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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1402, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658501

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized treatment for various cancers; however, durable response is limited to only a subset of patients. Discovery of blood-based biomarkers that reflect dynamic change of the tumor microenvironment, and predict response to ICI, will markedly improve current treatment regimens. Here, we investigate CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), a marker of T-cell differentiation, as a predictive correlate of response to ICI therapy. Successful treatment of tumor-bearing mice with ICI increases the frequency and T-cell receptor clonality of the peripheral CX3CR1+CD8+ T-cell subset that includes an enriched repertoire of tumor-specific and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, an increase in the frequency of the CX3CR1+ subset in circulating CD8+ T cells early after initiation of anti-PD-1 therapy correlates with response and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Collectively, these data support T-cell CX3CR1 expression as a blood-based dynamic early on-treatment predictor of response to ICI therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/fisiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Experimentais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 295, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436560

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNA) are a class of covalently closed single-stranded RNAs that have been implicated in cancer progression. Here we identify circNDUFB2 to be downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues, and to negatively correlate with NSCLC malignant features. Elevated circNDUFB2 inhibits growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, circNDUFB2 functions as a scaffold to enhance the interaction between TRIM25 and IGF2BPs, a positive regulator of tumor progression and metastasis. This TRIM25/circNDUFB2/IGF2BPs ternary complex facilitates ubiquitination and degradation of IGF2BPs, with this effect enhanced by N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of circNDUFB2. Moreover, circNDUFB2 is also recognized by RIG-I to activate RIG-I-MAVS signaling cascades and recruit immune cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME). Our data thus provide evidences that circNDUFB2 participates in the degradation of IGF2BPs and activation of anti-tumor immunity during NSCLC progression via the modulation of both protein ubiquitination and degradation, as well as cellular immune responses.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Modelos Biológicos , Metástase Neoplásica , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(3): 739-747, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have indicated that CD47, interacting with SIRP-α, conveys "don't eat me" signal in evasion of tumor cells and serves as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical correlation of CD47 and uncover prognostic implications of CD47 and CD68 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: The specimens from 384 patients with completely resected NSCLC were collected for immunohistochemical assays of CD47 and CD68. Cox multivariate proportion hazard analyses were conducted to confirm the independent prognostic value of CD47 and CD68. TCGA database and GSE37745 were used to identify the association between CD47 and immune cells. RESULTS: In 186 pairs of lung cancer and adjacent tissues, the RNA of CD47 was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues (P < 0.001). High expression of CD47 was associated with worse recurrence-free survival in RNA and protein level (P = 0.032 and P < 0.001, respectively). High expression of CD47 was significantly associated with large tumor size (P = 0.004), advanced pathologic TNM stage (P < 0.001), and histology (P = 0.003). Further analyses demonstrated that CD47 and CD68 predicted outcomes of patients independently. In addition, the expression of CD47 correlated with neutrophils, and did not correlated with B cells and CD4 + T cells in the TCGA database and GSE37745. CONCLUSION: Combined use of CD47 and CD68 exhibited excellent performance in predicting survival of patients with NSCLC. CD47 was a potential therapeutic target for immune therapy of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/biossíntese , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/biossíntese , Antígeno CD47/biossíntese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Antígeno CD47/genética , Antígeno CD47/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451052

