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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4455, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901005

RESUMO

Dysregulated alternative splicing (AS) driving carcinogenetic mitosis remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cancer metastasis-associated antigen 1 (MTA1), a well-known oncogenic chromatin modifier, broadly interacts and co-expresses with RBPs across cancers, contributing to cancerous mitosis-related AS. Using developed fCLIP-seq technology, we show that MTA1 binds abundant transcripts, preferentially at splicing-responsible motifs, influencing the abundance and AS pattern of target transcripts. MTA1 regulates the mRNA level and guides the AS of a series of mitosis regulators. MTA1 deletion abrogated the dynamic AS switches of variants for ATRX and MYBL2 at mitotic stage, which are relevant to mitosis-related tumorigenesis. MTA1 dysfunction causes defective mitotic arrest, leads to aberrant chromosome segregation, and results in chromosomal instability (CIN), eventually contributing to tumorigenesis. Currently, little is known about the RNA splicing during mitosis; here, we uncover that MTA1 binds transcripts and orchestrates dynamic splicing of mitosis regulators in tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Mitose/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mitose/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transativadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Transativadores/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4586, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934222

RESUMO

Frequent mutation of the tumour suppressor RNF43 is observed in many cancers, particularly colon malignancies. RNF43, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, negatively regulates Wnt signalling by inducing degradation of the Wnt receptor Frizzled. In this study, we discover that RNF43 activity requires phosphorylation at a triplet of conserved serines. This phospho-regulation of RNF43 is required for zebrafish development and growth of mouse intestinal organoids. Cancer-associated mutations that abrogate RNF43 phosphorylation cooperate with active Ras to promote tumorigenesis by abolishing the inhibitory function of RNF43 in Wnt signalling while maintaining its inhibitory function in p53 signalling. Our data suggest that RNF43 mutations cooperate with KRAS mutations to promote multi-step tumorigenesis via the Wnt-Ras-p53 axis in human colon cancers. Lastly, phosphomimetic substitutions of the serine trio restored the tumour suppressive activity of extracellular oncogenic mutants. Therefore, harnessing phospho-regulation of RNF43 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for tumours with RNF43 mutations.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Receptores Wnt/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteína Oncogênica p21(ras)/genética , Proteína Oncogênica p21(ras)/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteólise , Receptores Wnt/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
3.
Gene ; 763: 145068, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827680

RESUMO

CircRNAs are reported to exert a significant role in modulating genes in cancers, including osteosarcoma progression. Up to now, the function of circ_0010220 in osteosarcoma is still poorly known. The aim of our work was to figure out the potential mechanism of circ_0010220/miR-503-5p/CDCA4 axis in osteosarcoma progression. Firstly, quantitative RT-qPCR was utilized to measure the expression of circ_0010220 in osteosarcoma cells. Then, osteosarcoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion after loss of circ_0010220 were evaluated using CCK-8, flow cytometry, transwell migration, invasion and tumorigenesis experiments respectively. Circ_0010220 expression was markedly increased in osteosarcoma cells. Additionally, knockdown of circ_0010220 significantly depressed tumor growth. CCK-8 analysis indicated that down-regulation of circ_0010220 inhibited osteosarcoma cells proliferation. Flow cytometry assay showed that knockdown of circ_0010220 induced cell apoptosis and blocked cell cycle in the G1 phase. Meanwhile, cell migration an invasion was reduced by circ_0010220. Furthermore, miR-503-5p was predicted as the target for circ_0010220 and miR-503-5p inhibitors reversed cell growth suppressed through silencing circ_0010220. Then, our study demonstrated that Cell Division Cycle-Associated protein 4 (CDCA4) could be a downstream target of miR-503-5p. Additionally, circ_0010220 down-regulation reduced CDCA4 expression level and the inhibitors of miR-503-5p reversed that. In conclusion, we indicated circ_0010220 can be an important biomarker for osteosarcoma via regulating miR-503-5p and CDCA4.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/patologia , RNA Circular/metabolismo
4.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(5): 516-520, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842435

