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1.
Gene ; 806: 145935, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478821

RESUMO

Soluble molecules of programmed death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) are known to modulate T-cell depletion, an important mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence and liver disease progression. In addition, PD-L1 polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR can influence PD-L1 expression and have been associated with cancer risk, although not definitively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms and circulating levels of sPD-L1 in HBV infection and live disease progression. In this study, five hundred fifty-one HBV infected patients of the three clinically well-defined subgroups chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 186), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 142) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 223) and 240 healthy individuals (HC) were enrolled. PD-L1 polymorphisms (rs2297136 and rs4143815) were genotyped by in-house validated ARMS assays. Logistic regression models were applied in order to determine the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms with HBV infection as well as with progression of related liver diseases. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were quantified by ELISA assays. The PD-L1 rs2297136 AA genotype was associated with HBV infection susceptibility (HBV vs. HC: OR = 1.6; 95%CI = 1.1-2.3; p = 0.0087) and disease progression (LC vs. CHB: OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.1-2.9; p = 0.018). Whereas, the rs2297136 GG genotype was a protective factor for HCC development. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were significantly high in HBV patients (p < 0.0001) and higher in the LC followed by CHB and HCC groups. High sPD-L1 levels correlated with increased liver enzymes and with advanced liver disease progression (Child-pugh C > B > A, p < 0.0001) and BCLC classification (BCLC D > C > B > A, p = 0.031). We could, for the first time, conclude that PD-L1 rs2297136 polymorphism and plasma sPD-L1 protein levels associate with HBV infection and HBV-related liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638909

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects more than 240 million people worldwide, causing chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 could provide new therapies because it can directly disrupt HBV genomes. However, because HBV genome sequences are highly diverse, the identical target sequence of guide RNA (gRNA), 20 nucleotides in length, is not necessarily present intact in the target HBV DNA in heterogeneous patients. Consequently, possible genome-editing drugs would be effective only for limited numbers of patients. Here, we show that an adenovirus vector (AdV) bearing eight multiplex gRNA expression units could be constructed in one step and amplified to a level sufficient for in vivo study with lack of deletion. Using this AdV, HBV X gene integrated in HepG2 cell chromosome derived from a heterogeneous patient was cleaved at multiple sites and disrupted. Indeed, four targets out of eight could not be cleaved due to sequence mismatches, but the remaining four targets were cleaved, producing irreversible deletions. Accordingly, the diverse X gene was disrupted at more than 90% efficiency. AdV containing eight multiplex gRNA units not only offers multiple knockouts of genes, but could also solve the problems of heterogeneous targets and escape mutants in genome-editing therapy.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , RNA Guia/genética , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27187, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477178

