Éteres de Coroa/efeitos adversos , Éteres de Coroa/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gefitinibe/efeitos adversos , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Quinazolinas/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Cir. Esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 99(1): 27-33, ene. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200218

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La neoplasia quística hepática es una neoplasia poco frecuente, que representa aproximadamente el 5% de las lesiones quísticas del hígado. El diagnóstico preoperatorio es difícil y puede causar confusión. El objetivo del estudio es analizar una serie de casos operados en nuestro centro con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de neoplasia quística hepática y describir la sintomatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de acuerdo con la actual clasificación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de todas las neoplasias quísticas hepáticas operadas entre enero de 2000 y diciembre de 2019. El estudio se basó en los informes de anatomía patológica ya existentes. Los casos anteriores al 2010 fueron reclasificados según la clasificación de la OMS del año 2010. RESULTADOS: La muestra total del estudio resultó en 10 pacientes: 6 fueron neoplasias mucinosas quísticas hepáticas y 4 neoplasias papilares intraductales biliares. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron mujeres (8/10) y la edad media fue de 47 años. En cuanto al tratamiento, hubo 3 hepatectomías y 7 enucleaciones. En ningún caso se realizó una biopsia intraoperatoria de los márgenes quirúrgicos. En un caso se observó atipia celular variable con zonas de adenocarcinoma, por lo que el paciente recibió quimioterapia adyuvante con taxol y carboplatino. En todos los casos los márgenes de resección fueron negativos. CONCLUSIÓN: Las neoplasias quísticas hepáticas son tumores poco frecuentes, que plantean un dilema en el diagnóstico diferencial, por lo que, ante la sospecha radiológica, el tratamiento de elección debería ser la resección completa del tumor para evitar su malignización y la recidiva


INTRODUCTION: The hepatic cystic tumour is a very rare neoplasm, representing about 5% of all cystic liver neoplasms. The preoperative diagnosis is difficult and can lead to confusion. The aim of this study is to analyze a number of cases operated at our centre with an histologic diagnosis of liver cystic neoplasms and also to describe the sintomathology, diagnosis and management as per the recent classification. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed including all the cystic liver neoplasms operated between January 2000 and December 2019. The study was performed based on the pre-existing pathology archives. The 2010 previous cases were reclassified following the new 2010 OMS classification. RESULTS: The study sample was of 10 patients, identifying 6 of them as mucinous cystic liver neoplasms, and the other 4 as intraductal papillary biliary neoplasms. The majority of the patients were women (8/10) and the median age was 47 years. Regarding the treatment, 3 hepatectomy and 7 enucleations were performed. Frozen section intraoperatively was not required in any case. In one case, variable cellular atypia with areas of adenocarcinoma was observed, and the patient received neoadyuvant chemotherapy with taxol and carboplatin. In all cases the resection margins were negative. CONCLUSION: Cystic liver neoplasms are infrequent tumours with a difficult differential diagnosis. Therefore, with a high radiological suspicious, the treatment should be a complete resection to avoid recurrences and malignancies


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoperitônio/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/classificação , Patologia/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial
5.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 158: 103209, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388455

RESUMO

Despite optimal first-line treatment based on debulking surgery and platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy, most of the patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) will eventually relapse. Over the last decades, different strategies have been assessed to improve AOC patients' outcomes in the front-line treatment. However, first line treatment landscape of AOC had not undergone major changes until the last three years. In the present review, we will navigate through the different therapeutic approaches developed in first-line AOC which range from variations in dose/administration via of conventional carboplatin-based chemotherapy to the incorporation of anti-angiogenic agents and PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Medicina de Precisão , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel
6.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1534-1544, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462883

