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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111055, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888617

RESUMO

The pollution level of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in surface soils is detrimental to the ecosystem and human health. In this research, various indices such as an index of geo-accumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (DC), and principal component analysis (PCA) were implemented to identify and evaluate the soil PTEs pollution; and then human health risk assessment model used to establish the link between heavy metals pollution and human health in the urban region of south India. Results exhibited that the mean concentration of Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were found to be 1.45-6.03 times greater than the geochemical background values. Cr and Cu were the most profuse PTEs measured in the soils. The pollution indices suggest that soil of the study region is mainly moderate to highly polluted. The non-carcinogenic health risk assessment proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggested the mean hazard indices (HIs) were below one which denotes no significant of non-carcinogenic risks to both children and adults. Furthermore, carcinogenic risk assessment results advised ~80% of cancer risk was caused by Cr contents, while other heavy metals indicate that neither children nor adults in the study region were of carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adulto , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Ecossistema , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Humanos , Índia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Urbanização
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 446-452, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894322

RESUMO

Increasing contamination of urban soil by persistent organic pollutants is a major environmental issue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the distribution, source and human health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different functional areas in Zhengzhou City, China. Total 130 soil samples were collected from surface layer (0-10 cm) in urban road, overpass, residential area and park in the city during January 2019. Concentrations of ∑PAH16 in the urban soil ranged from 49.90 to 11,565 µg kg-1 and seven carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 69% of the total PAHs. The mean concentrations of PAHs decreased in the following order: urban road > overpass > residential area > park. Analysis based on diagnostic rate demonstrated that PAHs mainly originated from pyrolysis sources including traffic emissions and combustion of coal and biomass. Health risk assessment indicated that PAHs in urban road in the city have potential carcinogenic risks to residents. The present study suggested that the control of urban PAHs pollution in Zhengzhou City should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biomassa , Carcinógenos/análise , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo
3.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115339, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823042

RESUMO

Demand for aquatic products surges, due to the increasing concerns on high-quality nutrition and food security. Eastern China is the leading area in contributing significantly to both production and consumption of aquatic products from inland aquaculture, coastal fishing, and distant-water fishing. It is imperative to comprehensively assess the dietary risks of common chemical hazards, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic products of these supply origins, and the contribution of aquatic product consumption to total human exposure. The observed body loads of total PAHs in the coastal aquatic products varied significantly, indicating an unstable food quality from the east coast of China. In the meantime, benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) exhibited the highest level in the aquatic products from inland farm ponds. High BaPeq, along with high consumption of inland aquaculture products, led to higher corresponding cumulative carcinogenic risks (ILCRs) than the other two kinds of products, which further indicate that the origins and consumption rates of the aquatic products do matter. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the consumption of aquatic products is an important contributor to the total daily exposure to PAHs, especially for children and pregnant women. Finally, it is necessary to apply practical remediation in aquaculture farm ponds to provide high-quality products, especially for the population groups of children and pregnant women, and alleviate the exposure and risk due to the PAHs in aquatic products.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Aquicultura , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
4.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115341, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854063

RESUMO

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a hazardous compound for human health and for environmental compartments. Its transfer and deposition through the atmosphere affects soil quality. In this context, we quantified the content of BaP and other Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of a prominent Coal Region in Transition to test whether the soil screening levels in force are realistic and whether they reflect the complexity of regions closely linked to heavy industries and mining. In this regard, soil screening levels are thresholds often established without considering historical anthropogenic activities that affect soil (diffuse pollution). The 150 soil samples studied showed a notable content of high molecular weight PAHs, and BaP surpassed the threshold levels in practically the entire area. PAH-parent diagrams revealed a relatively homogenous fingerprint of four clusters obtained in a multivariate statistical study. In addition, molecular diagnostic ratios pointed to coal combustion as the main pollution source, whereas only some outliers appeared to be related to specific spills. A BaP threshold was calculated to be 0.24 mg kg-1, over 10 times the limit established in Spain. Finally, a factor analysis revealed a positive correlation of BaP with elements usually emitted in coal combustion processes, such as Tl and V. This observation fosters the hypothesis of a historical and indelible pollution fingerprint in soils whose sources, characteristics and potential environmental and health concerns deserve further attention. All things considered, caution should be taken when using soil screening levels in regions associated with coal exploitation and heavy industry.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo , Espanha
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(26): 32389-32431, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557045