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract. There are a large number of microorganisms in the digestive tract. Under normal physiological conditions, intestinal microorganisms can help with digestion and absorption, resist pathogen invasion and regulate the proliferation of intestinal mucosal cells. However, intestinal microflora imbalance will affect the intestinal microenvironment and intestinal cell function, and is closely related to the incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. Firstly, this paper introduces the changes of intestinal flora in patients with colorectal cancer, and then summarizes the mode of intestinal flora participating in the occurrence of colorectal cancer from the macro level. Then, we elaborate the involvement of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer from the aspects of cytokine-dependent chronic inflammation, DNA damage of intestinal epithelial cells, carcinogenic metabolites of intestinal flora and cellular enzymes, and changes of intestinal immune system. The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer provides a reference for further study of the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Finally, from the perspective of intestinal flora and colorectal cancer treatment, we analyze the significance of probiotics and bacterial flora transplantation for the treatment of colorectal cancer, and provide some new treatment ideas and methods that may be useful for the treatment of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3697-3705, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Time restricted feeding (TRF) mitigates the high-fat diet-enhanced mammary tumorigenesis in a MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed untargeted metabolomic and targeted transcriptomic analyses on mammary tumors from MMTV-PyMT mice fed a standard AIN93G diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with TRF (12 h, dark phase) and mammary glands from wild-type mice fed the AIN93G diet. RESULTS: The metabolic profile of mammary tumors differed from that of mammary glands; there was no impact of TRF upon tumor metabolome. TRF did reduce elevated expression of Hmgcr, Srebp1, Fads2, and Ppard in mammary tumors, indicating a down-regulation of lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: The null effect of TRF on the metabolomic profile does not rule out changes in more refined intracellular signaling pathways. It suggests that the protection of TRF against mammary tumorigenesis may rely upon its action on the host rather than a direct effect on tumor metabolism.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/metabolismo , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos
6.
Cancer Sci ; 111(9): 3292-3302, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644283

RESUMO

EphA10 (erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma receptor A10) is a catalytically defective receptor protein tyrosine kinase in the ephrin receptor family. Although EphA10 is involved in the malignancy of some types of cancer, its role as an oncogene has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the influence of EphA10 on the tumorigenic potential of pancreatic cancer cells. Analysis of expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed that EphA10 was elevated and higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues in some cancer types, including pancreatic cancer. EphA10 silencing reduced the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of MIA PaCa-2 and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. These effects were reversed by overexpression of EphA10 in MIA PaCa-2 cells. Importantly, overexpression and silencing of EphA10 respectively increased and decreased the weight, volume, and number of Ki-67-positive proliferating cells in MIA PaCa-2 xenograft tumors. Further, EphA10 expression was positively correlated with invasion and gelatin degradation in MIA PaCa-2 cells. Moreover, overexpression of EphA10 enhanced the expression and secretion of MMP-9 in MIA PaCa-2 cells and increased the expression of MMP-9 and the vascular density in xenograft tumors. Finally, expression of EphA10 increased the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, AKT, FAK, and NF-κB, which are important for cell proliferation, survival, adhesion, migration, and invasion. Therefore, we suggest that EphA10 plays a pivotal role in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic epithelial cells and is a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptores da Família Eph/genética , Receptores da Família Eph/metabolismo , Animais , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3627, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686664

RESUMO

OTX2 is a potent oncogene that promotes tumor growth in Group 3 medulloblastoma. However, the mechanisms by which OTX2 represses neural differentiation are not well characterized. Here, we perform extensive multiomic analyses to identify an OTX2 regulatory network that controls Group 3 medulloblastoma cell fate. OTX2 silencing modulates the repressive chromatin landscape, decreases levels of PRC2 complex genes and increases the expression of neurodevelopmental transcription factors including PAX3 and PAX6. Expression of PAX3 and PAX6 is significantly lower in Group 3 medulloblastoma patients and is correlated with reduced survival, yet only PAX3 inhibits self-renewal in vitro and increases survival in vivo. Single cell RNA sequencing of Group 3 medulloblastoma tumorspheres demonstrates expression of an undifferentiated progenitor program observed in primary tumors and characterized by translation/elongation factor genes. Identification of mTORC1 signaling as a downstream effector of OTX2-PAX3 reveals roles for protein synthesis pathways in regulating Group 3 medulloblastoma pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares , Meduloblastoma , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX3/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/genética , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Oncogenes , Fator de Transcrição PAX3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
Life Sci ; 258: 118128, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710947

