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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 605-623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646527

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily plays important roles in a variety of cellular processes such polymodal cellular sensing, adhesion, polarity, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The expression of TRP channels is strictly regulated and their de-regulation can stimulate cancer development and progression.In human cancers, specific miRNAs are expressed in different tissues, and changes in the regulation of gene expression mediated by specific miRNAs have been associated with carcinogenesis. Several miRNAs/TRP channel pairs have been reported to play an important role in tumor biology. Thus, the TRPM1 gene regulates melanocyte/melanoma behaviour via TRPM1 and microRNA-211 transcripts. Both miR-211 and TRPM1 proteins are regulated through microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MIFT) and the expression of miR-211 is decreased during melanoma progression. Melanocyte phenotype and melanoma behaviour strictly depend on dual TRPM1 activity, with loss of TRPM1 protein promoting melanoma aggressiveness and miR-211 expression supporting tumour suppressor. TRPM3 plays a major role in the development and progression of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) loss. TRPM3, a direct target of miR-204, is enhanced in ccRCC with inactivated or deleted VHL. Loss of VHL inhibits miR-204 expression that lead to increased oncogenic autophagy. Therefore, the understanding of specific TRP channels/miRNAs molecular pathways in distinct tumors could provide a clinical rationale for target therapy in cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/genética , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5789-5795, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC) is rare, and few studies have reported its features. We assessed the clinicopathological features, surgical outcomes, oncogenic status and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of PPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 22 consecutive patients who underwent resection of PPC between 2007 and 2017. RESULTS: The predominant tissue type of the epithelial component was adenocarcinoma in 15 patients (68%) and the others in 7 patients (32%), and the 3-year disease-free survival rate tended to be better in patients with an adenocarcinoma component compared to patients with another component (40.0% vs. 17.1%, p=0.059). PD-L1 expression was observed in all eight tumors whose PD-L1 status could be examined and high PD-L1 expression (≥50%) was frequent (5/8, 63%). CONCLUSION: A predominant adenocarcinoma epithelial component in PPC might be associated with better survival outcomes and high PD-L1 expression might be frequent in PPC.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Oncogenes/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 73-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576541

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the roles of alcohol (ethanol) and related compounds in promoting cancer and inflammatory injury in many tissues. Long-term chronic heavy alcohol exposure is known to increase the chances of inflammation, oxidative DNA damage, and cancer development in many organs. The rates of alcohol-mediated organ damage and cancer risks are significantly elevated in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as poor nutrition, unhealthy diets, smoking, infection with bacteria or viruses, and exposure to pro-carcinogens. Chronic ingestion of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may initiate and/or promote the development of cancer in the liver, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, prostate, and female breast. In this chapter, we summarize the important roles of ethanol/acetaldehyde in promoting inflammatory injury and carcinogenesis in several tissues. We also review the updated roles of the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) and other cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of various potentially toxic substrates, and consequent toxicities, including carcinogenesis in different tissues. We also briefly describe the potential implications of endogenous ethanol produced by gut bacteria, as frequently observed in the experimental models and patients of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, in promoting DNA mutation and cancer development in the liver and other tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Carcinogênese , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1 , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Etanol , Acetaldeído/toxicidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/fisiopatologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas
4.
Life Sci ; 236: 116918, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610208

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are characterized as a group of endogenous RNAs that are more than 200 nucleotides in length and have no protein-encoding function. More and more evidence indicates that lncRNAs play vital roles in various human diseases, especially in tumorigenesis. Focally amplified lncRNA on chromosome 1 (FAL1), a novel lncRNA with enhancer-like activity, has been identified as an oncogene in multiple cancers and high expression level of FAL1 is usually associated with poor prognosis. Dysregulation of FAL1 has been shown to promote the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. In the present review, we summarized and illustrated the functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of FAL1 in the occurrence and development of different cancers and other diseases. FAL1 has the potential to appear as a feasible diagnostic and prognostic tool and new therapeutic target for cancer patients though further investigation is needed so as to accelerate clinical application.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 450, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutational signatures are specific patterns of somatic mutations introduced into the genome by oncogenic processes. Several mutational signatures have been identified and quantified from multiple cancer studies, and some of them have been linked to known oncogenic processes. Identification of the processes contributing to mutations observed in a sample is potentially informative to understand the cancer etiology. RESULTS: We present here SigsPack, a Bioconductor package to estimate a sample's exposure to mutational processes described by a set of mutational signatures. The package also provides functions to estimate stability of these exposures, using bootstrapping. The performance of exposure and exposure stability estimations have been validated using synthetic and real data. Finally, the package provides tools to normalize the mutation frequencies with respect to the tri-nucleotide contents of the regions probed in the experiment. The importance of this effect is illustrated in an example. CONCLUSION: SigsPack provides a complete set of tools for individual sample exposure estimation, and for mutation catalogue & mutational signatures normalization.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Genoma Humano , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Software , Carcinogênese/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Neoplasias/patologia
6.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(3): 318-325, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496165