RESUMO

In the African continent, several studies have been conducted to determine PAH pollution levels with their associated health risks in the environment. However, these studies are very much disconnected. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review that serves as a comprehensive report on the PAH-related studies conducted in the African continent. Data sources are from Google Scholar and PubMed. English language studies that reported on PAH levels in smoked fish and meat, soils and dust, aquatic environments, indoor and outdoor air, and ready-to-eat food items were selected. Specific PAHs included the following: 33 PAHs comprising of the 16 USEPA PAHs, non-alkylated PAHs, non-alkylated PAHs, oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), and azaarenes (AZAs). Study appraisal and synthesis methods: The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was adapted to assess the quality of the selected studies basing on their sampling methods, analytical techniques, and results. A total of 121 studies were reviewed, with the majority (56) being from Nigeria. PAH levels in smoked fish and meat, soils and dust, aquatic environments, indoor and outdoor air, and ready-to-eat food items recorded total concentrations of PAHs ranging from 5 to 3585 µg/kg, BDL to 6,950,000 µg/kg, 0 to 10,469,000 µg/kg, 0 to 7.82 ± 0.85 µg/m3, and 2.5 to 7889 ± 730 µg/kg respectively. Carcinogenic risk assessment for children and adults ranged from very low to very high levels when compared to the ILCR range (10-6 to 10-4) defined by the USEPA. Out of 54 African countries, only 19 were represented. The majority of selected studies failed to apply any standard protocols for sample collection and analysis. The low to very high PAH levels reported in studies calls for effective actions on environmental health. Similar systematic reviews are expected to be performed in other continents for a global assessment of PAH pollution.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Animais , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Nigéria , Medição de Risco , Solo
7.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127154, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512328

RESUMO

Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) in ambient PM2.5 and a specific molecular marker of biomass burning, levoglucosan, are used to investigate the influence on public health of biomass burning. In this work, we present an effective method for one-time analysis of cPAHs and levoglucosan by GC-MS without derivatization. The method was applied for the analysis of PM2.5 samples (64.3 ±â€¯17.6 µg m-3, n = 57) collected during a smoke haze period in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Levoglucosan was analyzed by using both the developed method (GC-MS) and a reference method (HPAEC-PAD) for comparison. Its average concentration obtained from GC-MS (0.31 ±â€¯0.21 µg m-3) was about 4 times less than the concentration obtained from the reference method (1.22 ±â€¯0.76 µg m-3). Therefore, a correcting factor (CF = 4) was used as a multiplying factor, to obtain a comparative value (1.23 ±â€¯0.86 µg m-3). The average concentration of cPAHs found in PM2.5 samples was 5.88 ±â€¯1.97 ng m-3 with the highest value of 10.86 ng m-3 indicating medium to high cancer risk due to PAHs exposure when referring to values of toxicity equivalence and inhalation cancer risk. Diagnostic ratios of BaA/(BaA + CHR) (0.48 ± 0.04) and IND/(IND + BPER) (0.58 ± 0.04) and strong correlations between PM2.5, levoglucosan and cPAHs concentrations implied that the major source of air pollution in the study period was biomass burning. PM2.5 concentration as a pollution indicator was labelled as BB-low, BB-medium, BB-high or BB-extreme; <50, 50-75, 75-100 and > 100 µg m-3, respectively. The levoglucosan and cPAHs concentration during BB-extreme pollution was 4.3 times and 2.34 times, respectively, that during BB-low pollution, and the correlation coefficient (r) between the concentrations of levoglucosan and cPAHs was as high as 0.987, indicating that the more intense the burning of biomass, the higher the carcinogenic risk in the urban air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomassa , Carcinógenos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano , Fumaça/análise , Tailândia
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(2): 225-230, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588597

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Acrylamide (AA) is a carcinogenic and genotoxic food contaminant occurring in carbohydrate-rich foods produced at high cooking temperatures. The aim of the study was to determine the importance of AA exposure with respect to traditional food and to assess the associated risks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 165 food samples were collected from local markets in Lesser Poland. The participants enrolled in the study were 500 residents: (males - 179, females - 321) who had purchased food from local markets. Exposure of the participants to AA was assessed by combining the analytical AA results with data on the individual consumption of traditional foods. Risk assessment of AA exposure from traditional foods was estimated and the margin of exposure (MOE) values were calculated. RESULTS: The highest mean AA level was measured in pretzels (92 µg kg -1), followed by bagels (74.81 µg kg-1) and pork paté (59.56 µg kg-1). The average and 95th percentile values of AA exposure were 0.213 and 0.458 [µg kg-1 body weight (BW) day-1]. The calculated values of MOE for the average [798 and 2,019 for both benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 0.17 and 0.43 mg kg-1 BW day-1] and 95th percentile AA exposure values (371 and 939 for both BMDL 0.17and 0.43 mg kg -1 BW day-1) suggest that there is a health concern with respect to adult residents. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study confirm the general recommendation to the consumers, especially certain population groups, to eat a balanced healthy diet and to limit the amount of baked cereal products and fried products.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126590, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443271

