Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.585
Filtrar
1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445617

RESUMO

HOX transcription factors are members of an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins required for the establishment of the anteroposterior body axis during bilaterian development. Although they are often deregulated in cancers, the molecular mechanisms by which they act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes are only partially understood. Since the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway is deregulated in most cancers, we aimed at apprehending if and how the Hox proteins interact with ERK oncogenicity. Using an in vivo neoplasia model in the chicken embryo consisting in the overactivation of the ERK1/2 kinases in the trunk neural tube, we analyzed the consequences of the HOXB8 gain of function at the morphological and transcriptional levels. We found that HOXB8 acts as a tumor suppressor, counteracting ERK-induced neoplasia. The HOXB8 tumor suppressor function relies on a large reversion of the oncogenic transcriptome induced by ERK. In addition to showing that the HOXB8 protein controls the transcriptional responsiveness to ERK oncogenic signaling, our study identified new downstream targets of ERK oncogenic activation in an in vivo context that could provide clues for therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma
3.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1715-1731, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425716

RESUMO

Hippo signalling pathway plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. In this work, we identified an N-aryl sulphonamide-quinazoline derivative, compound 9i as an anti-gastric cancer agent, which exhibited potent antiproliferative ability with IC50 values of 0.36 µM (MGC-803 cells), 0.70 µM (HCT-116 cells), 1.04 µM (PC-3 cells), and 0.81 µM (MCF-7 cells), respectively and inhibited YAP activity by the activation of p-LATS. Compound 9i was effective in suppressing MGC-803 xenograft tumour growth in nude mice without obvious toxicity and significantly down-regulated the expression of YAP in vivo. Compound 9i arrested cells in the G2/M phase, induced intrinsic apoptosis, and inhibited cell colony formation in MGC-803 and SGC-7901 cells. Therefore, compound 9i is to be reported as an anti-gastric cancer agent via activating the Hippo signalling pathway and might help foster a new strategy for the cancer treatment by activating the Hippo signalling pathway regulatory function to inhibit the activity of YAP.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Estrutura Molecular , Quinazolinas/síntese química , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360879

RESUMO

Globally, breast cancer has remained the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous and phenotypically diverse group of diseases, which require different selection of treatments. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), a small subset of cancer cells with stem cell-like properties, play essential roles in breast cancer progression, recurrence, metastasis, chemoresistance and treatments. Epigenetics is defined as inheritable changes in gene expression without alteration in DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation includes DNA methylation and demethylation, as well as histone modifications. Aberrant epigenetic regulation results in carcinogenesis. In this review, the mechanism of epigenetic regulation involved in carcinogenesis, therapeutic resistance and metastasis of BCSCs will be discussed, and finally, the therapies targeting these biomarkers will be presented.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Epigênese Genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Código das Histonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Código das Histonas/genética , Humanos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445246

RESUMO

The hematopoietic system relies on regulation of both metabolism and autophagy to maintain its homeostasis, ensuring the self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs display a distinct metabolic profile from that of their differentiated progeny, while metabolic rewiring from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has been shown to be crucial for effective hematopoietic differentiation. Autophagy-mediated regulation of metabolism modulates the distinct characteristics of quiescent and differentiating hematopoietic cells. In particular, mitophagy determines the cellular mitochondrial content, thus modifying the level of OXPHOS at the different differentiation stages of hematopoietic cells, while, at the same time, it ensures the building blocks and energy for differentiation. Aberrations in both the metabolic status and regulation of the autophagic machinery are implicated in the development of hematologic malignancies, especially in leukemogenesis. In this review, we aim to investigate the role of metabolism and autophagy, as well as their interconnections, in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Hematopoese , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Leucemia/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Humanos , Leucemia/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445353

