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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124620, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472354

RESUMO

Particulate toxic species, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals may have significant health risks. This study investigated characteristics, sources and health risks of all three classes of toxic species in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) samples collected at an industrial area in Changzhou, a big city in the Yangtze Delta region of China. Fourteen heavy metals altogether constituted 2.87% of PM2.5 mass, with Fe, Al and Zn as the major elements. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals came from four sources: vehicles, industry, crustal dust, mixed coal combustion and industrial process. The daily average concentration of 18 PAHs was 235.29 ng/m3, accounting for 0.21% of PM2.5 mass. The dominant PAHs were high molecular weight ones, contributing 73.5% to the total PAHs. Diagnostic analyses indicated that sources of PAHs included vehicle/coal combustion and petroleum emissions, wherein diesel emission played a more important role than gasoline emission. PCA showed that the largest contributor of PAHs was vehicle exhaust mixed with coal combustion, followed by three industry-related sources. Total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs varied between 3.14 and 37.07 pg/m3, with an average of 14.58 pg/m3. The 10 PCDFs accounted for 70.5% of total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs. Health risk assessments showed that the carcinogenic risk of heavy metals was acceptable, while risks from PAHs and PCDD/Fs cannot be ignored. Back trajectory analysis indicated that local/regional transported air masses from northern China was the major source areas of the toxic species.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 302: 125339, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419771

RESUMO

Intake of red and processed meat has been suspected to increase colorectal cancer risk potentially via endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds or increased lipid and protein oxidation. Here we investigated the effect of inulin fortification of a pork sausage on these parameters. For four weeks, healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed one of three diets: inulin-fortified pork sausage, control pork sausage or a standard chow diet. Fecal content of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC), nitrosothiols and nitrosyl iron compounds (FeNO) were analyzed in addition to liver metabolism and oxidation products formed in liver, plasma and diets. Intriguingly, inulin fortification reduced fecal ATNC (p = 0.03) and FeNO (p = 0.04) concentrations. The study revealed that inulin fortification of processed meat could be a strategy to reduce nitroso compounds formed endogenously after consumption.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Inulina/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne , Compostos Nitrosos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Compostos Nitrosos/análise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Carne Vermelha , Suínos
3.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124809, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527008

RESUMO

Honey is a highly nutritious natural product widely produced and consumed by people in Shirak and Syunik regions of Armenia. Unlike Shirak, Syunik is under the impact of mining industry. Since the environmental pollution can adversely impact the safety of honey and entail a probable risk to human health, it is important to evaluate the presence of potentially toxic trace elements in honey samples from both regions and draw comparisons. This study assesses the dietary exposure to trace elements and persistent organic pollutants through the intake of honey for the first time among people in Shirak and Syunik regions. 24-hour dietary recall method was used to investigate the consumption of honey. The presence of seven trace elements (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Ni) and persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites) were determined in honey samples using atomic absorption spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. In several samples, the concentrations of Cu were above the maximum allowable level. Non-carcinogenic risk values did not exceed the acceptable level, while carcinogenic risk values for Ni and As exceeded the risk level of 10-6 in both regions. Moreover, among the persistent organic pollutants, only the concentration of DDT in honey from Shirak was above the European Union maximum residue level.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , DDT/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Mel/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Oligoelementos/análise , Armênia , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Mel/toxicidade , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Espectrofotometria
4.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 59, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic and heavy metals are the main cause of water pollution and impact human health worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to assess the probable health risk (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk) for adults and children that are exposed to arsenic and toxic heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cr, and Hg) through ingestion and dermal contact with drinking water. METHOD: In this study, chemical analysis and testing were conducted on 140 water samples taken from treated drinking water in Mashhad, Iran. The health risk assessments were evaluated using hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and lifetime cancer risk (CR). RESULTS: The results of the HQ values of arsenic and heavy metals for combined pathways were below the safety level (HQ < 1) for adults, while the HI for children were higher than the safety limit in some stations. Likewise, Cr showed the highest average contribution of HItotal elements (55 to 71.2%) for adult and children population. The average values of total carcinogenic risk (TCR) through exposure to drinking water for children and adults were 1.33 × 10-4 and 7.38 × 10-5, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, the CRtotal through exposure to drinking water for children and adults was borderline or higher than the safety level of US EPA risk, suggesting the probability of carcinogenic risk for the children and adults to the carcinogenic elements via ingestion and dermal routes. Therefore, appropriate purification improvement programs and control measures should be implemented to protect the health of the residents in this metropolitan city.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495125