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in various environmental media and have thus attracted extensive attention worldwide. To prevent and control PAH pollution in China, the study of ambient water quality criteria (AWQC), human health risks, and aquatic ecological risk is critical. There are no reports to date on the human health AWQC of PAHs in China. Therefore, this study first derived the human health AWQC values of 12 PAHs based on exposure data and bioaccumulation factor in China. We found that local exposure parameters and other relevant factors were key during the development of AWQC in different countries and regions, which led to differences with the reference value recommended by USEPA. Based on the incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR), hazard quotients (HQ) and potentially affected fraction (PAF) methods, the health and ecological risks of 16 PAHs were assessed subsequently. And the results are as follows: the non-carcinogenic PAHs' health risks ranged from 1.01 × 10-10 to 1.60 × 10-9, and carcinogenic PAH health risks ranged from 5.03 × 10-7 to 4.74 × 10-5. The toxic effects of 8 PAHs on aquatic organisms exhibited the following order: benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) > anthracene (Ant) > pyrene (Pye) > phenanthrene (Phe) > fluoranthene (Flua) > acenaphthene (Ace) > fluorene (Flu) > naphthalene (Nap). Among these, the ecological risks posed by Ant and BaP were the highest, according to the HQ and PAF methods.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Benzo(a)pireno , Carcinógenos/análise , China , Fluorenos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fenantrenos , Pirenos , Medição de Risco , Qualidade da Água
10.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2895-2923, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424788

RESUMO

The study investigated the levels of the USEPA 16 PAHs in soils collected from selected functional areas (cemetery, commercial, industrial and residential areas) of the Nigerian megacity, Lagos. The soil samples were subjected to ultrasonic-assisted extraction in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of dichloromethane/hexane, and the PAHs in the resulting extracts were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Σ16 PAHs in soils of these functional areas varied between 890-4675, 485-4513, 111-15,577 and 509-2047 µg kg-1 for cemetery, industrial, commercial and residential areas, respectively. The benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenic (BaPTEQ) and mutagenic equivalency (BaPMEQ) values of PAHs in these soils spanned from 523 to 1046 and 446 to 1129 µg kg-1, respectively. The hazard index values suggested that there are adverse (non-carcinogenic) health effects for a child's exposure to PAHs in soils of commercial areas. The cancer risk values resulting from an adult's and a child's exposure to PAHs in these urban soils via dermal contact and oral ingestion surpassed the target value of 10-6 which suggested that there is a considerable cancer risk relating to human exposure to PAHs in these urban soils. An ecological risk assessment making use of soil quality guidelines and risk quotients suggested a low ecological risk to organisms in soils of these functional areas except for those from commercial areas. PAH isomeric ratios and principal component analysis indicated that PAHs in these soils arise from petrogenic inputs, such as occasional spills of liquid petroleum fuels and discharges from automobile workshops and generator houses, as well as pyrogenic processes including traffic emissions and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Indústrias , Nigéria , Poluição por Petróleo , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
Food Chem ; 321: 126724, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276145

RESUMO

Seafood could be a promising way to supplement healthy fatty acids and trace elements to the Peruvian diet. Seafood from northern Peru was characterized with the highest relative concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), while in the center region marine species had the lowest As and Pb contents. Peruvian marine species are rich in LC-PUFAs and micro-nutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), including species considered as potentially edible (e.g. Cycloxanthops sexdecimdentatus), but also non-edible species (e.g. Caulerpa filiformis). Nevertheless, it is crucial to consider toxic metals, e.g. As and Cd, which could pose a risk for consumers. High levels of beneficial LC-PUFAs and micro-nutrients would be taken up (up to 80% of the recommended values) when the Peruvian population would consume the estimated safe amount of seafood. Scoring species for fatty acid and metal content resulted in gastropods (e.g. Bursa ventricosa) as being the least beneficial species.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Metais/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Peru , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126530, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224358