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: It is well-known that microRNAs are able to regulate the expression of target mRNAs through complementary base-pairing to their 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTR) sequences. This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms resided in the 3'UTR sequences in patients with chronic hepatitis B viruses (HBV) infection are associated with the development and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3'UTR sequence of 10 genes regulated or affected by hepatitis B virus X protein were found by bioinformatics methods. Two hundred fifteen patients with HBV-related HCC and 216 patients with chronic HBV infection were recruited. Through case-control study, only found that the von Hippel-Lindau gene rs1642742 (G>A) may be associated with the occurrence and metastasis of HCC. The ORs of the frequencies of rs1642742 A allele versus G allele were 1.424 (P = .038, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.019-1.989) between HBV-related HCC and chronic HBV infection group and were 2.004 (P = .037, 95%CI = 1.031-3.895) between tumor metastasis and non-metastasis group, respectively. Through multivariate regression analysis, we also found that rs1642742 AA genotype was an independent risk factor for tumor metastasis (odds ratio = 2.227, 95% CI = 1.043-4.752, P = .038) in HBV-related HCC group. Our study suggested that Von Hippel-Lindau rs1642742 contributed to susceptibility to developing HCC and correlated with tumor metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Ann Surg ; 274(4): 613-620, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the optimal timing of direct acting antiviral (DAA) administration in patients with hepatitis C-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing liver transplantation (LT). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In patients with hepatitis C (HCV) associated HCC undergoing LT, the optimal timing of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) administration to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) and improved oncologic outcomes remains a topic of much debate. METHODS: The United States HCC LT Consortium (2015-2019) was reviewed for patients with primary HCV-associated HCC who underwent LT and received DAA therapy at 20 institutions. Primary outcomes were SVR and HCC recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: Of 857 patients, 725 were within Milan criteria. SVR was associated with improved 5-year RFS (92% vs 77%, P < 0.01). Patients who received DAAs pre-LT, 0-3 months post-LT, and ≥3 months post-LT had SVR rates of 91%, 92%, and 82%, and 5-year RFS of 93%, 94%, and 87%, respectively. Among 427 HCV treatment-naïve patients (no previous interferon therapy), patients who achieved SVR with DAAs had improved 5-year RFS (93% vs 76%, P < 0.01). Patients who received DAAs pre-LT, 0-3 months post-LT, and ≥3 months post-LT had SVR rates of 91%, 93%, and 78% (P < 0.01) and 5-year RFS of 93%, 100%, and 83% (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The optimal timing of DAA therapy appears to be 0 to 3 months after LT for HCV-associated HCC, given increased rates of SVR and improved RFS. Delayed administration after transplant should be avoided. A prospective randomized controlled trial is warranted to validate these results.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Idoso , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinoxalinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Resposta Viral Sustentada
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576022

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the well-studied oncovirus that contributes to the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) worldwide, can cause a severe inflammatory microenvironment leading to genetic and epigenetic changes in hepatocyte clones. HBV replication contributes to the regulation of DNA methyltransferase gene expression, particularly by X protein (HBx), and subsequent methylation changes may lead to abnormal transcription activation of adjacent genes and genomic instability. Undoubtedly, the altered expression of these genes has been known to cause diverse aspects of infected hepatocytes, including apoptosis, proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and immune responses. Additionally, pollutant-induced DNA methylation changes and aberrant methylation of imprinted genes in hepatocytes also complicate the process of tumorigenesis. Meanwhile, hepatocytes also contribute to epigenetic modification of the viral genome to affect HBV replication or viral protein production. Meanwhile, methylation levels of HBV integrants and surrounding host regions also play crucial roles in their ability to produce viral proteins in affected hepatocytes. Both host and viral changes can provide novel insights into tumorigenesis, individualized responses to therapeutic intervention, disease progress, and early diagnosis. As such, DNA methylation-mediated epigenetic silencing of cancer-related genes and viral replication is a compelling therapeutic goal to reduce morbidity and mortality from liver cancer caused by chronic HBV infection. In this review, we summarize the most recent research on aberrant DNA methylation associated with HBV infection, which is involved in HCC development, and provide an outlook on the future direction of the research.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Metilação de DNA , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Animais , Carcinogênese , Genoma Viral , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
6.
Oncology ; 99(10): 641-651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515171

RESUMO

AIM: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (atezo + bev) shows a good overall survival (OS) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the OS of patients with nonviral infection is quite worse than that in those with viral infection. The present study investigated the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in patients with nonviral infection, who were unlikely to obtain benefit from atezo + bev. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study that included 139 advanced HCC patients treated with lenvatinib between March 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The median age was 72 years, and 116 patients (83.5%) were male. Based on the etiology of liver disease, 84 (60.4%) and 55 patients (39.6%) were assigned to the viral infection and nonviral infection groups, respectively. The significant extents in patient characteristics were not observed in both groups. The objective response rate per mRECIST and progression-free survival (PFS) did not differ significantly between the viral infection and nonviral infection groups (36.0 vs. 33.0%, p = 0.85; and 7.6 vs. 7.5 months, p = 0.94, respectively). The 1-year survival rates were 68.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57.7-79.7%) in the viral infection group and 59.5% (95% CI 45.2-73.8%) in the nonviral infection group. The viral infection group was not a significant factor associated with the PFS or OS in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Lenvatinib shows no significant difference in response between patients with and without viral infection. Treatment strategies based on the etiology of liver disease may lead to good clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/microbiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/microbiologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Infecções/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viroses/diagnóstico
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0250915, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550971