RESUMO

Proteins are the physical basis of life and perform all kinds of life activities. Proteins have different orientations and function in different tissues. The same protein, located in different subcellular regions, can perform different and even opposite functions. Both functional and structural proteins are capable of undergoing re-localization which can directly or indirectly participate in signal transduction. Due to abnormal transduction of signals during carcinogenesis, the proteins originally expressed in the cytoplasm are translocated into the nucleus and lead to functional changes in the tumor tissue. The changes of protein localization are affected by many factors, including the interaction between proteins, expression level of proteins and the cleaved intracellular domain of transmembrane protein.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Citoplasma , Proteínas de Membrana , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 345-352, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411110

RESUMO

This study aimed to detect serum miR-203 expression levels in AML and explore its potential clinical significance. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure the serum miR-203 levels in 134 patients with AML and 70 healthy controls. The results demonstrated that serum miR-203 expression was significantly reduced in AML patients compared with healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed miR-203 could distinguish AML cases from normal controls. Low serum miR-203 levels were associated with worse clinical features, as well as poorer overall survival and relapse free survival of AML patients. Moreover, multivariate analysis confirmed low serum miR-203 expression to be an independent unfavorable prognostic predictor for AML. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the downstream genes and pathways of miR-203 was closely associated with tumorigenesis. Downregulation of miR-203 in AML cell lines upregulated the expression levels of oncogenic promoters such as CREB1, SRC and HDAC1. Thus, these findings demonstrated that serum miR-203 might be a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of AML.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Antagomirs/genética , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/sangue , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Histona Desacetilase 1/sangue , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/sangue , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Recidiva , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Quinases da Família src/sangue , Quinases da Família src/genética
8.
Life Sci ; 234: 116788, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445935

RESUMO

Livin is an important member of the human inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) family. IAPs are proteins with antiapoptotic abilities, and their functions are different from the Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) family proteins. However, the precise role of Livin in colon cancer progression remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of overexpression Livin in colon cancer cells and to examine its molecular mechanism. We demonstrated that Livin induced a colon cancer phenotype, including proliferation and migration, by regulating H2A.XY39ph (histone family 2A variant (H2AX) phosphorylated on the 39th serine site). We elucidated that Livin degraded Jumonji-C domain-containing 6 protein (JMJD6), which was mediated by the proteasome murine double minute 2 (MDM2), thereby regulating H2A.XY39ph. Above all, the overexpression of JMJD6 recovered H2A.XY39ph in colon cancer cells with a high level of Livin, thus inhibiting colon cancer malignancy progression. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role for Livin in regulating the tumor-initiating capacity in colon cancer and provide a novel treatment strategy in cancer via the interruption of H2A.XY39ph function and the interaction between H2A.XY39ph and JMJD6.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteólise
9.
Life Sci ; 234: 116789, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of cervical cancer progression and provide potential therapeutic targets for its treatment in clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-Time qPCR was used to determine the expression levels of Linc00483, miR-508-3p and RGS17 mRNA in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was conducted to determine cell apoptosis. Western Blot was performed to detect protein expression levels. Wound healing and Transwell assay were employed to determine cell migration and invasion respectively. Online software (TargetScan, miRDB and miR TarBase) were used to predict the regulating mechanisms of Linc00483, miR-508-3p and RGS17, which were validated by dual-luciferase reporter gene system. In vivo tumor-bearing mice models were established to validate the cellular results. RESULTS: Linc00483 aberrantly overexpressed in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines comparing to the Control groups. Knock-down of Linc00483 inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation, invasion as well as migration, and promoted cell apoptosis. In addition, miR-508-3p was identified as the downstream target of Linc00483, and miR-508-3p inhibitor abrogated the inhibiting effects of downregulated Linc00483 on cervical cancer cell viability. Furthermore, the expression levels of Linc00483 was positively correlated with RGS17 in the clinical samples and overexpressed Linc00483 increased RGS17 expression levels in cervical cancer cells by sponging miR-508-3p. The in vivo experiments showed that knock-down of Linc00483 inhibited cervical cancer cell tumorigenesis and lung metastasis in mice models. CONCLUSIONS: Knock-down of Linc00483 inhibited the development of cervical cancer by regulating miR-508-3p/RGS17 axis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas RGS/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adulto , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
10.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 475-481, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447345