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the workplace and for various types of work in a carbon enterprise based on the measurement data of various components of PAHs in the air from the workplace of the carbon enterprise, and to provide a scientific basis for protection against PAHs in this enterprise. Methods: In July 2017, a carbon enterprise in Shandong Province and its on-duty workers were chosen as subjects. On-site occupational hygiene investigation and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to investigate and determine the presence and concentrations of PAHs in various workshops and various types of work in the enterprise, and toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) was used to evaluate the carcinogenic level of PAHs. Results: The components of PAHs with relatively high content in the air of the workplace in the carbon enterprise were fluoranthene, pyrene, benzanthracene, X, and benzo[a]pyrene, with mean concentrations of 1 485.66, 864.66, 805.35, 500.08, and 120.88 ng/m(3), respectively. There were significant differences between the three workshops in the concentrations of PAHs components (benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, X, fluoranthene, pyrene, fluorene, indenopyrene, and anthracene) and total TEQ (P<0.05) . The total TEQ of PAHs in the molding workshop was significantly higher than that in other workshops (P<0.05) . There were significant differences between different types of work in the exposure to pyrene and fluoranthene and TEQ (P<0.05) . Shaking-table operators, moving-sieve operators, batching operators, fabric workers, and hot-oil stove workers had higher exposure levels of PAHs. The exposure concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and benzanthracene were highly correlated with total TEQ. Conclusion: The concentration of PAHs in the working environment of the carbon enterprise is generally higher; benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene are the PAHs components against which special protective measures need to be taken; molding workshops are the workshops that are most seriously endangered by PAHs; shaking-table operators are the type of workers needing special protection against PAHs. The occupational hazards of PAHs in the carbon industry cannot be ignored, against which corresponding protective measures should be formulated based on their exposure characteristics.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Benzo(a)Antracenos/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carbono , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109622, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499446

RESUMO

In the present study, we assessed the concentration of airborne HMs (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) and their probable sources using the bark of Pinus eldarica as a bio-indicator. Hence, 47 tree bark samples were harvested according to the land uses and biomonitoring techniques in the city of Yazd, Iran. The potential health risks in 13 age groups, ecological risk, as well as the possible relationship between HM concentrations and traffic indicators, were evaluated. The order of average HM concentrations in the P. eldarica bark samples was as Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. The mean values of non-carcinogenic risks of all HMs in entire age groups were within secure range (HQ < 1); however, the carcinogenic risk of Cd was higher than the allowed level (TCR > 1 × 10-6). About Pb, it was in the safe level. The main element causing potential ecological risks was Cd, indicating moderate to very high ecological risk in most of the study areas. There was an inverse significant association between distance from major roads and Pb concentration (ß = -0.011 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.022, -0.0001). All HMs in bark samples render the negative Moran's index, representing a random spatial distribution pattern. Besides, according to principal component analysis (PCA), the first component accounted for 36.55% of the total variance, dominated by Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn, respectively, and characterized by vehicle and industrial emissions. Our results infer that industrial activities and traffic are the main sources of HMs pollution in urban environments that should be considered by decision-makers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Cidades , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pinus/química , Casca de Planta/química , Medição de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109604, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473563