RESUMO

Aromatic amines are a class of chemical carcinogens that are activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form arylhydroxylamines that are conjugated to form N-acetoxyarylamines or N-sulfonyloxyarylamines. These conjugates undergo N-O bond cleavage to become reactive nitrenium ions that may form DNA adducts. Numerous studies in the past using N-acetoxyarylamines to investigate DNA adduct formation were conducted, however, less is known in regard to DNA adduct formation directly from arylhydroxylamines - especially under conditions that mimic the physiological conditions of cells such as weakly basic conditions. In this study, 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) was exposed to N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)hydroxylamine (2,6-DMPHA) and N-phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) at pH 7.4 without enzymes and analyzed by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). 2,6-DMPHA exposure resulted in the production of relatively low amounts of adducts however the identities of at least six different adducts that were formed through reactions with carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of 2'-deoxyguanosine were proposed based upon different analytical approaches including HRMS CID fragmentation and NMR analyses. Contrastively, PHA exposure under identical conditions resulted in one adduct at the C8 position. It was concluded from these results and results of theoretical calculations that nitrenium ions produced from 2,6-DMPHA were relatively more stable resulting in longer nitrenium ion lifetimes which ultimately led to greater potential for 2,6-DMPHA nitrenium ions to react with multiple sites on dG.


Assuntos
Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Adutos de DNA , Dano ao DNA , Hidroxilamina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110601, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302858

RESUMO

Consumption of rice and rice products can be a significant exposure pathway to inorganic arsenic (iAs), which is a group 1 carcinogen to humans. The UK follows the current European Commission regulations so that iAs concentrations must be < 0.20 mg kg-1 in white (polished) rice and <0.25 mg kg-1 in brown (unpolished) rice. However, iAs concentration in rice used for infant food production or direct consumption has been set at a maximum of 0.1 mg kg-1. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate iAs concentrations in different types of rice sold in the UK and to quantify the health risks to the UK population. Here, we evaluated 55 different types of rice purchased from a range of retail outlets. First, we analysed all rice types for total As (tAs) concentration from which 42 rice samples with tAs > 0.1 mg kg-1 were selected for As speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS. Based on the average concentration of iAs of our samples, we calculated values for the Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCR), Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Margin of Exposure (MoE). We found a statistically significant difference between organically and non-organically grown rice. We also found that brown rice contained a significantly higher concentration of iAs compared to white or wild rice. Notably, 28 rice samples exceeded the iAs maximum limit stipulated by the EU (0.1 mg kg-1) with an average iAs concentration of 0.13 mg kg-1; therefore consumption of these rice types could be riskier for infants than adults. Based on the MoE, it was found that infants up to 1 year must be restricted to a maximum of 20 g per day for the 28 rice types to avoid carcinogenic risks. We believe that consumers could be better informed whether the marketed product is fit for infants and young children, via appropriate product labelling containing information about iAs concentration.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oryza/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110628, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305823

RESUMO

Urban construction is a major contributor to air pollution, but few studies have examined heavy metal pollution in urban areas caused by construction dust fall. We measured the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Hg and particle size distribution in dust fall from various construction activities in seven fast-developing cities in China and conducted a health risk assessment. Mean metal concentrations in construction dust fall were on the order of Zn (246.3 mg/kg) > Cr (94.2 mg/kg) > Pb (56.5 mg/kg) > Cu (53.6 mg/kg) > Ni (22.8 mg/kg) > Cd (0.68 mg/kg) > Hg (0.08 mg/kg). Cu and Zn were positively correlated in areas of subway and building construction, and Pb and Cd were positively correlated in areas of road construction, likely because of the materials specific to these activities. Enrichment factors for heavy metals at all sampling sites were on the order of Cd (10.4) > Zn (6.37) > Cu (4.25) > Pb (3.84) > Hg (2.41) > Cr (2.02) > Ni (1.32). The enrichment factors for all metals except Zn indicated that heavy metal pollution was highest in road construction, followed by building and subway construction. Non-carcinogenic risks to children (hazard index >1) were 1.01-1.08 in four of the seven sampling sites, indicating possible risk from deposition of construction dust fall. In contrast, the hazard index for adults was <1 at the seven cities and total carcinogenic risks (<1 × 10-6) were at acceptable levels. An integrated ecological risk assessment demonstrated that heavy metal particles in construction dust fall in two of the cities (Shijiazhuang and Qingdao) were likely to be suspended in the atmosphere. Our study of heavy metal pollution in construction dust fall provides data on ecological and human health impacts and suggests that extensive measures are required to control construction dust fall in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Urbanização , Adulto , Atmosfera , Criança , China , Cidades , Humanos , Medição de Risco
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110442, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171121