RESUMO

The integration of viruses into the human genome is known to be associated with tumorigenesis in many cancers, but the accurate detection of integration breakpoints from short read sequencing data is made difficult by human-viral homologies, viral genome heterogeneity, coverage limitations, and other factors. To address this, we present Exogene, a sensitive and efficient workflow for detecting viral integrations from paired-end next generation sequencing data. Exogene's read filtering and breakpoint detection strategies yield integration coordinates that are highly concordant with long read validation. We demonstrate this concordance across 6 TCGA Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor samples, identifying integrations of hepatitis B virus that are also supported by long reads. Additionally, we applied Exogene to targeted capture data from 426 previously studied HCC samples, achieving 98.9% concordance with existing methods and identifying 238 high-confidence integrations that were not previously reported. Exogene is applicable to multiple types of paired-end sequence data, including genome, exome, RNA-Seq and targeted capture.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Integração Viral , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Fluxo de Trabalho
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502289

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of cancer death worldwide, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major etiology, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. Lack of sensitive biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCC and lack of effective therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC are the main reasons for high HCC mortality; these clinical needs are linked to the molecular heterogeneity of hepatocarcinogenesis. Animal models are the basis of preclinical and translational research in HBV-related HCC (HBV-HCC). Recent advances in methodology have allowed the development of several animal models to address various aspects of chronic liver disease, including HCC, which HBV causes in humans. Currently, multiple HBV-HCC animal models, including conventional, hydrodynamics-transfection-based, viral vector-mediated transgenic, and xenograft mice models, as well as the hepadnavirus-infected tree shrew and woodchuck models, are available. This review provides an overview of molecular mechanisms and animal models of HBV-HCC. Additionally, the metastatic tumor antigen 1 (MTA1), a cancer-promoting molecule, was introduced as an example to address the importance of a suitable animal model for studying HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/virologia , Marmota , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Transativadores/química
9.
Cell Rep ; 36(7): 109530, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380018

RESUMO

A recent study proposed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hijacks the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition machinery to integrate into the DNA of infected cells. If confirmed, this finding could have significant clinical implications. Here, we apply deep (>50×) long-read Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing to HEK293T cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and do not find the virus integrated into the genome. By examining ONT data from separate HEK293T cultivars, we completely resolve 78 L1 insertions arising in vitro in the absence of L1 overexpression systems. ONT sequencing applied to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive liver cancer tissues located a single HBV insertion. These experiments demonstrate reliable resolution of retrotransposon and exogenous virus insertions by ONT sequencing. That we find no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 integration suggests that such events are, at most, extremely rare in vivo and therefore are unlikely to drive oncogenesis or explain post-recovery detection of the virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Humano , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Integração Viral , Idoso , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Masculino , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Células Vero
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26964, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414965