RESUMO

Lung cancer is currently the first cause of cancer-related death. The major lung cancer subtype is non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), which accounts for approximatively 85% of cases. The major carcinogenic associated with lung cancer is tobacco smoke, which produces long-lasting and progressive damage to the respiratory tract. The progressive and diffuse alterations that occur in the respiratory tract of patients with cancer and premalignant lesions have been described as field cancerization. At the level of tumor cells, adjacent tumor microenvironment (TME) and cancerized field are taking place dynamic interactions through direct cell-to-cell communication or through extracellular vesicles. These molecular messages exchanged between tumor and nontumor cells are represented by proteins, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). In this paper, we analyze the miRNA roles in the macrophage polarization at the level of TME and cancerized field in NSCLC. Identifying molecular players that can influence the phenotypic states at the level of malignant cells, tumor microenvironment and cancerized field can provide us new insights into tumor regulatory mechanisms that can be further modulated to restore the immunogenic capacity of the TME. This approach could revert alterations in the cancerized field and could enhance currently available therapy approaches.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Interferência de RNA , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
5.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1119): 20200397, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the association between 18F-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) scans and different programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression conditions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: From October 2017 to December 2019, NSCLC was retrospectively identified in 419 consecutive patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans and PD-L1 expression tests using the PD-L1 22C3 assay. The association between clinicopathological characteristics and PD-L1 expression was assessed. RESULTS: The frequency of PD-L1-positive tumours was 38.2% (160/419) in NSCLC. In NSCLC, the multivariate analysis showed a high maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) (p < 0.0001) and an EGFR wild type genotype (p = 0.027) was significantly associated with PD-L1-positivity. In adenocarcinoma (ADC), the multivariate analysis showed that a high SUVmax (p < 0.0001) was significantly associated with PD-L1-positivity. In NSCLC and ADC, a Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between groups with PD-L1 high expression and PD-L1 low expression levels in terms of SUVmax (p = 0.011 and p = 0.013, respectively). The results of the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve of the SUVmax was 0.767 (95% CI, 0.720-0.814; p < 0.0001) and 0.712 (95% CI, 0.651-0.774; p < 0.0001) in NSCLC and ADC, respectively. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that the SUVmax was significantly associated with PD-L1 expression in NSCLC and ADC. The SUVmax was significantly different between the PD-L1 high and low expression conditions, as quantified using a PD-L1 22C3 assay. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study provides direct evidence that SUVmax as a metabolic biomarker may help select patients with NSCLC likely to benefit from pembrolizumab.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 152-164, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398162

RESUMO

Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer mortality, and cancer frequently metastasizes to the liver. It is not clear whether liver immune tolerance mechanisms contribute to cancer outcomes. We report that liver metastases diminish immunotherapy efficacy systemically in patients and preclinical models. Patients with liver metastases derive limited benefit from immunotherapy independent of other established biomarkers of response. In multiple mouse models, we show that liver metastases siphon activated CD8+ T cells from systemic circulation. Within the liver, activated antigen-specific Fas+CD8+ T cells undergo apoptosis following their interaction with FasL+CD11b+F4/80+ monocyte-derived macrophages. Consequently, liver metastases create a systemic immune desert in preclinical models. Similarly, patients with liver metastases have reduced peripheral T cell numbers and diminished tumoral T cell diversity and function. In preclinical models, liver-directed radiotherapy eliminates immunosuppressive hepatic macrophages, increases hepatic T cell survival and reduces hepatic siphoning of T cells. Thus, liver metastases co-opt host peripheral tolerance mechanisms to cause acquired immunotherapy resistance through CD8+ T cell deletion, and the combination of liver-directed radiotherapy and immunotherapy could promote systemic antitumor immunity.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/secundário , Melanoma/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Linfócitos T/classificação , Linfócitos T/patologia , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23815, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371161