RESUMO

Although breast cancer is one of the leading troublesome cancers, the available therapeutic options have not fulfilled the desired outcomes. Immune-based therapy has gained special attention for breast cancer treatment. Although this approach is highly tolerable, its low response rate has rendered it as an undesirable approach. This review aims to describe the essential oncogenic pathways involved in breast cancer, elucidate the immunosuppression and oncogenic effect of Mucin1, and introduce myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are the main culprits of anti-tumoral immune response attenuation. The various auto-inductive loops between Mucin1 and myeloid-derived suppressor cells are focal in the suppression of anti-tumoral immune responses in patients with breast cancer. These cross-talks between the Mucin1 and myeloid-derived suppressor cells can be the underlying causes of immunotherapy's impotence for patients with breast cancer. This approach can pave the road for the development of a potent vaccine for patients with breast cancer and is translated into clinical settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Vacinação , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos
9.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(18)2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661120

RESUMO

The DNA and protein complex known as chromatin is subject to posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that regulate cellular functions such that PTM dysregulation can lead to disease, including cancer. One critical PTM is acetylation/deacetylation, which is being investigated as a means to develop targeted cancer therapies. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) family of proteins performs histone acetylation. In humans, MOF (hMOF), a member of the MYST family of HATs, acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac). MOF-mediated acetylation plays a critical role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and embryonic stem cell development. Functionally, MOF is found in two distinct complexes: NSL (nonspecific lethal) in humans and MSL (male-specific lethal) in flies. The NSL complex is also able to acetylate additional histone H4 sites. Dysregulation of MOF activity occurs in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancer, medulloblastoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Bioinformatics analysis of KAT8, the gene encoding hMOF, indicated that it is highly overexpressed in kidney tumors as part of a concerted gene coexpression program that can support high levels of chromosome segregation and cell proliferation. The linkage between MOF and tumor proliferation suggests that there are additional functions of MOF that remain to be discovered.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Acetilação , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
10.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(11): 1274-1283, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649042

RESUMO

Nanog plays an important role in the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) which participate in tumorgenesis and progression. In renal cancer, tobacco smoke (TS) is considered a major risk factor. However, the molecular mechanism by which TS induces the development of renal CSC properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the level of Nanog was elevated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with a smoking history, and that Nanog overexpression promoted the traits of CSCs in renal cancer. We further demonstrated that a 8-week exposure of TS enhanced the formation of renal tumorspheres, increased the population of CD133-positive cells, and stimulated the expression of Nanog and CSC markers. In addition, TS was found to play a role in accelerating the cell growth transition from G1 to S phase in renal CSCs. Finally, we demonstrated that the TS-induced effects in renal CSCs could be reversed through the downregulation of Nanog. Our results suggested that Nanog plays a role in mediating TS-induced renal CSC properties. This study may provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of TS-related renal tumorigenesis, which can contribute to the future development of therapeutics for renal cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/metabolismo
11.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(8): 1893-1922, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Melatonin is an amphipathic indolamine molecule ubiquitously present in all organisms ranging from cyanobacteria to humans. The pineal gland is the site of melatonin synthesis and secretion under the influence of the retinohypothalamic tract. Some extrapineal tissues (skin, lens, gastrointestinal tract, testis, ovary, lymphocytes, and astrocytes) also enable to produce melatonin. Physiologically, melatonin regulates various functions like circadian rhythm, sleep-wake cycle, gonadal activity, redox homeostasis, neuroprotection, immune-modulation, and anticancer effects in the body. Inappropriate melatonin secretion advances the aging process, tumorigenesis, visceral adiposity, etc. METHODS: For the preparation of this review, I had reviewed the literature on the multidimensional activities of melatonin from the NCBI website database PubMed, Springer Nature, Science Direct (Elsevier), Wiley Online ResearchGate, and Google Scholar databases to search relevant articles. Specifically, I focused on the roles and mechanisms of action of melatonin in cancer prevention. RESULTS: The actions of melatonin are primarily mediated by G-protein coupled MT1 and MT2 receptors; however, several intracellular protein and nuclear receptors can modulate the activity. Normal levels of the melatonin protect the cells from adverse effects including carcinogenesis. Therapeutically, melatonin has chronomedicinal value; it also shows a remarkable anticancer property. The oncostatic action of melatonin is multidimensional, associated with the advancement of apoptosis, the arrest of the cell cycle, inhibition of metastasis, and antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION: The present review has emphasized the mechanism of the anti-neoplastic activity of melatonin that increases the possibilities of the new approaches in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/metabolismo , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2717, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483112