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Additionally, the efficacy of targeted molecular therapies with multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors is limited. In this study, we focused on the cellular signaling pathways common to diverse HCC cells and used quantitative reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and statistical analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms determining its malignancy. We examined the heterogeneity of 17 liver cancer cell lines by performing cluster analysis of their expression of CD90 and EpCAM cancer stem cell markers. Gaussian mixture model clustering identified three dominant clusters: CD90-positive and EpCAM-negative (CD90+), EpCAM-positive and CD90-negative (EpCAM+) and EpCAM-negative and CD90-negative (Neutral). A multivariate analysis by partial least squares revealed that the former two cell populations showed distinct patterns of protein expression and phosphorylation in the EGFR and EphA2 signaling pathways. The CD90+ cells exhibited higher abundance of AKT, EphA2 and its phosphorylated form at Ser897, whereas the EpCAM+ cells exhibited higher abundance of ERK, RSK and its phosphorylated form. This demonstrates that pro-oncogenic, ligand-independent EphA2 signaling plays a dominant role in CD90+ cells with higher motility and metastatic activity than EpCAM+ cells. We also showed that an AKT inhibitor reduced the proliferation and survival of CD90+ cells but did not affect those of EpCAM+ cells. Taken together, our results suggest that AKT activation may be a key pro-oncogenic regulator in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Receptor EphA2/fisiologia , Antígenos Thy-1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Receptor EphA2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361081

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia is a common deleterious paraneoplastic syndrome that represents an area of unmet clinical need, partly due to its poorly understood aetiology and complex multifactorial nature. We have interrogated multiple genetically defined larval Drosophila models of tumourigenesis against key features of human cancer cachexia. Our results indicate that cachectic tissue wasting is dependent on the genetic characteristics of the tumour and demonstrate that host malnutrition or tumour burden are not sufficient to drive wasting. We show that JAK/STAT and TNF-α/Egr signalling are elevated in cachectic muscle and promote tissue wasting. Furthermore, we introduce a dual driver system that allows independent genetic manipulation of tumour and host skeletal muscle. Overall, we present a novel Drosophila larval paradigm to study tumour/host tissue crosstalk in vivo, which may contribute to future research in cancer cachexia and impact the design of therapeutic approaches for this pathology.


Assuntos
Caquexia/patologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neoplasias/complicações , Animais , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Drosophila , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Janus Quinases/genética , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Life Sci ; 282: 119817, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273374

RESUMO

R-spondins 2 (RSPO2) protein is a member of RSPO family which plays an essential role in stem cell survival, development and tumorigenicity. There has several evidence suggested that RSPO2 involved in breast, gastric, liver and colorectal cancer. However, the specific function and mechanism of RSPO2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unknown. In the present study, we first observed that RSPO2 expression was elevated in NPC cell lines SUNE-6-10B, SUNE-5-8F, and CNE-1 compared with the normal laryngeal epithelia cell line NP69. Knockdown of RSPO2 significantly inhibits SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cell survival and proliferation by using CCK-8 assay and Edu assay, respectively. Further studies verified that RSPO2 silence suppressed migration and invasion of SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cells. Further studies suggested that RSPO2 silence suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related protein E-cadherin expression and promoted Vimentin and N-cadherin expression both in SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cells. Molecular mechanism explorations showed that RSPO2 deletion increased ZNRF3 expression and inhibited Gli1 expression. Additionally, knockdown ZNRF3 expression or overexpression Gli1 both reversed the effects of RSPO2 silence on NPC growth and metastasis. Finally, RSPO2 depletion was impaired NPC tumor growth in vivo animal experiments. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that RSPO2 silence inhibits the tumorigenesis of NPC via ZNRF3/Hedgehog-Gli1 signal pathway.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/biossíntese , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298992

RESUMO

Non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid neoplasms with complex etiopathology, rich symptomatology, and a variety of clinical courses, therefore requiring different therapeutic approaches. The hypothesis that an infectious agent may initiate chronic inflammation and facilitate B lymphocyte transformation and lymphogenesis has been raised in recent years. Viruses, like EBV, HTLV-1, HIV, HCV and parasites, like Plasmodium falciparum, have been linked to the development of lymphomas. The association of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, Borrelia burgdorferi with cutaneous MALT lymphoma and Chlamydophila psittaci with ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma is well documented. Recent studies have indicated that other infectious agents may also be relevant in B-cell lymphogenesis such as Coxiella burnettii, Campylobacter jejuni, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Escherichia coli. The aim of the present review is to provide a summary of the current literature on infectious bacterial agents associated with B-cell NHL and to discuss its role in lymphogenesis, taking into account the interaction between infectious agents, host factors, and the tumor environment.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Linfoma de Burkitt/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/microbiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/complicações , Linfoma de Burkitt/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/complicações , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/complicações , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4227, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244482