RESUMO

Potentially toxic metal (PTM) pollution in road dust is of great concern, however, our understanding of PTMs released by pyrotechnic displays and their adverse impacts on human health in road dust is limited. Here, we studied PTM pollution levels and Pb isotope signatures in pyrotechnic ash and road dust (aged dust and pyrotechnic-influenced dust) samples from eight cities in China during Chinese New Year and carried out a human health risk assessment. Pyrotechnic ash had higher values of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr and Pb but lower values of Mn and Cd than Chinese background soil. Pyrotechnic-influenced dust had significantly higher Cu and Cr values than aged dust, with enrichment of Sr, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni in road dust after pyrotechnic displays. Both 208Pb/206Pb and Sr values were used to confirm the presence of pyrotechnic ash in road dust. A positive matrix factorization demonstrated that pyrotechnic events contributed 70.1%, 50.4%, 36.6% and 35.5% of the Sr, Cu, Cr and Pb values to these road dust, respectively. We found that non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks related to PTMs in road dust were at safe levels during the Chinese New Year, although both risks were elevated following pyrotechnic events. Typically, PTM pollutants related to pyrotechnic events contributed 33.99% to non-carcinogenic and 21.83% to carcinogenic risks, suggesting that more attention needs to be paid to this source of PTM pollution in China. Current results improve our understanding of PTM pollution in pyrotechnic-influenced road dust and health risks related to pyrotechnic displays in China.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , China , Cidades , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Medição de Risco
8.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124499, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401431

RESUMO

Urban trees are a new tool for pollutant monitoring since gaseous and particulate pollutants can deposit in its barks. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels were determined in gaseous phase samples collected in polyurethane foam (PUF), total suspended particles (TSP) samples collected in quartz fiber filters and tree bark samples (Tipuana and Sibipiruna) collected in the surroundings of an industrial complex in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Benzo(b)fluoranthene presented the highest average concentration in the TSP samples and phenanthrene, the highest average concentration in the PUF samples; the sum of carcinogenic equivalents for benzo(a)pyrene (BaPEq) for both phases was above 20 ng m-3, representing a high cancer risk. The most abundant PAH for tree barks was fluoranthene; low weight PAHs presented a higher abundance than the observed in TSP. Coronene (vehicular exhaust marker) presented good correlations with fluoranthene in the tree bark samples, suggesting an influence of vehicular emissions. A tree bark sample collected near the petrochemical area presented biomarkers of petrogenic origin (hopanoids) in the mass spectrum and an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) profile. The results suggested an influence of both vehicular and industrial sources on the air quality observed in the atmosphere and tree barks samples.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Casca de Planta/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Atmosfera/análise , Brasil , Carcinógenos/análise , Carvão Mineral , Poeira , Fluorenos , Gases , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Fenantrenos , Compostos Policíclicos , Emissões de Veículos/análise
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30016-30028, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414392

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in soils of development zones has attracted wide attention. In this study, soil heavy metal pollution levels and health risks in 15 selected development zones in Shandong Province were investigated for the first time. Geo-accumulation and potential ecological risk indexes were used to assess pollution levels, and health risk was assessed using the US Environmental Protection Agency model. The soil was contaminated by various heavy metals, among which Hg was dominant. A total of 19% of the monitoring sites showed moderate ecological risk level, and low risk level was observed in general. Pollution control of Hg and Cd in each development zone must be strengthened. Health risk analysis showed that noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risk levels for adults and children were acceptable or nearly acceptable. Positive matrix factorization model was used to identify three possible sources of heavy metal pollution, namely, industrial sources, atmospheric deposition, and transportation. Some specific measures should be taken to prioritize the control of Hg, As, and Cr for protecting the soil environment and human health, especially vulnerable groups, such as children.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Solo/química , Transportes/economia
10.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112943, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394350