RESUMO

IMpower132 explored the safety and efficacy of atezolizumab plus pemetrexed and platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Key eligibility criteria for the phase 3, open-label, IMpower132 study included age ≥18 y, histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced non-squamous NSCLC per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0/1, and no prior systemic treatment for stage IV NSCLC. Patients received atezolizumab (1200 mg) plus pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 ) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 ) or carboplatin (area under the concentration curve, 6 mg/mL/min) (APP arm) or chemotherapy alone (PP arm). The co-primary study endpoints were overall survival (OS) and investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) per RECIST 1.1 in the intention-to-treat population. A subgroup analysis was conducted in Japanese patients. In the Japanese subgroup (n = 101), median OS was 30.8 (95% CI, 24.3 to not estimable) mo in the APP arm (n = 48) and 22.2 (95% CI, 15.7-30.8) mo in the PP arm (n = 53; hazard ratio [HR], 0.63 [95% CI, 0.36-1.14]). PFS was 12.8 (95% CI, 8.6-16.6) mo in the APP arm vs 4.5 (95% CI, 4.1-6.7) mo in the PP arm (HR, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.21-0.58]). Grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 68.8% of APP arm patients and 44.2% of PP arm patients. Consistent with global study results, atezolizumab plus pemetrexed and platinum-based chemotherapy improved efficacy and was well tolerated in Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC despite a higher incidence of grade 3/4 TRAEs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 653-664, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report the final results of the phase 3 IMpower132 study evaluating atezolizumab plus carboplatin or cisplatin plus pemetrexed (APP) in patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. METHODS: Chemotherapy-naive patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK genetic alterations were randomized in a one-to-one ratio to receive four or six cycles of carboplatin or cisplatin plus pemetrexed (PP) or APP every 3 weeks, followed by maintenance therapy with atezolizumab plus pemetrexed or pemetrexed alone. Co-primary end points were overall survival (OS) and investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 578 patients (APP, n = 292; PP, n = 286). At the primary PFS analysis (May 22, 2018; median follow-up, 14.8 mo), APP exhibited significant PFS improvement versus PP (median = 7.6 versus 5.2 mo, stratified hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.72, p < 0.0001). OS for the APP group was numerically better but not statistically significant at the interim (May 22, 2018; median = 18.1 versus 13.6 mo, stratified HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.64-1.03, p = 0.0797) and final analyses (July 18, 2019; median = 17.5 versus 13.6 mo; stratified HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.71-1.06, p = 0.1546). The OS and PFS results favored APP versus PP across subgroups. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 54.6% (APP) and 40.1% (PP) of patients; grade 5 treatment-related events occurred in 3.8% and 2.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: IMpower132 met its co-primary PFS end point but not its co-primary OS end point, with numerical improvement for OS in the APP arm. APP had a manageable safety profile, with no new or unexpected safety signals identified.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico
8.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 51(3): 492-497, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377156

RESUMO

BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are at high risk for type II ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer. Although risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy plays an important role in the prevention of these BRCA1/2-associated gynecological cancers, occult ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer is discovered upon risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in 1-4% of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Notably, around 30% of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy have undergone adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. We describe the discovery and treatment of occult cancer at the edge of the left fimbria in a BRCA1 mutation carrier who had, just a short time previously, undergone neoadjuvant paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC) chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer. During subsequent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, a 5.5-mm nodule was observed at the edge of the left fimbria. Microscopic examination of the tumour tissue revealed high-grade serous carcinoma with degenerate tumour cells and fibrosis. Peritoneal fluid was negative for cancer cells. Two months later, hysterectomy, omentectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy were performed. The final diagnosis was stage FIGO IA fallopian tube cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy (TC administered every 3 weeks) was applied, and there has been no evidence of recurrence for 5 years. In applying gynecologic surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, we followed the general recommendation for stage IA fallopian tube cancer. There is no standard strategy for the treatment of occult fallopian tube cancer detected after chemotherapy for BRCA1-associated triple-negative breast cancer. According to our experience in this case, we believe the clinical value of staging laparotomy in cases of a small occult BRCA1/2-associated gynecological cancer should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/patologia , Salpingo-Ooforectomia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carboplatin is a potent cytoreductive agent for a variety of solid tumors. However, when delivered systemically, clinical efficacy for the treatment of high grade gliomas is poor due to limited penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Direct intracerebral (IC) convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of carboplatin has been used to bypass the BBB and successfully treat the F98 rat glioma. Based on these studies, we initiated a Phase I clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: This Phase I clinical trial was conducted to establish the maximum tolerated dose and define the toxicity profile of carboplatin delivered intracerebrally via convection enhanced delivery (CED) for patients with high grade glial neoplasms. METHODS: Cohorts of 3 patients with recurrent WHO grade III or IV gliomas were treated with escalating doses of CED carboplatin (1-4 µg in 54mL over 72 hours) delivered via catheters placed at the time of recurrent tumor resection. The primary outcome measure was determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary outcome measures included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and radiographic correlation. RESULTS: A total of 10 patients have completed treatment with infusion doses of carboplatin of 1µg, 2µg, and 4µg. The total planned volume of infusion was 54mL for each patient. All patients had previously received surgery and chemoradiation. Histology at treatment include GBM (n = 9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1). Median KPS was 90 (range, 70 to 100) at time of treatment. Median PFS and OS were 2.1 and 9.6 months after completion of CED, respectively. A single adverse event possibly related to treatment was noted (generalized seizure). CONCLUSIONS: IC CED of carboplatin as a potential therapy for recurrent malignant glioma is feasible and safe at doses up to 4µg in 54mL over 72 hours. Further studies are needed to determine the maximum tolerated dose and potential efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Glioma/terapia , Oligodendroglioma/terapia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Convecção , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais/instrumentação , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Oligodendroglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Oligodendroglioma/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23053, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181670