RESUMO

Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) is a key enzyme of glycine cleavage system that converts glycine into one-carbon units. GLDC is commonly up-regulated and plays important roles in many human cancers. Whether and how GLDC is regulated by post-translational modifications is unknown. Here we report that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signal inhibits GLDC acetylation at lysine (K) 514 by inducing transcription of the deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Upon inhibition of mTORC1, the acetyltransferase acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) catalyzes GLDC K514 acetylation. This acetylation of GLDC impairs its enzymatic activity. In addition, this acetylation of GLDC primes for its K33-linked polyubiquitination at K544 by the ubiquitin ligase NF-X1, leading to its degradation by the proteasomal pathway. Finally, we find that GLDC K514 acetylation inhibits glycine catabolism, pyrimidines synthesis and glioma tumorigenesis. Our finding reveals critical roles of post-translational modifications of GLDC in regulation of its enzymatic activity, glycine metabolism and tumorigenesis, and provides potential targets for therapeutics of cancers such as glioma.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Glioma/genética , Glicina Desidrogenase (Descarboxilante)/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteólise , Pirimidinas/biossíntese , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/genética , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Ubiquitinação/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203895

RESUMO

Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is developed with various etiologies, protection of hepatocytes seems basically essential to prevent the incidence of HCC. Keratin 8 and keratin 18 (K8/K18) are cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are expressed in hepatocytes. They maintain the cell shape and protect cells under stress conditions. Their protective roles in liver damage have been described in studies of mouse models, and K8/K18 mutation frequency in liver patients. Interestingly, K8/K18 bind to signaling proteins such as transcription factors and protein kinases involved in HCC development. Since K8/K18 are abundant cytoskeletal proteins, K8/K18 binding with the signaling factors can alter the availability of the factors. Herein, we discuss the potential roles of K8/K18 in HCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Queratina-18/metabolismo , Queratina-8/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204101

RESUMO

Histamine is a pleiotropic mediator involved in a broad spectrum of (patho)-physiological processes, one of which is the regulation of inflammation. Compounds acting on three out of the four known histamine receptors are approved for clinical use. These approved compounds comprise histamine H1-receptor (H1R) antagonists, which are used to control allergic inflammation, antagonists at H2R, which therapeutically decrease gastric acid release, and an antagonist at H3R, which is indicated to treat narcolepsy. Ligands at H4R are still being tested pre-clinically and in clinical trials of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, dermatitis, and psoriasis. These trials, however, documented only moderate beneficial effects of H4R ligands so far. Nevertheless, pre-clinically, H4R still is subject of ongoing research, analyzing various inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases. During inflammatory reactions in gut tissues, histamine concentrations rise in affected areas, indicating its possible biological effect. Indeed, in histamine-deficient mice experimentally induced inflammation of the gut is reduced in comparison to that in histamine-competent mice. However, antagonists at H1R, H2R, and H3R do not provide an effect on inflammation, supporting the idea that H4R is responsible for the histamine effects. In the present review, we discuss the involvement of histamine and H4R in inflammatory and inflammation-associated diseases of the gut.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Receptores Histamínicos H4/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Histamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299364

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OVCA) arises from three cellular origins, namely surface epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. More than 85% of OVCAs are EOCs (epithelial ovarian carcinomas), which are the most lethal gynecological malignancies. Cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) are considered to be cancer promoters due to their capacity for unlimited self-renewal and drug resistance. Androgen receptor (AR) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and can be activated through binding to its ligand androgens. Studies have reported an association between AR expression and EOC carcinogenesis, and AR is suggested to be involved in proliferation, migration/invasion, and stemness. In addition, alternative AR activating signals, including both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent, are involved in OVCA progression. Although some clinical trials have previously been conducted to evaluate the effects of anti-androgens in EOC, no significant results have been reported. In contrast, experimental studies evaluating the effects of anti-androgen or anti-AR reagents in AR-expressing EOC models have demonstrated positive results for suppressing disease progression. Since AR is involved in complex signaling pathways and may be expressed at various levels in OVCA, the aim of this article was to provide an overview of current studies and perspectives regarding the relevance of androgen/AR roles in OVCA.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos
14.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 126: 151-193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090614