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of in-vehicle exposure in Tehran, Iran to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for different models of taxis, and to explore the effects of city zone, taxi vehicle type, the taxi's age (<1, 1-5, 5-10), fuel type (gasoline, CNG, and LPG), and refueling activities on the estimated health risks based on previously measured concentrations. The overall and age-specific carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of these compounds for taxi drivers and passengers were estimated separately using Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios of exposure frequency were defined for taxis commuting in different zones of city: Restricted Traffic Zone (RTZ) and Odd-Even Zone (OEZ) as two plans to reduce air pollution, and no-restriction zone (NRZ). The carcinogenic risks for drivers and passengers, the average risks of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for most cases were above the 1 × 10-4. The health risks were greater in Restricted Traffic Zone (RTZ) and Odd-Even Zone (OEZ) in comparison to no-restriction zone (NRZ). The carcinogenic risk from formaldehyde exposures were higher than those for acetaldehyde in all cases. Taxis fueled with LPG showed lower cancer risks for both acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. Refueling increased the carcinogenic risk from both compounds. For non-carcinogenic risks from acetaldehyde, the average hazard ratios for both drivers and passengers were >1, indicating a non-negligible risk. Cancer and non-cancer risks for the taxi drivers were greater than the passengers given the higher time of occupancy. The present study showed that transportation in taxis can impose significant long-term health risks to both passengers and drivers. Development and investment in cleaner choices for public transportations are required.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Formaldeído/análise , Automóveis , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Gasolina/toxicidade , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória , Medição de Risco
11.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124451, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394440

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the composition of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) and assess the risk to health at different sites in Malaysia. Continuous monitoring of BTEX in Kuala Lumpur City Centre, Kuala Terengganu, Kota Kinabalu and Fraser Hill were conducted using Online Gas Chromatograph. For comparison, BTEX at selected hotspot locations were determined by active sampling method using sorbent tubes and Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic and the life-time cancer risk (LTCR) of BTEX were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) health risk assessment (HRA) methods. The results showed that the highest total BTEX concentrations using continuous monitoring were recorded in the Kuala Lumpur City Centre (49.56 ±â€¯23.71 µg/m3). Toluene was the most dominant among the BTEX compounds. The average concentrations of benzene ranged from 0.69 ±â€¯0.45 µg/m3 to 6.20 ±â€¯3.51 µg/m3. Measurements using active sampling showed that BTEX concentrations dominated at the roadside (193.11 ±â€¯114.57 µg/m3) in comparison to petrol station (73.08 ±â€¯30.41 µg/m3), petrochemical industry (32.10 ±â€¯13.13 µg/m3) and airport (25.30 ±â€¯6.17 µg/m3). Strong correlations among BTEX compounds (p<0.01, r>0.7) at Kuala Lumpur City Centre showed that BTEX compounds originated from similar sources. The values of HQ at all stations were <1 indicating the non-carcinogenic risk are negligible and do not pose threats to human health. The LTCR value based on benzene inhalation (1.59 × 10-5) at Kuala Lumpur City Centre were between 1 × 10-4 and 1 × 10-5, representing a probable carcinogenic risk.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Medição de Risco , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise , Benzeno/toxicidade , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Malásia , Tolueno/toxicidade , Xilenos/toxicidade
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109552, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442804

RESUMO

To study source-specific carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under diverse anthropogenic activities, PM2.5-bound PAHs were detected in Beijing in four periods. PAHs in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting (APEC) was much lower than that in after-APEC period. The highest PAHs concentration was in heating period (303 ng/m3). Sources were quantified by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). In heating period, due to high emissions, weak diffusion, low degradation and evaporation, high contributions of all sources were observed, and both absolute and relative contributions of coal combustion increased. Changed contributions in during-APEC and after-APEC periods implied effectiveness of reinforced emission control, especially for coal combustion and vehicles. Furthermore, variations of sources-specific carcinogenicity and mutagenicity were investigated. In non-heating period, contributions of gasoline exhaust (38.4% TEQ: Toxic Equivalent Quantity, 33.7% MEQ: Mutagenic Equivalent Quantity) and diesel exhaust (53.8% TEQ, 57.9% MEQ) dominated both carcinogenic and mutagenic risks. Coal combustion sharply increased in heating period, attributing 27.5% TEQ and 21.7% MEQ. In during-APEC period, all contributions to carcinogenicity and mutagenicity were lower than those in after-APEC period, but "others" linked with regional transport contributed increased fractions (above 20%). Sources-specific carcinogenicity and mutagenicity under diverse anthropogenic activities, especially for APEC meeting with reinforced control, gave a new insight into assessment of control measures based on health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mutagênicos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Pequim , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Carvão Mineral/toxicidade , Calefação , Atividades Humanas , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 588, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444583