RESUMO

The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is amplified in approximately 20% of breast cancers, and HER2 receptor targeting therapy is associated with a significant improvement in disease-free and overall survival. In several clinical trials, the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was significantly increased with combined pertuzumab and trastuzumab treatment in HER2-amplified breast cancer. Although the efficacy and safety of anti-HER2 dual blockade therapy has been reported, the markers that predict the response are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of HER2 amplification and the pCR in trastuzumab and pertuzumab neoadjuvant therapy.Twenty-two HER2-amplified early breast cancer patients who had received neoadjuvant docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab (TCHP) therapy were included in this study. HER2/CEP17 ratio and average HER2 copy number were measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The relationship between level of HER2 amplification and tumor pCR status was investigated.The median age was 47.5 years (range, 36-62). 31.8% of the patients were hormone receptor (HR) positive and 68.2%% of the patients were HR negative. The pCR (ypN0/is ypN0) rate in the breast and axilla was 68.2%. The patients who experienced a pCR had a median HER2/CEP17 ratio of 7.08 (range, 3.16-10.40) and average HER2 copy number of 17.00 (range, 5.85-37.50). The patients who did not experience a pCR had a median ratio of 4.70 (range, 1.06-9.00) and median HER2 copy number of 12.00 (range, 5.85-20.95) (P = .030, P = .174), respectively.pCR was highly correlated with HER2/CEP17 ratio in neoadjuvant anti-HER2 dual blockade. This suggests that the HER2/CEP17 ratio can be used as a predictive marker for pCR in neoadjuvant trastuzumab and pertuzumab therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013750, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a previous Cochrane Review, we found that for women with metastatic breast cancer unselected for triple-negative disease, there is little or no survival benefit and excess toxicity from platinum-based regimens. In subgroup analyses, however, we found preliminary low-quality evidence of a survival benefit from platinum-based regimens for women with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). This review updates the evidence from the mTNBC subgroup analyses in the previous Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens with regimens not containing platinum in the management of women with mTNBC. SEARCH METHODS: We obtained relevant studies published prior to 2015 and their extracted results from the mTNBC subgroup analysis in the previous Cochrane Review. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov between 2015 and 27 September 2019. We identified further potentially relevant studies from previous trial reports, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens with regimens not containing platinum in women with mTNBC. Individual trials could compare one or more platinum-based regimens to one or more non-platinum regimens; hence there could be more 'treatment-comparisons' (i.e. platinum regimen versus non-platinum regimen comparison) than trials. Trial participants may have been purposely selected for mTNBC or inadvertently selected as a subgroup. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two independent reviewers assessed studies for eligibility and quality, and extracted all relevant data from each study. We derived hazard ratios (HRs) for time-to-event outcomes, where possible, and used fixed-effect models for meta-analyses. We analysed objective tumour response rates (OTRRs) and toxicities as binary (dichotomous) outcomes with risk ratios (RRs) used as measures of effects. We extracted quality of life data, if available. We used GRADE to rate the quality of evidence for time-to-event and tumour response outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 13 treatment-comparisons involving 1349 women from 10 studies. Twelve of the 13 treatment-comparisons were included in one or more meta-analyses. Of the 13 treatment-comparisons, six and eight had published or provided time-to-event data on overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival/time to progression (PFS/TTP), respectively, that could be included in meta-analyses. Ten treatment-comparisons published or provided OTRR data that could be included in meta-analyses. Eight of the 13 treatment-comparisons were from studies that selected