RESUMO

Membraneless organelles (bodies, granules, etc.) are spatially distinct sub-nuclear and cytoplasmic foci involved in all the processes in a living cell, such as development, cell death, carcinogenesis, proliferation, and differentiation. Today the list of the membraneless organelles includes a wide spectrum of intranuclear and cytoplasmic bodies. Proteins with intrinsically disordered regions are the key players in the membraneless body assembly. However, recent data assume an important role of RNA molecules in the process of the liquid-liquid phase separation. High-level expression of RNA above a critical concentration threshold is mandatory to nucleate interactions with specific proteins and for seeding membraneless organelles. RNA components are considered by many authors as the principal determinants of organelle identity. Tandemly repeated (TR) DNA of big satellites (a TR family that includes centromeric and pericentromeric DNA sequences) was believed to be transcriptionally silent for a long period. Now we know about the TR transcription upregulation during gameto- and embryogenesis, carcinogenesis, stress response. In the review, we summarize the recent data about the involvement of TR RNA in the formation of nuclear membraneless granules, bodies, etc., with different functions being in some cases an initiator of the structures assembly. These RNP structures sequestrate and inactivate different proteins and transcripts. The TR induced sequestration is one of the key principles of nuclear architecture and genome functioning. Studying the role of the TR-based membraneless organelles in stress and disease will bring some new ideas for translational medicine.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Organelas , RNA Neoplásico , RNA , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Humanos , Organelas/genética , Organelas/metabolismo , RNA/biossíntese , RNA/genética , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/genética
15.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 93, 2021 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118972

RESUMO

Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are vital regulators of biological activities, and aberrant levels of small ncRNAs are commonly found in precancerous lesions and cancer. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a novel type of small ncRNA initially discovered in germ cells that have a specific length (24-31 nucleotides), bind to PIWI proteins, and show 2'-O-methyl modification at the 3'-end. Numerous studies have revealed that piRNAs can play important roles in tumorigenesis via multiple biological regulatory mechanisms, including silencing transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene processes and accelerating multiprotein interactions. piRNAs are emerging players in the malignant transformation of normal cells and participate in the regulation of cancer hallmarks. Most of the specific cancer hallmarks regulated by piRNAs are involved in sustaining proliferative signaling, resistance to cell death or apoptosis, and activation of invasion and metastasis. Additionally, piRNAs have been used as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis and have great potential for clinical utility. However, research on the underlying mechanisms of piRNAs in cancer is limited. Here, we systematically reviewed recent advances in the biogenesis and biological functions of piRNAs and relevant bioinformatics databases with the aim of providing insights into cancer diagnosis and clinical applications. We also focused on some cancer hallmarks rarely reported to be related to piRNAs, which can promote in-depth research of piRNAs in molecular biology and facilitate their clinical translation into cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
16.
Cancer Sci ; 112(9): 3533-3544, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160112

RESUMO

Despite considerable efforts in the detection and treatment of gastric cancer (GC), the underlying mechanism of the progression of GC remains unknown. Our previous work has demonstrated the remarkable role of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), in fueling the invasion and metastasis of GC. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of RUNX2 in tumorigenesis of GC. We assessed Runx2 expression and its clinical significance via bioinformatic analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases. Roles for Runx2 in self-renewal and tumorigenesis were examined in vitro and in vivo. Further bioinformatic analysis was applied to study the mechanism of GC progression. We found that Runx2 was highly expressed in the early stage of GC and positively correlated with a poor clinical outcome of patients. Runx2 was also significantly correlated with clinicopathological features, such as Hp infection, new neoplastic events, primary therapeutic outcome, ethnicity, race, and tumor stage. Multivariate analysis revealed that together with Runx2, age, cancer status, M stage, and T stage were independent prognostic factors for the outcome of GC patients. RUNX2 overexpression induced increased anchorage-independent colony formation, sphere formation, and tumorigenesis in GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, bioinformatic analysis indicated that yes1 associated transcriptional regulator (YAP1) might be a downstream target of RUNX2. Specific knockdown of YAP1 reduced the tumor-initiating ability of GC cells induced by ectopic Runx2 expression. Our findings support the hypothesis that RUNX2 exerts oncogenic properties via YAP1 regulation, highlighting essential roles for RUNX2 and YAP1 in gastric carcinogenesis and suggesting potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Oncogenes , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transfecção , Carga Tumoral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3707, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140478