RESUMO

This study evaluates the extent to which humans may be exposed to health risk from heavy metals in surface soils of public parks in Southern Ghana during outdoor activities. The study investigated surface soils of 56 public parks from seven metropolitan cities in Southern Ghana. Heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined using microwave-assisted HNO3-HF acid digestion and atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame, graphite furnace, and cold vapor options. All parks studied registered the presence of heavy metals with mean concentrations following the order: Mn > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Hg. Whereas the mean concentrations of Zn (221.92 mg/kg) and Cr (107.01 mg/kg) respectively exceeded the Canadian (200 mg/kg; 64 mg/kg) and the EU (100-200 mg/kg; 50-100 mg/kg) standards, the ranges of Cu (14.27-138.85 mg/kg) and Pb (6.46-628.31 mg/kg) also exceeded their EU range of 50-100 mg/kg. The results indicated that there was no immediate risk to Ni and Hg on the public parks studied; however, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr may pose some adverse effects as they exceed their respective guideline limits in soil. The ranges of non-carcinogenic risk for adults and children were 0.0186-0.0787 and 0.0197-0.0850 respectively while the corresponding ranges for carcinogenic risks were 3.75 × 10-7-1.28 × 10-6 and 4.17 × 10-7-1.31 × 10-6. Even though risk assessment suggested low and acceptable health risk levels to patrons, there is the need for close monitoring since Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr have shown tendency of accumulating beyond acceptable limit.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adulto , Canadá , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Gana , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Espectrofotometria Atômica
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 28993-29002, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388947

RESUMO

The consequence of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of the heavy metal concentrations in street dust of North Cyprus is yet to be reported. This study is aimed at investigating the concentration of six different heavy metals' concentration explicitly: As, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Pb, along leading highways in Nicosia. The result obtained was analyzed using an X-ray fluorescent machine. Multivariate and statistical methods were applied for the data analysis using xlstat MS-excel; furthermore, index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk assessment using exposure pathways as defined by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) pollution mode were also used for level assessment and health risk implications. The average (M ± SD) concentrations of the metals in the dust are as follows: As (17.48 ± 1.53 mg/kg), Cu (51.86 ± 8.60 mg/kg), Cr (321.14 ± 8.20 mg/kg), Pb (35.62 ± 8.54 mg/kg), Ni (64.79 ± 8.72 mg/kg), and Zn (136.13 ± 30.85 mg/kg). Variation coefficient, Vc, and principle component analysis (PCA) suggested that As, Cr, Ni, and Pb have same source of pollution emission from both natural and anthropogenic activities, Zn from traffic emission while Cu from natural source. However, the result was compared with other nearby towns bordering North Cyprus; all the metal shows similar pattern of pollution with the exception of Cr which is 5 and 11 times higher than street dust of Amman (Jordan) and Tokat (Turkey), respectively. Additionally, Igeo result has the following decreasing order: Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > As and also revealed that the As, Cu, and Ni have originated from natural source. Cr has mix source: one from traffic and the other one from atmospheric deposition. Also, Pb is emitted from industrial pollution, whereas 80% of Zn are from traffic-related emissions. The non-carcinogenic health risk (hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI)) follows the order Cr > As>Ni > Pb > Zn > Cu for children and adults. It is found that the HI of As, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn is less one; hence, the street dust does not exhibit non-carcinogenic health risk. But that of Cr content is greater than one, with HI values of Cr 1.44E+02 and 1.55E+01 for children and adults, respectively. The result for carcinogenic health risk (total cancer risk (TCR)) has the following order: Pb (1.42E-05) > Cr (4.81E-09) > (Ni 1.35E-09) > As (1.96E-10). With all the values less than threshed hole limit of TCR ≥ 10-4, street dust does not possess carcinogenic health risk for the entire values of six heavy metals considered in this work.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Poeira/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Adulto , Carcinógenos/química , Criança , Cidades , Chipre , Humanos , Indústrias , Jordânia , Metais Pesados/química , Medição de Risco , Turquia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319540