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of early F-18 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment.Twenty-four non-small cell lung cancer patients who received nivolumab or pembrolizumab and underwent FDG PET/CT as an interim analysis after 2 or 3 cycles of ICI treatment were retrospectively enrolled. Tumor response was assessed using the PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0 (PERCIST) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria after 2 or 3 cycles of ICI treatment (SCAN-1) and after an additional 2 cycles of ICI treatment (SCAN-2). The best overall response was determined by FDG PET/CT or chest CT at ≥ 3 months after therapy initiation, and the clinical benefit was investigated. progression-free survival was investigated, and its correlation with clinicopathologic and metabolic parameters was examined using a Cox multivariate proportional hazards model.In the interim analysis, 4 patients achieved a complete metabolic response (CMR), 1 patient exhibited a partial metabolic response (PMR), and 14 patients had Progressive metabolic disease (PMD) according to the PERCIST and EORTC criteria. Four patients showed stable metabolic disease (SMD) according to the PERCIST criteria, and 2 patients showed different responses (i.e., PMR) according to the EORTC criteria. Patients with a CMR or PMR at SCAN-1 had a clinical benefit. Among the 4 patients with SMD at SCAN-1, only 1 experienced a clinical benefit regardless of the percent change in the peak standardized uptake value. Two patients with discordant response assessments between the PERCIST and EORTC criteria showed conflicting clinical benefits. Among the 14 patients with PMD, none experienced any clinical benefit. Only metabolic parameters were significant factors for predicting progression in the multivariate analysis (peak standardized uptake value and metabolic tumor volume, HRs of 1.18 and 1.00, respectively).Based on early F-18 FDG PET/CT after ICI treatment, metabolic parameters could predict post-treatment progression. Responses after ICI treatment were correctly assessed in patients with a CMR, a PMR, and PMD, but patients with SMD required a meticulous follow-up because of varying clinical benefits.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e18655, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer immunotherapy (CIT), as a monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy, has been shown to extend overall survival in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, patients experience treatment-related symptoms that they are required to recall between hospital visits. Digital patient monitoring and management (DPMM) tools may improve clinical practice by allowing real-time symptom reporting. OBJECTIVE: This proof-of-concept pilot study assessed patient and health care professional (HCP) adoption of our DPMM tool, which was designed specifically for patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC treated with CIT, and the tool's impact on clinical care. METHODS: Four advisory boards were assembled in order to co-develop a drug- and indication-specific CIT (CIT+) module, based on a generic CIT DPMM tool from Kaiku Health, Helsinki, Finland. A total of 45 patients treated with second-line single-agent CIT (ie, atezolizumab or otherwise) for advanced or metastatic NSCLC, as well as HCPs, whose exact number was decided by the clinics, were recruited from 10 clinics in Germany, Finland, and Switzerland between February and May 2019. All clinics were provided with the Kaiku Health generic CIT DPMM tool, including our CIT+ module. Data on user experience, overall satisfaction, and impact of the tool on clinical practice were collected using anonymized surveys-answers ranged from 1 (low agreement) to 5 (high agreement)-and HCP interviews; surveys and interviews consisted of closed-ended Likert scales and open-ended questions, respectively. The first survey was conducted after 2 months of DPMM use, and a second survey and HCP interviews were conducted at study end (ie, after ≥3 months of DPMM use); only a subgroup of HCPs from each clinic responded to the surveys and interviews. Survey data were analyzed quantitatively; interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English, where applicable, for coding and qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Among interim survey respondents (N=51: 13 [25%] nurses, 11 [22%] physicians, and 27 [53%] patients), mean rankings of the tool's seven usability attributes ranged from 3.2 to 4.4 (nurses), 3.7 to 4.5 (physicians), and 3.7 to 4.2 (patients). At the end-of-study survey (N=48: 19 [40%] nurses, 8 [17%] physicians, and 21 [44%] patients), most respondents agreed that the tool facilitated more efficient and focused discussions between patients and HCPs (nurses and patients: mean rating 4.2, SD 0.8; physicians: mean rating 4.4, SD 0.8) and allowed HCPs to tailor discussions with patients (mean rating 4.35, SD 0.65). The standalone tool was well integrated into HCP daily clinical workflow (mean rating 3.80, SD 0.75), enabled workflow optimization between physicians and nurses (mean rating 3.75, SD 0.80), and saved time by decreasing phone consultations (mean rating 3.75, SD 1.00) and patient visits (mean rating 3.45, SD 1.20). Workload was the most common challenge of tool use among respondents (12/19, 63%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate high user satisfaction and acceptance of DPMM tools by HCPs and patients, and highlight the improvements to clinical care in patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC treated with CIT monotherapy. However, further integration of the tool into the clinical information technology data flow is required. Future studies or registries using our DPMM tool may provide insights into significant effects on patient quality of life or health-economic benefits.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22603, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080694

RESUMO

The derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ration (dNLR) is a systemic inflammatory marker.The present study focusing on the prognostic value of pre-treatment dNLR in patients of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).From 2012 to 2016, patients with newly diagnosed early stage NSCLC were investigated. Only these who treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) were enrolled in this study. dNLR was calculated from complete blood count prior to SABR. The optimal cut-off value of dNLR was determined by receiver operating curve. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional models were used to analyze the impact of pre-treatment dNLR on disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).There were 69 patients eligible for analysis, the median follow-up period was 30.9 months. Calculated by receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal cut off value of dNLR was 1.99. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that a decreased dNLR was correlated with favorable DFS and OS. In univariate analysis, high dNLR was associated with decreased survival; moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that a decreased dNLR was an independent significant favorable prognostic factor for both DFS and OS.An elevated pre-treatment dNLR may be an independent prognostic biomarker for DFS and OS in patients with early stage NSCLC that are eligible for SABR. dNLR is a reliable, inexpensive, simple, and readily available tool for risk-stratification and should be considered in daily clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4807-4818, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878769