RESUMO

Somatic inactivating mutations of ARID1A, a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling gene, are prevalent in human endometrium-related malignancies. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying how ARID1A deleterious mutation contributes to tumorigenesis, we establish genetically engineered murine models with Arid1a and/or Pten conditional deletion in the endometrium. Transcriptomic analyses on endometrial cancers and precursors derived from these mouse models show a close resemblance to human uterine endometrioid carcinomas. We identify transcriptional networks that are controlled by Arid1a and have an impact on endometrial tumor development. To verify findings from the murine models, we analyze ARID1AWT and ARID1AKO human endometrial epithelial cells. Using a system biology approach and functional studies, we demonstrate that ARID1A-deficiency lead to loss of TGF-ß tumor suppressive function and that inactivation of ARID1A/TGF-ß axis promotes migration and invasion of PTEN-deleted endometrial tumor cells. These findings provide molecular insights into how ARID1A inactivation accelerates endometrial tumor progression and dissemination, the major causes of cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/citologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13529-13540, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482852

RESUMO

The Hippo pathway plays a pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and tumor suppression. YAP and TAZ are downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway, and their activities are tightly suppressed by phosphorylation-dependent cytoplasmic retention. However, the molecular mechanisms governing YAP/TAZ nuclear localization have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that Mastermind-like 1 and 2 (MAML1/2) are indispensable for YAP/TAZ nuclear localization and transcriptional activities. Ectopic expression or depletion of MAML1/2 induces nuclear translocation or cytoplasmic retention of YAP/TAZ, respectively. Additionally, mutation of the MAML nuclear localization signal, as well as its YAP/TAZ interacting region, both abolish nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of YAP/TAZ. Importantly, we demonstrate that the level of MAML1 messenger RNA (mRNA) is regulated by microRNA-30c (miR-30c) in a cell-density-dependent manner. In vivo and clinical results suggest that MAML potentiates YAP/TAZ oncogenic function and positively correlates with YAP/TAZ activation in human cancer patients, suggesting pathological relevance in the context of cancer development. Overall, our study not only provides mechanistic insight into the regulation of YAP/TAZ subcellular localization, but it also strongly suggests that the miR30c-MAML-YAP/TAZ axis is a potential therapeutic target for developing novel cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115102, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cadmium (Cd) is reported to be associated with carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms associated with Cd-induced prostate cancer (PCa) remain elusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RWPE1, PWR1E and DU 145 cells were used. RT2 Profiler Array, real-time-quantitative-PCR, immunofluorescence, cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation and colony formation assays along with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed. RESULT: Chronic Cd exposure of non-malignant RWPE1 and PWR1E cells promoted cell survival, proliferation and colony formation with inhibition of apoptosis. Even a two-week Cd exposure of PCa cell line (DU 145) significantly increased the proliferation and decreased apoptosis. RT2 profiler array of 84 genes involved in the Erk/MAPK pathway revealed induction of gene expression in Cd-RWPE1 cells compared to RWPE1. This was confirmed by individual TaqMan gene expression analysis in both Cd-RWPE1 and Cd-PWR1E cell lines. GSEA showed an enrichment of the Erk/MAPK pathway along with other pathways such as KEGG-ERBB, KEGG-Cell Cycle, KEGG-VEGF, KEGG-Pathways in cancer and KEGG-prostate cancer pathway. We randomly selected upregulated genes from Erk/MAPK pathway and performed profile analysis in a PCa data set from the TCGA/GDC data base. We observed upregulation of these genes in PCa compared to normal samples. An increase in phosphorylation of the Erk1/2 and Mek1/2 was observed in Cd-RWPE1 and Cd-PWR1E cells compared to parental cells, confirming that Cd-exposure induces activation of the Erk/MAPK pathway. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that Erk/MAPK signaling is a major pathway involved in Cd-induced malignant transformation of normal prostate cells. Understanding these dominant oncogenic pathways may help develop optimal therapeutic strategies for PCa.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
15.
Life Sci ; 256: 117936, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531376