participants on the basis of mTNBC status, while the other five treatment-comparisons were from studies that reported mTNBC results as part of subgroup analyses. Analysis of six treatment-comparisons indicated that platinum-containing regimens may have provided a small survival benefit to mTNBC patients (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.00; 958 women; moderate-quality evidence) with no evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.41; I2 = 1%). Data from eight treatment-comparisons showed that platinum regimens may improve PFS/TTP (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.88; 1077 women; very low-quality evidence). There was marked evidence of heterogeneity (P < 0.0001; I2 = 80%). There was also low-quality evidence of better tumour response for platinum recipients (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.59; 1205 women) with some evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.01; I2 = 58%). The observed heterogeneity for the PFS/TTP and OTRR outcomes may reflect between-study differences and general difficulties in assessing tumour response, as well as the varying potencies of the comparators. Compared with women receiving non-platinum regimens: rates of grade 3 and 4 nausea/vomiting were higher for platinum recipients (RR 4.77, 95% CI 1.93 to 11.81; 655 women; low-quality evidence) and rates of grade 3 and 4 anaemia were higher for platinum recipients (RR 3.80, 95% CI 2.25 to 6.42; 843 women; low-quality evidence). In general, however, relatively few intervention-comparisons could be included in meta-analyses for adverse events. None of the studies reported quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For women with mTNBC, there was moderate-quality evidence of a small survival benefit from platinum-based regimens compared to non-platinum regimens. This finding is consistent with findings of a PFS/TTP benefit and improved tumour response from platinum-based regimens. These potential benefits, however, should be weighed against previously identified excess toxicities from platinum-based regimens, particularly regimens containing cisplatin. Further randomised trials of platinum-based regimens among women with mTNBC are required.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Viés , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6093-6099, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) has been discovered to serve a critical role in the survival and infiltration of B-cell lymphoma. Recently, it was reported that BTK inhibitors exerted potential beneficial effects against numerous types of solid tumor, including glioblastoma multiforme and breast cancer; however, whether BTK is crucial for the progression of bladder cancer (BLCA) remains unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro function of BTK in stemness properties of BLCA cells. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of a standard chemotherapeutic drug, carboplatin in combination with the BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib were also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The association between BTK and BLCA progression was evaluated using free databases. The in vitro stemness and metastatic properties of BLCA cells were also investigated. Finally, the cytotoxicity of carboplatin in combination with ibrutinib was determined. RESULTS: The meta-survival analysis of the association between BTK and BLCA progression revealed that the expression levels of BTK were associated with a higher risk of BLCA progression. The CD133+-side population of BLCA cells formed spheroids when cultured in serum-free conditioned medium. In addition, expression levels of BTK and activated mTOR signaling in side population cells was up-regulated compared with the parental BLCA cells. Furthermore, the transfection of short hairpin RNA targeting BTK into BLCA cells markedly reduced cell migratory ability. More importantly, in advanced BLCA cells, which were more resistant to carboplatin, it was discovered that the cell viability was significantly reduced in the presence of ibrutinib (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggested that BTK may have a critical role in the progression of BLCA; however, the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies involved require further investigations.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/enzimologia , Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22128, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899099