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the tumors with a higher mortality rate globally, which significantly threatens people's health. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major driving factor of HCC. This study aims to determine the key microRNA (miRNA), hub genes, and related pathways, construct potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks, and clarify the new molecular mechanism of HCV-related HCC. In this study, 16 differentially expressed miRNAs (DE miRNAs) were identified. The prediction of potential transcription factors and target genes not only found that SP1 and ERG1 may potentially regulate most of the screened DE miRNAs, but it also obtained 2923 and 1782 predicted target genes for the up-regulation and down-regulation of DE miRNAs, respectively. Subsequently, the introduction of differentially expressed genes dataset GSE62232 for target gene verification yielded 98 and 147 potential up-regulation and down-regulation target genes. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that they were mainly enriched in the cell cycle process, that is, subsequently, 20 hub genes were screened out through the protein-protein interaction network, and related genes were further evaluated using the GEPIA database. Based on the above analysis, the miRNA-hub gene regulatory network was constructed. In short, this research's hub genes and miRNAs closely related to HCV-related HCC were screened and identified through bioinformatics analysis and then built their connection. These results are expected to find potential therapeutic targets for HCV-related HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26917, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. After infection, patients experience a natural course from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis and even Hepatitis B associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HBV-HCC). With the multi-omics research, many differentially expressed genes from chronic hepatitis to HCC stages have been discovered. All these provide important clues for new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The purpose of this study is to explore the differential gene expression of HBV and HBV-related liver cancer, and analyze their enrichments and significance of related pathways. METHODS: In this study, we downloaded four microarray datasets GSE121248, GSE67764, GSE55092, GSE55092 and GSE83148 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Using these four datasets, patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) differentially expressed genes (CHB DEGs) and patients with HBV-related HCC differentially expressed genes (HBV-HCC DEGs) were identified. Then Protein-protein Interaction (PPI) network analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) functional analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to excavate the functional interaction of these two groups of DEGs and the common DEGs. Finally, the Kaplan website was used to analyze the role of these genes in HCC prognostic. RESULTS: A total of 241 CHB DEGs, 276 HBV-HCC DEGs, and 4 common DEGs (cytochrome P450 family 26 subfamily A member 1 (CYP26A1), family with sequence similarity 110 member C(FAM110C), SET and MYND domain containing 3(SMYD3) and zymogen granule protein 16(ZG16)) were identified. CYP26A1, FAM110C, SMYD3 and ZG16 exist in 4 models and interact with 33 genes in the PPI network of CHB and HBV-HCC DEGs,. GO function analysis showed that: CYP26A1, FAM110C, SMYD3, ZG16, and the 33 genes in their models mainly affect the regulation of synaptic vesicle transport, tangential migration from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb, cellular response to manganese ion, protein localization to mitochondrion, cellular response to dopamine, negative regulation of neuron death in the biological process of CHB. In the biological process of HBV-HCC, they mainly affect tryptophan catabolic process, ethanol oxidation, drug metabolic process, tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine, xenobiotic metabolic process, retinoic acid metabolic process, steroid metabolic process, retinoid metabolic process, steroid catabolic process, retinal metabolic process, and rogen metabolic process. The analysis of the 4 common DEGs related to the prognosis of liver cancer showed that: CYP26A1, FAM110C, SMYD3 and ZG16 are closely related to the development of liver cancer and patient survival. Besides, further investigation of the research status of the four genes showed that CYP26A1 and SMYD3 could also affect HBV replication and the prognosis of liver cancer. CONCLUSION: CYP26A1, FAM110C, SMYD3 and ZG16 are unique genes to differentiate HBV infection and HBV-related HCC, and expected to be novel targets for HBV-related HCC occurrence and prognostic judgement.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Biologia Computacional , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360777

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops almost entirely in the presence of chronic inflammation. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with recurrent immune-mediated liver damage ultimately leads to cirrhosis and HCC. It is widely accepted that HBV infection induces the dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune responses that engage various immune cells. Natural killer (NK) cells are associated with early antiviral and antitumor properties. On the other hand, inflammatory cells release various cytokines and chemokines that may promote HCC tumorigenesis. Moreover, immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressive cells play a critical role in hepatocarcinogenesis. HBV-specific CD8+ T cells have been identified as pivotal players in antiviral responses, whilst extremely activated CD8+ T cells induce enormous inflammatory responses, and chronic inflammation can facilitate hepatocarcinogenesis. Controlling and maintaining the balance in the immune system is an important aspect in the management of HBV-related HCC. We conducted a review of the current knowledge on the immunopathogenesis of HBV-induced inflammation and the role of such immune activation in the tumorigenesis of HCC based on the recent studies on innate and adaptive immune cell dysfunction in HBV-related HCC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16982, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417517