RESUMO

While the major drivers of melanoma initiation, including activation of NRAS/BRAF and loss of PTEN or CDKN2A, have been identified, the role of key transcription factors that impose altered transcriptional states in response to deregulated signaling is not well understood. The POU domain transcription factor BRN2 is a key regulator of melanoma invasion, yet its role in melanoma initiation remains unknown. Here, in a BrafV600E PtenF/+ context, we show that BRN2 haplo-insufficiency promotes melanoma initiation and metastasis. However, metastatic colonization is less efficient in the absence of Brn2. Mechanistically, BRN2 directly induces PTEN expression and in consequence represses PI3K signaling. Moreover, MITF, a BRN2 target, represses PTEN transcription. Collectively, our results suggest that on a PTEN heterozygous background somatic deletion of one BRN2 allele and temporal regulation of the other allele elicits melanoma initiation and progression.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Fatores do Domínio POU/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Haploinsuficiência , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/secundário , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Análise em Microsséries , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores do Domínio POU/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário
18.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(15): 5681-5705, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156490

RESUMO

17ß-estradiol controls post-natal mammary gland development and exerts its effects through Estrogen Receptor ERα, a member of the nuclear receptor family. ERα is also critical for breast cancer progression and remains a central therapeutic target for hormone-dependent breast cancers. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the complex ERα signaling pathways that involve either classical nuclear "genomic" or membrane "non-genomic" actions and regulate in concert with other hormones the different stages of mammary development. We describe the cellular and molecular features of the luminal cell lineage expressing ERα and provide an overview of the transgenic mouse models impacting ERα signaling, highlighting the pivotal role of ERα in mammary gland morphogenesis and function and its implication in the tumorigenic processes. Finally, we describe the main features of the ERα-positive luminal breast cancers and their modeling in mice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos
19.
Hum Genet ; 140(8): 1241-1252, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059954

RESUMO

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas with poor prognosis, developing either sporadically or in persons with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Loss of CDKN2A/B is an important early event in MPNST progression. However, many reported MPNSTs exhibit partial or no inactivation of CDKN2A/B, raising the question of whether there is more than one molecular path for MPNST initiation. We present here a comprehensive genomic analysis of MPNST cell lines and tumors to explore in depth the status of CDKN2A. After accounting for CDKN2A deletions and point mutations, we uncovered a previously unnoticed high frequency of chromosomal translocations involving CDKN2A in both MPNST cell lines and primary tumors. Most identified translocation breakpoints were validated by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. Many breakpoints clustered in an intronic 500 bp hotspot region adjacent to CDKN2A exon 2. We demonstrate the bi-allelic inactivation of CDKN2A in all tumors (n = 15) and cell lines (n = 8) analyzed, supporting a single molecular path for MPNST initiation in both sporadic and NF1-related MPNSTs. This general CDKN2A inactivation in MPNSTs has implications for MPNST diagnostics and treatment. Our findings might be relevant for other tumor types with high frequencies of CDKN2A inactivation.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibrossarcoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcoma/genética , Translocação Genética , Sequência de Bases , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/deficiência , Éxons , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibromatose 1/metabolismo , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Neurofibrossarcoma/etiologia , Neurofibrossarcoma/metabolismo , Neurofibrossarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/etiologia , Sarcoma/metabolismo , Sarcoma/patologia , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Life Sci ; 280: 119694, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102192

RESUMO

Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. Cancer cell transformation is the result of intricate crosstalk between intracellular components and proteins. A characteristic feature of cancer cells is the ability to reprogram their metabolic pathways to ensure their infinite proliferative potential. Pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2) is a glycolytic enzyme that plays crucial roles in cancer, apart from carrying out its metabolic roles. PKM2 is involved in all the major events associated with cancer growth. Modulation of PKM2 activity (dimer inhibition or tetramer activation) has been successful in controlling cancer. However, recent studies provide contrary evidences regarding the oncogenic functions of PKM2. Moreover, several studies have highlighted the cancerous roles of PKM1 isoform in certain contexts. The present review aims at providing the current updates regarding PKM2 targeting in cancer. Further, the review discusses the contradictory results that suggest that both the isoforms of PKM can lead to cancer growth. In conclusion, the review emphasizes revisiting the approaches to target cancer metabolism through PKM to find novel and effective targets for anticancer therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/agonistas , Proteínas de Transporte/análise , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/agonistas , Hormônios Tireóideos/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...