RESUMO

In recent decades, indoor air quality (IAQ) has become one of the most important human health issues. The potential properties and potential health hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with their long-term residues, bioaccumulation and semivolatility, and they can also be transferred through a variety of media, such as the atmosphere, water and soil. Dust particles from indoor and outdoor emission sources adhere to A-C filters and can represent air quality to a certain extent. However, few studies have focused on PAHs in A-C filter dust in Hefei, China. In this study, 16 PAHs were selected, dust samples were collected from A-C filters from three different functional districts, and GC-MS analysis of the samples was performed. The concentration of the ∑16PAHs ranged from 7.34 to 326.84 µg g-1, 5.07-15.34 µg g-1, 4.09-47.26 µg g-1 and 0.97-13.38 µg g-1 in dust samples from the Administrative District (AD), Industrial District (ID), Commercial District (CD) and Outdoors (OD), respectively. The total PAH concentration in A-C dust was much higher than that in dust deposited outdoors in the urban area. The percentage of 5-6 ring PAHs accounted for more than 70% of the ∑16PAHs, which shows that the PAHs in A-C dust mainly come from pyrolysis rather than a diagenetic source. Principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratios were used in a source analysis, and the results indicated that the main PAHs emission sources in the different functional districts were coal, wood and biomass combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values indicated a medium to high potential carcinogenic risk for adults and children exposed to dust with PAHs. Particularly, skin contact and ingestion of carcinogenic PAHs from dust are the major exposure pathways and present an exposure risk that is four to five orders of magnitude higher than the risk of inhalation.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Atmosfera , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Indústrias , Neoplasias , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco , Solo , Madeira/química
16.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126514, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200176

RESUMO

A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with pressurised liquid extraction was developed to determine seven organophosphate esters (OPEs), six phthalate esters (PAEs), four benzotriazoles (BTRs), five benzothiazoles (BTHs) and four benzenesulfonamides (BSAs) in particulate matter samples from outdoor air. All of these compounds are among the named high-production volume chemicals (HPVCs) and some of them have shown to be harmful to human, therefore they have been subject for legal regulation in order to control their production and usage. Under optimised conditions, high recovery values (>80%) and low detection limits (pg m-3) were obtained for most of the compounds with accuracy values between 83% and 118%. Some samples from two locations surrounded by different industry activities showed the widespread occurrence of all the PAEs, followed by some OPEs. Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant compound with concentrations ranging from 1.9 to 97.7 ng m-3. With the concentrations found, estimated daily intakes through outdoor inhalation were calculated for each contaminant and for different population groups classified by age (infants, children and adults) in two possible exposure scenarios (low and high). Then, hazard quotients and carcinogenic risks were estimated for several compounds, those that had toxicological parameters available. This preliminary result showed no significant risks via ambient inhalation for the exposed population, however more research is needed to confirm the present results.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Benzotiazóis/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Organofosfatos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos , Sulfonamidas
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110398, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200144

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, posing potentially serious threats to human health. This study analyzed compositional characteristics, sources, and carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the atmospheric gas phase at an urban site in Shanghai, East China. Seventy-four gas phase samples were collected during the warm months of May-October 2018 using a high-volume solid phase extraction (Hi-volume SPE) technique. The total concentration of sixteen priority PAHs (ΣPAHs) was in the range of 5.54-182.05 ng m-3 (average 34.47 ng m-3) and the total of seven carcinogenic PAHs (ΣCPAHs) was in range of 0.03-1.49 ng m-3 (average 0.48 ng m-3), accounting for 1.47% of ΣPAHs and indicating low carcinogenic potential. Redundancy analyses indicated positive correlations between ΣPAHs and air quality, and ΣCPAHs and average high temperature, and a negative correlation between ΣPAHs and wind speed. Four possible sources, namely petroleum and petrogenic sources, traffic emissions, coal combustion, and mixed gasoline and coal combustion sources, were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), accounting for 62.84%, 19.31%, 10.15%, and 7.69% of ΣPAHs, respectively. The overall lifetime lung cancer risk (LLCR) through inhalation of PAHs was estimated to be at a low risk level of 1.61 × 10-5. The LLCR based on PMF apportionment decreased in the order of mixed gasoline and coal combustion sources (47.07%) > traffic emissions (35.10%) > petroleum and petrogenic sources (11.06%) > coal combustion (6.74%). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Hi-volume SPE in collecting and analyzing atmospheric gas phase PAHs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Extração em Fase Sólida , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , População Urbana , Vento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092965