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Brain metastasis (BM) is a serious complication in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Pemetrexed is one of the preferred agents in nonsquamous NSCLC with BM; however, the traditional chemotherapy demonstrated limited efficacy partly due to drug resistance and the blood-brain barrier. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old male non-smoker was admitted for irritating cough, chest distress, and back pain. DIAGNOSES: Epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative primary lung adenocarcinoma with an asymptomatic solitary BM (cTxNxM1b, IVA). INTERVENTIONS: Pemetrexed (500 mg/m of body surface area) and carboplatin (area under the curve of 5) were firstly administered every 3 weeks for 3 cycles, followed by pemetrexed/carboplatin plus anlotinib (12 mg daily; 2 weeks on and 1 week off) for another 3 cycles. Then maintenance anlotinib monotherapy was continued for a year, without unacceptable adverse events. OUTCOMES: The BM was slightly enlarged after 3 cycles of pemetrexed/carboplatin; however, a complete remission was achieved after the combination therapy. His intracranial progression-free survival was more than 2 years. LESSONS: Pemetrexed/carboplatin plus anlotinib could be considered for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Further well-designed trials are warranted to verify this occasional finding.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/metabolismo , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico
14.
Ann Surg ; 272(5): 779-785, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the efficacy of PF-based and CROSS-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for ESCC. BACKGROUND: PF-based regimen has been a standard regimen for ESCC, but it has been replaced by the CROSS regimen in the past few years, despite no prospective head-to-head comparative study has been performed. METHODS: This is a single center retrospective study. Records of all ESCC patients who have received neoadjuvant PF with 40 Gy radiotherapy in 20 daily fractions (PFRT Group) or CROSS with 41.4 Gy radiotherapy in 23 daily fractions (CROSS Group) during the period 2002 to 2019 were retrieved. Propensity score matching (1:1) was performed to minimize baseline differences. The primary and secondary endpoints were overall survival and clinicopathological response. Subgroup analysis ("CROSS Eligibility") was performed based on tumor length, cT-stage, cM-stage, age, and performance status. RESULTS: One hundred (out of 109) patients (CROSS group) and propensity score matched 100 (out of 210) patients (PFRT group) were included. Esophagectomy rates in CROSS and PFRT group were 69% and 76%, respectively (P = 0.268). R0 resection rates were 85.5% and 81.6% (P = 0.525) and the pathological complete remission rates were 24.6% and 35.5% (P = 0.154). By intention-to-treat, the median survival was 16.7 and 32.7 months (P = 0.083). For "CROSS Eligible subgroup," the median survival of the CROSS and PFRT group was 21.6 versus 44.9 months (P = 0.093). CONCLUSIONS: There is no statistically difference in survival or clinicopathological outcome between both groups, but the trend favors PFRT. Prospective head-to-head comparison and novel strategies to improve the outcomes in resectable ESCC are warranted.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Esofagectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1269-1282, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 or BRCA2-mutated breast cancers are sensitive to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and platinum agents owing to deficiency in homologous recombination repair of DNA damage. In this trial, we compared veliparib versus placebo in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, and continued as monotherapy if carboplatin and paclitaxel were discontinued before progression, in patients with HER2-negative advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHODS: BROCADE3 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 147 hospitals in 36 countries. Eligible patients (aged ≥18 years) had deleterious germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation-associated, histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced HER2-negative breast cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and had received up to two previous lines of chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) by interactive response technology by means of permuted blocks within strata (block size of 3 or 6) to carboplatin (area under the concentration curve 6 mg/mL per min intravenously) on day 1 and paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 intravenously) on days 1, 8, and 15 of 21-day cycles combined with either veliparib (120 mg orally twice daily, on days -2 to 5) or matching placebo. If patients discontinued carboplatin and paclitaxel before progression, they could continue veliparib or placebo at an intensified dose (300 mg twice daily continuously, escalating to 400 mg twice daily if tolerated) until disease progression. Patients in the control group could receive open-label veliparib monotherapy after disease progression. Randomisation was stratified by previous platinum use, history of CNS metastases, and oestrogen and progesterone receptor status. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat, which included all randomly assigned patients with a centrally confirmed BRCA mutation, and safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of velilparib or placebo. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02163694. FINDINGS: Between July 30, 2014, and Jan 17, 2018, 2202 patients were screened, of whom 513 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. In the intention-to-treat population (n=509), 337 patients were assigned to receive veliparib plus carboplatin-paclitaxel (veliparib group) and 172 were assigned to receive placebo plus carboplatin-paclitaxel (control group). Median follow-up at data cutoff (April 5, 2019) was 35·7 months (IQR 24·9-43·6) in the veliparib group and 35·5 months (23·1-45·9) in the control group. Median progression-free survival was 14·5 months (95% CI 12·5-17·7) in the veliparib group versus 12·6 months (10·6-14·4) in the control group (hazard ratio 0·71 [95% CI 0·57-0·88], p=0·0016). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (272 [81%] of 336 patients in the veliparib group vs 143 [84%] of 171 patients in the control group), anaemia (142 [42%] vs 68 [40%]), and thrombocytopenia (134 [40%] vs 48 [28%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 115 (34%) patients in the veliparib group versus 49 (29%) patients in the control group. There were no study drug-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: The addition of veliparib to a highly active platinum doublet, with continuation as monotherapy if the doublet were discontinued, resulted in significant and durable improvement in progression-free survival in patients with germline BRCA mutation-associated advanced breast cancer. These data indicate the utility of combining platinum and PARP inhibitors in this patient population. FUNDING: AbbVie.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Drugs Aging ; 37(9): 677-689, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) for the treatment of older patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still a matter of debate, despite the advent of immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with first-line PBC prescription and, secondly, to evaluate the impact of first-line PBC on survival, treatment intensity, risk of hospitalization, and subsequent treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of 474 older patients (age ≥ 70 years) diagnosed with stage IIIB-IV NSCLC at the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Udine, Italy from January 2009 to March 2017. RESULTS: Overall, 198 patients were deemed eligible, and 65.2% received a PBC. At multivariate analysis, older age was the only factor associated with PBC prescription. In the whole cohort, 46 patients (23.2%) were hospitalized for chemotherapy-related toxicity. Both PBC prescription (odds ratio [OR] 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.87, p = 0.04) and tumor burden (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.07-5.32, p = 0.03) emerged as independent risk factors for hospitalization. Moving to significant predictors of patterns of care, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status > 0 was associated with greater risk of first-line failure (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.15-4.20, p = 0.02), while bone metastases (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12-0.69, p = 0.005) and a Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥ 3 (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.84, p = 0.016) independently predicted lower probability of receiving second-line therapy. Remarkably, PBC did not significantly impact overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.61-1.14, p = 0.24) and progression-free survival (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.28, p = 0.73) compared to single-agent chemotherapy (SAC). However, according to an exploratory landmark analysis, patients who received four cycles of treatment or maintenance therapy experienced prolonged overall survival, regardless of PBC use. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the real-world use of PBC in older patients with NSCLC, offering an insight into the determinants of its prescription and the pattern of care of these patients. Of note, PBC use was associated with a higher likelihood of hospitalization for chemotherapy-related toxicity, with no benefit on survival compared to SAC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20705, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569203