RESUMO

The oligometastatic paradigm refers to an intermediate biologic state of cancer with restricted metastatic capacity. Its phenotype is characterized by a limited number of metastases and a slow tumor growth. Various clinical and pre-clinical studies associated this state to alterations of the biological mechanisms involved in metastatic diffusion. Eventually, this transitional state leads to a wide metastatic dissemination. However, there is a period during which the patient could benefit from local ablative treatment. Depending on several prognostic factors and the treatment provided, long survival or even healing can sometimes be achieved. The selection of patients eligible for such a curative strategy may be adapted following clinical, radiological or biological markers. Recent improvement of therapeutic and imaging are changing the clinical definition of oligometastatic cancer, which should be adapted to evidence from recent clinical and preclinical data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Carcinogênese/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/genética , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1112-1124, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464520

RESUMO

In this study, we mined out hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) driver genes from MEDLINE literatures by bioinformatics methods of pathway crosstalk and protein interaction network. Furthermore, the relationship between driver genes and their clinicopathological characteristics, as well as classification effectiveness was verified in the public databases. We identified 560 human genes reported to be associated with HCC in 1074 published articles. Functional analysis revealed that biological processes and biochemical pathways relating to tumor pathogenesis, cancer disease, tumor cell molecule, and hepatic disease were enriched in these genes. Pathway crosstalk analysis indicated that significant pathways could be divided into three modules: cancer disease, virus infection, and tumor signaling pathway. The HCC-related protein-protein interaction network comprised 10,212 nodes, and 56,400 edges were mined out to identify 18 modules corresponding to 14 driver genes. We verified that these 14 driver genes have high classification effectiveness to distinguish cancer samples from normal samples and the classification effectiveness was better than that of randomly selected genes. Present study provided pathway crosstalk and protein interaction network for understanding potential tumorigenesis genes underlying HCC. The 14 driver genes identified from this study are of great translational value in HCC diagnosis and treatment, as well as in clinical study on the pathogenesis of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Idoso , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Curva ROC , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 306-315, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299871

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA H19 (H19) is highly expressed in cancers and is considered to highly correlate with the extent of malignant degree. The present study was performed to determine the expression levels of H19 in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) tissues and the role of H19 in ATC 8505C cells in vitro and in vivo. Expression of H19 was detected in 19 ATC and 19 normal thyroid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Utilizing the siRNA or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) directed against human H19 (H19 siRNA or shRNA H19) depleted H19 in ATC 8505C cells and characterized the outcomes. The results showed that H19 was overexpressed in ATC tissues. Targeting H19 inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro and inhibited tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Therefore, the H19 might be an effective target for ATC molecular therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/metabolismo , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/patologia , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Gene ; 714: 143994, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330233

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) potentially regulates tumorigenesis. LncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) expression remains high in hepatocellular carcinoma cells; however, its biological mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. In this study, SNHG1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells was detected by qRT-PCR. Proliferative and migratory potentials of hepatocellular carcinoma cells were determined by CCK-8 and Transwell assay, respectively. Then, the nude mice model of xenograft was employed to verify the effect of SNHG1 on tumor formation in vivo. We identified the potential target of SNHG1 through bioinformatics and dual-luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, Western blot and RIP assay was used for clarifying their interaction and functions in regulating the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results indicated a high expression of SNHG1 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Downregulation of SNHG1 inhibited proliferative and migratory potentials of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) was positively regulated by SNHG1 through competing with miR-195-5p. These results indicated that SNHG1 participated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma as a ceRNA to competitively bind to miR-195-5p and thus mediate PDCD4 expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus
14.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(20): 4043-4070, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317205