RESUMO

Using the case of Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, and Darkhan cities from Mongolia, the study aimed to assess the contamination level and health risk assessment of heavy metals (As, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn) in urban soil. A total of 78 samples was collected from a variety of functional areas. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and integrated pollution index (IPI) were used in pollution assessment, while the health risk was scored using a hazard quotient (HQ) and health index (HI) for non-carcinogenic heavy metals, as well as a lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for carcinogenic heavy metals. The results show that the concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples taken from Darkhan city, which presented "uncontaminated" values in terms of Igeo for all metals, was relatively lower than other cities within the contamination assessment. Furthermore, the Igeo value signified "uncontimated to heavily contaminated" soil in the Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet cities. Typically, as for the IPI that observed similar trends with Igeo, the mean IPI values in Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, and Darkhan were 1.33 (moderate level of pollution), 1.83 (moderate level of pollution), and 0.94 (low level of pollution), respectively. In terms of the assessment of potential health risk, there was a particular or different level of ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation exposure pathway for human health. Among these three different pathways, the ingestion was estimated by the main contributor for health risk. Each value of HQ and HI indicated that soil heavy metals of studied cities were at a safe level (<1) or had the absence of a significant health risk there. In addition, the potential health risk for children was greater than for adults, where heavy metal values of HI for children had a high value compared to adults. We estimated carcinogenic risks through the inhalation exposure, and as a result, there were no significant risks for human health in the studied cities from three elements (As, Cr, and Ni).


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adulto , Criança , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mongólia , Medição de Risco
16.
Chemosphere ; 235: 288-296, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260869

RESUMO

The Huai'an area in Jiangsu Province of East China is an endemic region of esophageal cancer (EC). The regional heterogeneity of EC suggests that the levels of potential carcinogens might vary throughout the environment. It has been suggested that the most likely carcinogens related to EC are a group known as the N-nitrosamines. In this study, we measured the concentrations of nine nitrosamines in drinking water and human urine in two areas in China, one with a high incidence of EC (Huai'an) and one with a low incidence (Nanjing). Among the nine target analytes, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor) occurred at higher concentrations in drinking water in the high incidence area. Inhabitants from the high incidence area also had urinary excretions with significantly higher concentrations of NDEA, NDBA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). These findings indicated that people in the high EC incidence area were exposed to higher levels of nitrosamines. However, the association between the incidence of EC and nitrosamines exposure will need to be evaluated in more detail.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Água Potável/química , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Nitrosaminas/análise , China , Neoplasias Esofágicas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Nitrosaminas/urina
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315313

RESUMO

Benzene is a human carcinogen presented in gasoline (1% by volume). It is also found in vehicle exhaust. The aim of this study was to assess the health risk of inhalation exposure to benzene among gasoline station workers. The ambient benzene concentration was measured by personal sampling from 150 gasoline station workers (137 fueling workers and 13 cashiers). Additional data of working characteristics were collected by interviews and on-site observations. All workers were non-smokers and passive smoking was limited. Risk assessment of inhalation exposure was determined using the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and showed a high risk of adverse health effect (Hazard Quotients (HQ) >1) in 51.33% of workers. The cancer risk was increased from 1.35 × 10-8 to 1.52 × 10-4, and 70.67% of the workers had a lifetime cancer risk (>Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR): 2.2 × 10-6). A significantly higher risk was found in fueling workers compared to cashiers, and in workers at gasoline stations in inner-city zones (suburban and urban), compared to rural zones. All risk estimations were based upon a single measurement in an eight hour working period, which was assumed to be the average shift length for all working days in a year (250 days). The increased health risk suggests that there should be health surveillance for workers in order to protect them from exposure to benzene. In addition to benzene, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in gasoline may influence health outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Benzeno/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Gasolina , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Emissões de Veículos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco
18.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(4): 501-513, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280378