RESUMO

AIMS: The regulation of the Ras-ERK pathway is the crucial point in pancreatic carcinogenesis, and the Ras kinase is an essential regulatory upstream signal molecule of the ERK1/2 pathway. H3K9ac is a vital histone modification, but its specific role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. This research aims to study whether the modification level of H3K9ac can regulate the characteristic phenotype of the pancreatic cancer cells by affecting the downstream expression, proliferation, migration, and other related genes. MAIN METHODS: The RasG12V/T35S were used to transfect pancreatic cancer cells, and the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and H3K9ac were detected by western blotting. The colony formation assay, transwell assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were used to study cell viability, migration, and the downstream genes of the ERK1/2 pathway. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that Ras ERK1/2 reduced H3K9ac expression in ASPC-1 cells, and H3K9ac significantly repressed the viability of cells, colony formation, and ASPC-1 cell movement induced by Ras ERK1/2. Besides, HDAC1 silencing increased H3K9ac expression, and changed the effect of Ras ERK1/2 on ASPC-1 cells proliferation, its movement, and mRNAs of ERK1/2 downstream genes. Moreover, Ras ERK1/2 inhibited H3K9ac expression by the degradation of PCAF via MDM2. SIGNIFICANCE: Ras ERK1/2 promotes pancreatic carcinogenesis cell movement, through down-regulating H3K9ac via MDM2 mediated PCAF degradation.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição de p300-CBP/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Acetilação , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Fenótipo , Proteólise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
16.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115109, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544403

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BCa) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide due to its aggressiveness and resistance against therapies. Intricate interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) are essential for both disease progression and regression. Thus, interrupting molecular communications within the TME could potentially provide improved therapeutic efficacies. M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (M2 TAMs) were shown to contribute to BCa progression and drug resistance. We attempted to provide evidence for ovatodiolide (OV) as a potential therapeutic agent that targets both TME and BCa cells. First, tumor-suppressing functions of OV were determined by cell viability, colony, and tumor-sphere formation assays using a coculture system composed of M2 TAMs/BCa cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from M2 TAMs containing oncomiR-21 and mRNAs, including Akt, STAT3, mTOR, and ß-catenin, promoted cisplatin (CDDP) resistance, migration, and tumor-sphere generation in BCa cells, through increasing CDK6, mTOR, STAT3, and ß-catenin expression. OV treatment also prevented M2 polarization and reduced EV cargos from M2 TAMs. Finally, in vivo data demonstrated that OV treatment overcame CDDP resistance. OV only and the OV + CDDP combination both resulted in significant reductions in mTOR, ß-catenin, CDK6, and miR-21 expression in tumor samples and EVs isolated from serum. Collectively, we demonstrated that M2 TAMs induced malignant properties in BCa cells, in part via oncogenic EVs. OV treatment prevented M2 TAM polarization, reduced EV cargos derived from M2 TAMs, and suppressed ß-catenin/mTOR/CDK6 signaling. These findings provide preclinical evidence for OV as a single or adjuvant agent for treating drug-resistant BCa.


Assuntos
Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Plantas Medicinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525899

RESUMO

High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common and deadly type of ovarian cancer, largely due to difficulties in early diagnosis and rapid metastasis throughout the peritoneal cavity. Previous studies have shown that expression of Notch3 correlates with worse prognosis and increased tumorigenic cell behaviors in HGSC. We investigated the mechanistic role of Notch3 in a model of metastatic ovarian cancer using the murine ovarian surface epithelial cell line, ID8 IP2. Notch3 was activated in ID8 IP2 cells via expression of the Notch3 intracellular domain (Notch3IC). Notch3IC ID8 IP2 cells injected intraperitoneally caused accelerated ascites and reduced survival compared to control ID8 IP2, particularly in early stages of disease. We interrogated downstream targets of Notch3IC in ID8 IP2 cells by RNA sequencing and found significant induction of genes that encode adhesion and extracellular matrix proteins. Notch3IC ID8 IP2 showed increased expression of ITGA1 mRNA and cell-surface protein. Notch3IC-mediated increase of ITGA1 was also seen in two human ovarian cancer cells. Notch3IC ID8 IP2 cells showed increased adhesion to collagens I and IV in vitro. We propose that Notch3 activation in ovarian cancer cells causes increased adherence to collagen-rich peritoneal surfaces. Thus, the correlation between increased Notch3 signaling and poor prognosis may be influenced by increased metastasis of HGSC via increased adherence of disseminating cells to new metastatic sites in the peritoneum.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/secundário , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/secundário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Receptor Notch3/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Peritoneais/metabolismo , Receptor Notch3/genética
18.
Mol Cell ; 78(6): 1034-1044, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504556