RESUMO

Stem cells give rise to all cells and build the tissue structures in our body, and heterogeneity and plasticity are the hallmarks of stem cells. Epigenetic modification, which is associated with niche signals, determines stem cell differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming. Stem cells play a critical role in the development of tumors and are capable of generating 3D organoids. Understanding the properties of stem cells will improve our capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dissecting epigenetic regulation could be helpful for achieving efficient cell reprograming and for developing new drugs for cancer treatment. Stem cell-derived organoids open up new avenues for modeling human diseases and for regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, in addition to the achievements in stem cell research, many challenges still need to be overcome for stem cells to have versatile application in clinics.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Transdiferenciação Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Nicho de Células-Tronco/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Células-Tronco/classificação , Células-Tronco/citologia
15.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(21): 4275-4289, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309249

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that non-coding RNAs play crucial roles in the development and progression of various tumor cells. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) mainly encodes a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and is located on chromosome 8q24.21, which constitutes a fragile site for genetic aberrations. PVT1 is well-known for its interaction with its neighbor MYC, which is a qualified oncogene that plays a vital role in tumorigenesis. In the past several decades, increasing attention has been paid to the interaction mechanism between PVT1 and MYC, which will benefit the clinical treatment and prognosis of patients. In this review, we summarize the coamplification of PVT1 and MYC in cancer, the positive feedback mechanism, and the latest promoter competition mechanism of PVT1 and MYC, as well as how PVT1 participates in the downstream signaling pathway of c-Myc by regulating key molecules. We also briefly describe the treatment prospects and research directions of PVT1 and MYC.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Oncogenes , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
16.
Ann Hematol ; 98(8): 1981-1987, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177299

RESUMO

Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with an increased risk of gastric malignant lymphoma. The chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by H. pylori infection induces lymphomagenesis. Although this chronic mucosal inflammation also results in atrophic gastritis, evidence supporting the possible significance of atrophic gastritis in gastric lymphomagenesis is scarce. Here, to evaluate the association between gastric mucosal atrophy and the risk of gastric lymphoma, we conducted a matched case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center focusing on the attribution of H. pylori infection status and pepsinogen (PG) serum levels. In total, 86 patients with gastric lymphoma (including 49 cases of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and 24 cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL)) and 1720 non-cancer controls were included. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed by conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Results failed to show a statistically significant association between atrophic gastritis and the risk of gastric lymphoma. The adjusted ORs of positive atrophic gastritis relative to negative for overall gastric lymphoma, MALT lymphoma, DLBCL, and other lymphomas were 0.77 (95% CI 0.45-1.33), 0.65 (0.30-1.39), 1.03 (0.38-2.79), and 0.84 (0.22-3.29), respectively. In contrast, a positive association between overall gastric lymphoma and H. pylori infection was observed (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.30-3.54). A consistent association was observed for MALT lymphoma, DLBCL, and other lymphomas with ORs of 1.96 (1.00-3.86), 1.92 (0.74-4.95), and 5.80 (1.12-30.12), respectively. These findings suggest that H. pylori infection triggers gastric lymphoma but that epithelial changes due to atrophic gastritis do not inherently affect the development of gastric lymphoma.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinogênese/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite Atrófica/complicações , Gastrite Atrófica/diagnóstico , Gastrite Atrófica/microbiologia , Gastrite Atrófica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/etiologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/microbiologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/microbiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/microbiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pepsinogênio A/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
17.
Cancer Invest ; 37(4-5): 199-208, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181967

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant tumor for men. But the mechanism is unclear. EIF3C was shown to be overexpressed in PCa tissues and cell lines. EIF3C overexpression was correlated to age and tumor stage in PCa patients and indicated poor survival. The proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of PC3 cells were all inhibited after EIF3C knockdown. Additionally, the phosphorylation level of PI3K and Akt was downregulated while total NF-κB and Myc decreased after EIF3C knockdown. But the expression of IκB increased reversely. Therefore, EIF3C at least partially regulates the activity of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in PC3 cells.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/genética , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proto-Oncogenes , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2442-2455, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148345