RESUMO

HBV infection is recognized as a serious global health problem, and hepatitis B virus infection is a complicated chronic disease leading to liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). New biochemical serum markers could be used to advance the diagnosis and prognosis of HBV-associated liver diseases during the progression of chronic hepatitis B into cirrhosis and HCC. We determined whether the 4210 Da and 1866 Da polypeptides are serum metabolite biomarkers of hepatopathy with hepatitis B virus. A total of 570 subjects were divided into five groups: healthy controls, those with natural clearance, and patients with CHB, LC, and HCC. The 1866 Da and 4210 Da polypeptides were measured by Clin-ToF II MALDI-TOF-MS. There were significant differences in 4210 Da and 1866 Da levels among the five groups (P < 0.001). For the differential diagnosis of CHB from normal liver, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 4210 Da and 1866 Da and their combination via logistic regression were 0.961, 0.849 and 0.967. For the differential diagnosis of LC from CHB, the areas under the ROC curve were 0.695, 0.841 and 0.826. For the differential diagnosis of HCC from CHB, the areas under the ROC curve were 0.744, 0.710 and 0.761, respectively. For the differential diagnosis of HCC from LC, the areas under the ROC curve of 4210 Da and 1866 Da were 0.580 and 0.654. The positive rate of 1866 Da was 45.5% and 69.0% in AFP-negative HCC patients and that of 4210 Da was 60.6% 58.6% in AFP-negative HCC patients of the study HCC vs. CHB and HCC vs. LC. The 4210 Da and 1866 Da polypeptide levels were positively correlated with HBV DNA levels (P < 0.001, r = 0.269; P < 0.001, r = 0.285). The 4210 Da and 1866 Da polypeptides had good diagnostic value for the occurrence and progression of HBV-related chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and could serve to accurately guide treatment management and predict clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peso Molecular , Peptídeos/sangue , Curva ROC , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current antiviral treatments available for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection decrease the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hence, patients with HCV infection who have not received antiviral treatment and have developed HCC may be those who missed timely antiviral treatment for HCV. However, the proportion of patients who missed timely antiviral treatment and its implications are largely unexplored. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort of 4,592 newly diagnosed HCV-related HCC patients (2013-2017) was identified from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Prior antiviral treatment for HCV was defined as a history of at least one HCV-specific antiviral treatment before HCC diagnosis. The outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Prior antiviral treatment for HCV was identified in 802 (17.4%) patients, and 16%, 16%, 17%, 19%, and 19% of patients received antiviral treatment in the years 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively (P = 0.21). During 8,085 person-years of follow-up (median, 1.4; maximum, 5.3 years of follow-up), 1,970 patients died. Mortality rates were lower in patients with prior antiviral treatment (15 deaths/100 person-years) than in those without prior antiviral treatment (27 deaths/100 person-years). The adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality on comparing patients who did and did not receive prior antiviral treatment was 0.68 (0.59, 0.79). CONCLUSION: Timely antiviral treatment for HCV was suboptimal at the population level. Prior antiviral treatment for HCV reduced mortality rate in HCV-related HCC patients. Intensive HCV control strategies are needed to reduce the number of patients with HCV infection who miss timely HCV treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440630

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) is notoriously difficult to manage and fatal. As a therapeutic option, adoptive cell therapy with HBV-specific TCR-redirected T cells could be employed to target and control relapses in these patients. However, indispensable immunosuppressive medications post-transplantation can significantly hinder the optimum efficacy of such therapy in the clinic. Here we report a new class of Armored TCR T cells which are able to attack recurrent cancer cells in liver transplanted recipients, while temporarily evading immunosuppressant drugs. We believe this strategy could open up new opportunities for treating pathologies under immunosuppressant treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B/virologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Linfócitos T/transplante , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Terapia Genética , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/virologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299039