RESUMO

Lake sediments are important reservoirs for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in catchments. Knowledge of occurrence, sources, and toxicological risk of PAHs is crucial to abate their pollution and risk. We investigated the spatial and temporal occurrence, sources, and potential toxicological risks of 12 PAHs in the surface sediments and one sediment core of the largest deep lake (Lake Fuxian) of China. Our results indicated the average ΣPAH12 in the surface sediments of this lake was 1550.6 ± 231.4 ng g dw -1 , much higher than those of most Chinese shallow lakes. The average ΣPAH12 in the lake area was higher than that in the estuaries. The average ΣPAH12 in the estuaries of influent rivers was higher than that of the outlet river. Coal combustion, gasoline combustion, and diesel combustion were the major sources, which contributed 68.5%, 19.8%, and 11.8% to the ΣPAH12. The average total benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent concentration (TEQcarc) of the six most carcinogenic PAHs was 317.1 ± 86.3 ngTEQcarc g-1 in the surface sediments. The ΣPAH12 increased from 301.7 to 1964.4 ng g dw -1 from 1945 to 2011 and significantly increased with the GDP and population of the catchment. The contribution of coal combustion to the concentrations of PAHs increased gradually with time. The total TEQcarc, and the percentage of ΣPAHcarc to ΣPAH12 in the sediment core increased from 5.0 to 84.6 ngTEQcarc g-1 and from 5.7 to 23.3%, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of such deep waters in burying PAHs and the increasing risk of PAHs from human activities.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , China , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Food Chem ; 297: 124977, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253260

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily produced during the incomplete combustion of organic matter. PAHs are suspected endocrine disruptors and possible carcinogenic materials. The major sources of human exposure to PAHs are inhaled fumes and food. The aim of this study was to provide an alternative drying method to mitigate PAH formation in dried red peppers. We prepared dried red pepper samples using air-drying and heat pump-assisted drying methods, and measured the concentrations of four PAHs (PAH4), benzo[a] anthracene (B[a]A), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), in the resulting pepper samples. The PAH concentrations ranged from 3.61 to 18.0 µg/kg and from 2.22 to 8.35 µg/kg in the air-dried and heat pump-dried pepper samples, respectively. Overall, the results have shown that dried peppers contain PAH4, that the drying conditions for these contaminants should be optimized for mitigating the PAH formation in dried red peppers.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Antracenos/análise , Antracenos/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Crisenos/análise , Crisenos/metabolismo , Dessecação , Fluorenos/análise , Fluorenos/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
20.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(6): 2731-2747, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161408

RESUMO

Samples of PM2.5 were collected on PTFE filters at 11 monitoring stations in Dhanbad, India, from March, 2014, to February, 2015, for the quantification of 10 PM2.5-bound trace elements by using ICP-OES, source apportionment by using principal component analysis and health risks posed by PM2.5-bound trace elements by using health risk assessment model developed by US EPA. The average annual PM2.5 concentration (149 ± 66 µg/m3) exceeded the national ambient air quality standards by factor of 3.7, US EPA national ambient air quality standards by factor of 10 and WHO air quality guidelines by factor of 15. The sum total of average annual concentration of all PM2.5-bound trace elements was found to be 3.206 µg/m3 with maximum concentrations of Fe (61%), Zn (21%) and Pb (11%). Coal mining, coal combustion, vehicular emission, tyre and brake wear and re-suspension of road dust were identified as dominant sources of PM2.5-bound trace elements from the results of correlation and chemometric analysis. The significantly high HQ values posed by PM2.5-bound Co and Ni and intensification of HI values (15.7, 10.8 and 8.54 in mining area, transportation routes and institutional area, respectively) for multielemental exposure indicate high potential of non-carcinogenic health risk associated with inhalation exposure. The carcinogenic health risk due to multielemental exposure in mining area (2.27 × 10-4) and transportation routes (1.57 × 10-4) for adults were significantly higher than threshold value indicating the vulnerability of adults toward inhalation-induced carcinogenic risk posed by PM2.5-bound trace elements.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Exposição por Inalação , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco , Transportes , Emissões de Veículos/análise
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