RESUMO

The varying concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at remote islands is an important indicator, demonstrating the contributions from different regional combustion sources. In this study, gaseous and particulate PAHs were measured at Weizhou Island in the Gulf of Tonkin from 15th March to 14th April, 2015. The concentrations of PAHs ranged from 116.22 to 186.74 ng/m3 and from 40.19 to 61.86 ng/m3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively, which were much higher than those of some remote sites in Asia. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, which were mainly found in diesel vehicle emissions, had relatively high concentrations in both gas and particulate phases. According to the comprehensive results of back trajectory cluster analysis and diagnostic ratios, the local vessel emission was probably the main source of PAHs, which was much more important than the coal and biomass combustion sources from remoter regions. The toxicities represented by ∑PAH7, benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-based total toxicity potency are much higher in particulate phase than those in gas phase. However, the toxicities of gas phase should not be neglected from the point of view of indirect-acting mutagenicities due to the high contribution of fluoranthene.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carcinógenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ásia , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas , Material Particulado , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110157, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954218

RESUMO

Urban parks and schools sever as the mainly activity areas for children, but risk assessment posed by heavy metals (HMs) from soil and dust in these area has rarely been investigated. In this study, six urban parks and seven schools in Jiaozuo, China, were taken as research objects to understand the contamination level and bioaccessibility of HMs from soil and dust in urban parks and schools. The results indicated that Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As, Ni and Co from soil and dust were above the background values, especially Zn and Cd in dust, and As and Cd in soil. Serious Cd pollution was discovered, and respective Cd concentrations in soil and dust were 17.83 and 7.52 times the background value. Additionally, the average concentration and bioaccessibility of Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co in dust were both higher than in soil. High concentration and high bioaccessibility of HMs in dust suggested that HMs contamination were serious and universal in Jiaozuo. The concentrations of most HMs were higher in the gastric phase, except for Cu and Cd which remained higher in the intestinal phase. Both in the gastric phase and intestinal phase, Mn, As and Cd in soil and dust both have high bioaccessibility which all exceed 10%. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks base on the total HMs for children (soil: 7.93, 1.96E-05; dust: 6.44, 3.58E-05) were greater than those for adults (soil: 6.35E-01, 1.32E-05; dust: 5.06E-01, 2.42E-05), and urban parks and schools posed high potential risk for children. Therefore, assessment the risk posed by HMs contamination of soil and dust in urban parks and schools is vital and urgent for children.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Criança , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Parques Recreativos , Medição de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110135, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901537

RESUMO

In the study, first-time personal exposure level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured during cooking hours in participants of three different types of kitchen both in the particulate and gaseous phase using traditional and improved cookstoves. Along with that, indoor particulate matter (PM) concentration was also estimated during the cooking hours to examine the impact of intervention in different kitchens. The results of the study clearly revealed that the kitchen characteristics and type of cookstove technology have a significant impact on PM2.5, PM1 and PAHs concentration. Cookstoves intervention has resulted in maximum reduction of PM1 i.e. 75% in an enclosed kitchen followed by semi-enclosed and open kitchen having 71% and 52%, respectively. In addition, correlation analysis of PM2.5 and PM1 with PAHs showed a strong association (r2 = 0.9), showing the affinity of PAHs to bind to fine range of particles. Health risk assessment was also carried out to assess the PM daily dose and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk due to inhalation of PAHs. The study confirmed the personal concentration of PAHs compounds was significantly high (p < 0.05) during use of traditional cookstove compared to improved cookstove among all the three kitchens. Furthermore, to measure the toxicity levels, PAHs concentrations have been converted to benzo[a]pyrene equivalence for calculating cancer and non-cancer effects using toxicity equivalency factors. The overall lifetime carcinogenic risk was the highest 2.5E-03, 6.4E-04 among women who prepared meals in the enclosed kitchen compared to 8.4E-04, 1.3E-04 in semi-enclosed and 2.2E-04, 4.6E-05 in the open kitchen during use of traditional and improved cookstoves, respectively, which exceeded the US EPA standard i.e. 1 × 10-6. The study underlined the importance of personal monitoring for exposure, and risks-based studies along with the time-activity of user to measure the actual inhalation risk for the participants. These findings indicated that women are exposed to hazardous smoke in the indoor kitchen and are at greater risk of developing cancer, especially in rural areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Gases/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
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