RESUMO

Zinc chloride is known to be effective in combatting hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and zinc ions seem to be especially involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined this involvement in human hepatoma cell lines using a human TLR signaling target RT-PCR array. We also observed that zinc chloride inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MAP2K3) expression, which could downregulate HAV replication in human hepatocytes. It is possible that zinc chloride may inhibit HAV replication in association with its inhibition of MAP2K3. In that regard, this study set out to determine whether MAP2K3 could be considered a modulating factor in the development of the HAV pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and its triggering of interferon-ß production. Because MAP2K3 seems to play a role in antiviral immunity against HAV infection, it is a promising target for drug development. The inhibition of MAP2K3 may also prevent HAV patients from developing a severe hepatitis A infection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Cloretos/farmacologia , Hepatite A/complicações , Hepatócitos/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Replicação Viral , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/enzimologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209079

RESUMO

Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration into the cellular genome is well known in HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) patients, its biological role still remains uncertain. This study investigated the patterns of HBV integration and correlated them with TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) alterations in paired tumor and non-tumor tissues. Compared to those in non-tumors, tumoral integrations occurred less frequently but with higher read counts and were more preferentially observed in genic regions with significant enrichment of integration into promoters. In HBV-related tumors, TERT promoter was identified as the most frequent site (38.5% (10/26)) of HBV integration. TERT promoter mutation was observed only in tumors (24.2% (8/33)), but not in non-tumors. Only 3.00% (34/1133) of HBV integration sites were shared between tumors and non-tumors. Within the HBV genome, HBV breakpoints were distributed preferentially in the 3' end of HBx, with more tumoral integrations detected in the preS/S region. The major genes that were recurrently affected by HBV integration included TERT and MLL4 for tumors and FN1 for non-tumors. Functional enrichment analysis of tumoral genes with integrations showed enrichment of cancer-associated genes. The patterns and functions of HBV integration are distinct between tumors and non-tumors. Tumoral integration is often enriched into both human-virus regions with oncogenic regulatory function. The characteristic genomic features of HBV integration together with TERT alteration may dysregulate the affected gene function, thereby contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Mutação , Telomerase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Fibronectinas/genética , Hepatite B/complicações , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética , Integração Viral
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234772

RESUMO

Persistent antigen exposure during chronic hepatitis B infection leads to exhausted immune responses, thus impeding viral control. In recent years, immunometabolism opens new therapeutic possibilities for the modulation of immune responses. Herein, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of L-carnitine (L-Cn) on immune cells in chronic HBV infection. In this study, 141 treatment-naïve patients with chronic HBV infection, 38 patients who achieved HBsAg loss following antiviral treatment, and 47 patients who suffered from HBV-related HCC from real-life clinical practice were recruited. The plasma L-Cn levels were measured by ELISA. RNA sequencing was conducted to define the transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells after L-Cn stimulation. In vitro assays were performed to assess the effect of L-Cn on immune cells; the frequencies and function of immune cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that compared with patients with HBsAg loss, patients with HBsAg positivity and patients who suffered from HBV-related HCC had higher levels of L-Cn, and the plasma levels of L-Cn in the HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis patients who had elevated ALT were significantly higher than that of HBeAg-negative chronic infection and HBsAg loss groups. Moreover, a positive correlation between plasma levels of L-Cn and HBsAg levels was found. Additionally, RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that L-Cn altered the transcriptional profiles related to immune response. In vitro assays revealed that L-Cn suppressed the proliferation of and IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. It also down-regulated the proliferation and IgG production of B cells. Notably, L-Cn enhanced IL-10 secretion from regulatory T cells and up-regulated the expression of inhibitory receptors on T cells. Moreover, a variant in CPT2 (rs1799821) was confirmed to be associated with L-Cn levels as well as complete response in CHB patients following Peg-IFNα antiviral therapy. Taken together, the immunosuppressive properties of L-Cn may hinder the control of HBV in chronic HBV infection, implicating that L-Cn manipulation might influence the prognosis of patients with HBV infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carnitina/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Carnitina/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Virol ; 95(19): e0029921, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287049