RESUMO

The human prolyl isomerase PIN1, best known for its association with carcinogenesis, has recently been indicated in the disease of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the functions of PIN1 and the feasibility of targeting PIN1 in PDAC remain elusive. For this purpose, we examined the expression of PIN1 in cancer, related paracarcinoma and metastatic cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the associations with the pathogenesis of PDAC in 173 patients. The functional roles of PIN1 in PDAC were explored in vitro and in vivo using both genetic and chemical PIN1 inhibition. We showed that PIN1 was upregulated in pancreatic cancer and metastatic tissues. High PIN1 expression is significantly association with poor clinicopathological features and shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. Further stratified analysis showed that PIN1 phenotypes refined prognostication in PDAC. Inhibition of PIN1 expression with RNA interference or with all trans retinoic acid decreased not only the growth but also the migration and invasion of PDAC cells through regulating the key molecules of multiple cancer-driving pathways, simultaneously resulting in cell cycle arrest and mesenchymal-epithelial transition in vitro. Furthermore, genetic and chemical PIN1 ablation showed dramatic inhibition of the tumorigenesis and metastatic spread and then reduced the tumor burden in vivo. We provided further evidence for the use of PIN1 as a promising therapeutic target in PDAC. Genetic and chemical PIN1 ablation exerted potent antitumor effects through blocking multiple cancer-driving pathways in PDAC. More potent and specific PIN1 targeted inhibitors could be exploited to treat this aggressive cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
19.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2620-2628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152682

RESUMO

Tumor mutational burden (TMB) and mutational signatures reflect the process of mutation accumulation in cancer. However, the significance of these emerging characteristics remains unclear. In the present study, we used whole-exome sequencing to analyze the TMB and mutational signature in solid tumors of 4046 Japanese patients. Eight predominant signatures-microsatellite instability, smoking, POLE, APOBEC, UV, mismatch repair, double-strand break repair, and Signature 16-were observed in tumors with TMB higher than 1.0 mutation/Mb, whereas POLE and UV signatures only showed moderate correlation with TMB, suggesting the extensive accumulation of mutations due to defective POLE and UV exposure. The contribution ratio of Signature 16, which is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in drinkers, was increased in hypopharynx cancer. Tumors with predominant microsatellite instability signature were potential candidates for treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors such as pembrolizumab and were found in 2.8% of cases. Furthermore, based on microarray analysis, tumors with predominant signatures were classified into 2 subgroups depending on the expression of immune-related genes reflecting differences in the immune context of the tumor microenvironment. Tumor subpopulations differing in the content of infiltrating immune cells might respond differently to immunotherapeutics. An understanding of cancer characteristics based on TMB and mutational signatures could provide new insights into mutation-driven tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Neoplasias/patologia , Carga Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
20.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 19-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate hepatoma progression through the post-translational regulation of their targets. However, characteristically-expressed miRNAs and their functions in the tumor and tumor-associated angiogenesis remain poorly understood. METHODS: miRNA sequencing (HiSeq 2500 SE50) was performed to identify miRNA species that are involved in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis. We identified miR-451a downregulation according to its expression and TCGA analysis. miR-451a was found to be mainly involved in cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration both in HCC and endothelial cell lines. LPIN1 was predicted to be a target of this miRNA based on TargetScan, GSEA analysis, and the Uniprot database. We performed real time PCR and dual luciferase assays to confirm these results. RESULTS: We identified that miR-451a is significantly downregulated in serum-derived exosomes from HCC patients, as compared to expression in those from normal individuals. We further confirmed that overexpression of miR-451a functions in HCC and endothelia cells in vitro and in vivo. Exosomal miR-451a, as a tumor suppressor, was found to induce apoptosis both in HCC cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition, miR-451a suppressed HUVEC migration, tube formation, and vascular permeability. Importantly, we demonstrated that LPIN1 is a critical target of miR-451a, and promotes apoptosis in both HCC and endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Our study provides the novel finding that exosomal miR-451a targets LPIN1 to inhibit hepatocellular tumorigenesis by regulating tumor cell apoptosis and angiogenesis. These results have clinical implications regarding the deregulation of miRNAs in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Exossomos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/genética , Apoptose , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Progressão da Doença , Exossomos/patologia , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia
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