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Resistance to targeted and immune checkpoint blockade treatment remains a major problem in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. To overcome this problem, there needs to be a decrease in burden of disease as well as re-establishing of immune sensitivity. The aim of this early phase 2 clinical trial is to investigate a novel way of sequencing and combining decitabine and carboplatin to decrease methylation and increase DNA repair resulting in a decrease in the disease burden and to re-establish sensitivity to the immune response. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-site early phase 2 clinical trial will be conducted in 30 patients with metastatic melanoma that are resistant to all approved therapies. Patients will receive 2 × 4-week cycles of decitabine 7 mg/m IVI/day for 5 days (D1-D5) followed by Carboplatin AUC 5 IVI on D8; Week 3 and Week 4 no treatment. The primary objective is to determine DNA methylation and DNA repair levels before, and immediately after treatment; quantify immune-response markers (PDL-1, PD-1, CD4/CD8, and CD68) in blood, tumor and microenvironment before treatment and after 2 cycles. The secondary outcome objective is to quantify response rate (RR) to administration of 2 cycles of decitabine and carboplatin cycle using response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1) criteria. This data will be used to calculate sample size and determine statistical analysis plan for larger Phase 2 study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Protocol version 1.1 was reviewed and approved by the Hunter New England Health Human Research Ethics Committee (Reference No: 15/12/16/3.08, NSW HREC Reference No: HREC/15/HNE/505) and site-specific approval from the Calvary Mater Hospital Newcastle, NSW, Australia (NSW SSA Reference No: SSA/16/HNE/224). Primary and secondary outcomes and safety data will be disseminated through publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12616000440426.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Projetos Piloto
18.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1173-1179, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A prognostic model for overall survival of post-platinum patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma receiving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors is necessary as existing models were constructed in the chemotherapy setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient level data were used from phase I/II trials evaluating PD-L1 inhibitors following platinum based chemotherapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. The derivation data set consisted of 2 phase I/II trials evaluating atezolizumab (405). Two phase I/II trials that evaluated avelumab (242) and durvalumab (198) comprised the validation data sets. Cox regression analyses evaluated the association of candidate prognostic factors with overall survival. Stepwise selection was used to select an optimal model using the derivation data set. Discrimination and calibration were assessed in the avelumab and durvalumab data sets. RESULTS: The 5 prognostic factors identified in the optimal model using the atezolizumab derivation data set were ECOG-PS (1 vs 0, HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.36-2.36), liver metastasis (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.00), platelet count (HR 2.22; 95% CI 1.54-3.18), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.40) and lactate dehydrogenase (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.28-1.99). There was robust discrimination of survival between low, intermediate and high risk groups. The c-statistic was 0.692 in the derivation and 0.671 and 0.773 in the avelumab and durvalumab validation data sets, respectively. A web based interactive tool was developed to calculate the expected survival probabilities based on risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: A validated 5-factor model has satisfactory prognostic performance for survival across 3 PD-L1 inhibitors to treat metastatic urothelial carcinoma after platinum therapy and may assist in stratification, interpreting and designing trials incorporating PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in the post-platinum setting.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Nomogramas , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/secundário , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias Urológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20558, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) is a very common and malignant tumor in female population. Although a variety of single medications are reported to treat this condition, they all have limited efficacy. Previous studies have reported the combination of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and bevacizumab (PCB) can be used for the treatment of patients with CC effectively. However, no systematic review has explored its efficacy and safety. This study will address its efficacy and safety systematically and comprehensively. METHODS: The following electronic databases will be retrieved from their inceptions to the January 1, 2020 to identify all potential associated studies: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google scholar, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adult women (≥18 years) with CC globally. Eligible interventions will target any forms of PCB. The study methodological quality of all included studies will be appraised using Cochrane risk of bias tool. Statistical analysis will be undertaken using RevMan 5.3 software. In addition, we will perform a narrative synthesis to describe quality and content of the evidence. RESULTS: This study will summarize recent evidence and provide quality evidence for the efficacy and safety of PCB on CC. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will seek to identify the efficacy and safety of PCB and suggest future directions for research efforts targeting CC among this population. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: INPLASY202040195.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
20.
Oncology ; 98(10): 699-705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Carcinosarcoma is a rare cancer, and its prognosis is poor. There are few reports on the prognostic factors of patients with carcinosarcoma who receive second-line chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome and prognostic factors of patients who received second-line chemotherapy for gynecologic carcinosarcoma. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated patients with ovarian or uterine carcinosarcoma, who were treated at two institutions from July 2006 to March 2018. All patients who had received second-line chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent disease were eligible. The efficacy of second-line chemotherapy and prognostic factors were evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were eligible. Combination chemotherapy was used in approximately half (52.2%) of the patients. The response rate and disease control rate of second-line chemotherapy were 32.6 and 60.9%, respectively. The median follow-up period was 11.0 (range, 8.8-107.5) months. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 6.3 (95% CI, 3.2-7.5) months and 12.9 (95% CI, 7.8-16.0) months, respectively. In the multivariate analysis of overall survival, a treatment-free interval >180 days was a significant good prognostic factor. The median overall survival was 7.8 (95% CI, 5.1-10.5) months in the <180 days group and 16.4 (95% CI, 13.1-130.6) months in the >180 days group (p = 0.0052; hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10-0.66), respectively. CONCLUSION: The outcome of gynecologic carcinosarcoma in the second-line setting is poor, especially in patients with a short treatment-free interval.


Assuntos
Carcinossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinossarcoma/patologia , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...