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can integrate into the chromosomes of infected hepatocytes, creating potentially oncogenic lesions that can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, our current understanding of integrated HBV DNA architecture, burden, and transcriptional activity is incomplete due to technical limitations. A combination of genomics approaches was used to describe HBV integrations and corresponding transcriptional signatures in three HCC cell lines: huH-1, PLC/PRF/5, and Hep3B. To generate high-coverage, long-read sequencing data, a custom panel of HBV-targeting biotinylated oligonucleotide probes was designed. Targeted long-read DNA sequencing captured entire HBV integration events within individual reads, revealing that integrations may include deletions and inversions of viral sequences. Surprisingly, all three HCC cell lines contain integrations that are associated with host chromosomal translocations. In addition, targeted long-read RNA sequencing allowed for the assignment of transcriptional activity to specific integrations and resolved the contribution of overlapping HBV transcripts. HBV transcripts chimeric with host sequences were resolved in their entirety and often included >1,000 bp of host sequence. This study provides the first comprehensive description of HBV integrations and associated transcriptional activity in three commonly utilized HCC-derived cell lines. The application of novel methods sheds new light on the complexity of these integrations, including HBV bidirectional transcription, nested transcripts, silent integrations, and host genomic rearrangements. The observation of multiple HBV-associated chromosomal translocations gives rise to the hypothesis that HBV is a driver of genetic instability and provides a potential new mechanism for HCC development. IMPORTANCE HCC-derived cell lines have served as practical models to study HBV biology for decades. These cell lines harbor multiple HBV integrations and express only HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). To date, an accurate description of the integration burden, architecture, and transcriptional profile of these cell lines has been limited due to technical constraints. We have developed a targeted long-read sequencing assay that reveals the entire architecture of integrations in these cell lines. In addition, we identified five chromosomal translocations with integrated HBV DNA at the interchromosomal junctions. Incorporation of long-read transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) data indicated that many integrations and translocations were transcriptionally silent. The observation of multiple HBV-associated translocations has strong implications regarding the potential mechanisms for the development of HBV-associated HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Viral/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética , Translocação Genética , Integração Viral , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
Elife ; 102021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328417

RESUMO

The molecular events that drive hepatitis B virus (HBV)-mediated transformation and tumorigenesis have remained largely unclear, due to the absence of a relevant primary model system. Here we propose the use of human liver organoids as a platform for modeling HBV infection and related tumorigenesis. We first describe a primary ex vivo HBV-infection model derived from healthy donor liver organoids after challenge with recombinant virus or HBV-infected patient serum. HBV-infected organoids produced covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and HBV early antigen (HBeAg), expressed intracellular HBV RNA and proteins, and produced infectious HBV. This ex vivo HBV-infected primary differentiated hepatocyte organoid platform was amenable to drug screening for both anti-HBV activity and drug-induced toxicity. We also studied HBV replication in transgenically modified organoids; liver organoids exogenously overexpressing the HBV receptor sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) after lentiviral transduction were not more susceptible to HBV, suggesting the necessity for additional host factors for efficient infection. We also generated transgenic organoids harboring integrated HBV, representing a long-term culture system also suitable for viral production and the study of HBV transcription. Finally, we generated HBV-infected patient-derived liver organoids from non-tumor cirrhotic tissue of explants from liver transplant patients. Interestingly, transcriptomic analysis of patient-derived liver organoids indicated the presence of an aberrant early cancer gene signature, which clustered with the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cohort on The Cancer Genome Atlas Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma dataset and away from healthy liver tissue, and may provide invaluable novel biomarkers for the development of HCC and surveillance in HBV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Organoides/virologia , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/complicações , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Doadores Vivos , Modelos Biológicos , Replicação Viral
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