RESUMO

Malignant cells remodel their metabolism to meet the demands of uncontrolled cell proliferation. These demands lead to differential requirements in energy, biosynthetic precursors, and signaling intermediates. Both genetic programs arising from oncogenic events and transcriptional programs and epigenomic events are important in providing the necessary metabolic network activity. Accumulating evidence has established that environmental factors play a major role in shaping cancer cell metabolism. For metabolism, diet and nutrition are the major environmental aspects and have emerged as key components in determining cancer cell metabolism. In this review, we discuss these emerging concepts in cancer metabolism and how diet and nutrition influence cancer cell metabolism.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Dieta/tendências , Dietoterapia/tendências , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20140, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443328

RESUMO

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) typically shows a strong uptake of F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) imaged by positron emission tomography (PET). Uncommonly, PCNSL demonstrates a low uptake on FDG PET. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of the unusual cases of PCNSL with low FDG uptake.We retrospectively enrolled 104 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL who underwent baseline brain FDG PET. The degree of FDG uptake of PCNSL was visually scored by 4 grades (0, ≤contralateral white matter; 1, >contralateral white matter and contralateral gray matter). Grades 0-2 were considered as PCNSL with low uptake. We investigated association of low uptake of PCNSL with the following clinicopathological factors: age, sex, steroid treatment, lactate dehydrogenase level, cerebrospinal fluid protein level, condition of PET scanning, immunohistochemical markers (cluster of differentiation 10 [CD10], B-cell lymphoma 6 [BCL-6], B-cell lymphoma 2 [BCL-2], multiple myeloma oncogene 1 [MUM1], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] protein, and Ki67), location of lesions, tumor size, multiplicity of lesions, involvement of deep brain structures, and cystic or necrotic appearance of lesions.Of the 104 patients with PCNSL, 14 patients (13.5%) showed PCNSL with low FDG uptake on PET. Among various clinicopathological factors, MUM1 negativity was the only factor associated with low FDG uptake PCNSL by univariate (P = .002) and multivariate analysis (P = .007).This study suggests that the different clinicopathological characteristics between patients with high uptake and low uptake of PCNSL on FDG PET is closely associated with lack of MUM1, a protein known to be a crucial regulator of B-cell development and tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Proteínas do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/análise , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
20.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(15)2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423991

RESUMO

It has been found that the circular RNA (circRNA) CDR1as is upregulated in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissues. In this study, we tried to explore the roles of CDR1as in CCA. CDR1as was overexpressed or knocked down in human CCA cells to assess the effects of CDR1as on cell behaviors and tumor xenograft growth. In vitro, the CDR1as level was significantly increased in CCA cell lines. The results showed that CDR1as promoted the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and activation of the AKT3/mTOR pathway in CCA cells. Moreover, miR-641, a predicted target microRNA (miRNA) of CDR1as, could partially reverse the effects of CDR1as on cell behaviors in CCA cells. Furthermore, CDR1as improved tumor xenograft growth, and it could be attenuated by miR-641 in vivo Additionally, CDR1as expression was inversely correlated with miR-641 in CCA cells, and miR-641 could directly bind with CDR1as and its target genes, the AKT3 and mTOR genes. Mechanistically, CDR1as could bind with miR-641 and accelerate miR-641 degradation, which possibly leads to the upregulation of the relative mRNA levels of AKT3 and mTOR in RBE cells. In conclusion, our findings indicated that CDR1as might exert oncogenic properties, at least partially, by regulating miR-641 in CCA. CDR1as and miR-641 could be considered therapeutic targets for CCA.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/sangue , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/sangue , RNA Circular/sangue , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/sangue , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
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