RESUMO

The microbiome is extremely important for human health; more recently its role in the context of cancer became clear. Microbial effects range from enhancing cancer immunity and cancer therapy efficacy, to promoting cancer progression and inhibiting treatment efficacy. These broad implications led researchers to investigate these specific interactions, as well as how modification of the microbiome can improve cancer survival and treatment efficacy. While these interactions are better established for cancers such as gastric cancer, they are far less understood in others. As non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) makes up the majority of lung cancer cases, and is among the top causes of cancer deaths worldwide, understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiome may impact progression and treatment is crucial to improve patient survival and treatment response. A literature review was conducted to reveal the crosslink between human microbiome and lung cancer. This includes immune priming, induction of pro- or anti-tumor response, and the local effects of intra-tumoral microbiota. Overall, this is a complex multifactorial relationship, and there are broad implications as to how this knowledge can improve cancer treatment. Solutions include manipulation of the microbiome using probiotics, bacterial vaccines and antibiotics. Bacteria biomarkers may also be used as a diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/microbiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1413-1422, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is terminal in most patients with locally advanced stage disease. We aimed to assess the antitumour activity and safety of neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy for resectable stage IIIA NSCLC. METHODS: This was an open-label, multicentre, single-arm phase 2 trial done at 18 hospitals in Spain. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically documented treatment-naive American Joint Committee on Cancer-defined stage IIIA NSCLC that was deemed locally to be surgically resectable by a multidisciplinary clinical team, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received neoadjuvant treatment with intravenous paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under curve 6; 6 mg/mL per min) plus nivolumab (360 mg) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle, for three cycles before surgical resection, followed by adjuvant intravenous nivolumab monotherapy for 1 year (240 mg every 2 weeks for 4 months, followed by 480 mg every 4 weeks for 8 months). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 24 months, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all patients who received neoadjuvant treatment, and in the per-protocol population, which included all patients who had tumour resection and received at least one cycle of adjuvant treatment. Safety was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03081689, and is ongoing but no longer recruiting patients. FINDINGS: Between April 26, 2017, and Aug 25, 2018, we screened 51 patients for eligibility, of whom 46 patients were enrolled and received neoadjuvant treatment. At the time of data cutoff (Jan 31, 2020), the median duration of follow-up was 24·0 months (IQR 21·4-28·1) and 35 of 41 patients who had tumour resection were progression free. At 24 months, progression-free survival was 77·1% (95% CI 59·9-87·7). 43 (93%) of 46 patients had treatment-related adverse events during neoadjuvant treatment, and 14 (30%) had treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse; however, none of the adverse events were associated with surgery delays or deaths. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were increased lipase (three [7%]) and febrile neutropenia (three [7%]). INTERPRETATION: Our results support the addition of neoadjuvant nivolumab to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with resectable stage IIIA NSCLC. Neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy could change the perception of locally advanced lung cancer as a potentially lethal disease to one that is curable. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 731-736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930111

RESUMO

Background: Chronic state of inflammation is an important factor in advanced cancer which is used by tumor cells for maintaining survival and growth. Hematological parameters such as neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), thrombocyte/lymphocyte ratio (TLR), and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) are reliable indicators of systemic inflammation. We aimed to elucidate the effect of hematological parameters and clinical features of patients on the prognosis of advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We included 102 Stage IV NSCLC patients who presented to the oncology clinic between 2010 and 2016. Pretreatment clinical parameters and NLR, TLR, and LMR were retrieved from the medical records. The cutoff values, calculated with receiver operating curve analysis, for NLR, LMR, and TLR were 2.5, 3, and 183, respectively. All patients were divided into two groups according to cutoff values and analyzed accordingly. Results: Median overall survival and progression-free survival were 10 and 6 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, high NLR, high TLR, and low LMR were found to be significantly associated with survival. Among clinical parameters having eastern cooperative oncology group performance score 0-1, older age (≥70 years) single metastatic disease was prognostic. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, only the number of metastatic lesions and LMR were found to be independent predictors for survival. Conclusion: Among hematological parameters, only LMR was found to be an independent predictor of survival in patients with advanced-stage NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inflamação/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Plaquetas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 745-751, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930113

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of kanglaite (KLT) injection combined with gefitinib versus gefitinib alone in the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: The randomized controlled trials involving NSCLC treatment with KLT injection combined with gefitinib versus gefitinib alone were searched on seven medical databases up to October 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. The RevMan 5.3 software was employed for data analysis. Results: Seven randomized trials involving 554 patients met our criteria. Compared with gefitinib alone, KLT injection combined with gefitinib showed significant effects in increasing objective response rate (relative risk [RR] =1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.75), improving the performance status (RR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.34-2.42), raising the percentages of CD4+ cells (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 4.45; 95% CI: 2.61-6.28), natural killer cells (WMD = 4.43; 95% CI: 3.85-5.01), and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ (WMD = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.02-0.14), whereas the difference was not significant in gefitinib toxicity including rash (RR 0.90; 95% CI: 0.58-1.40, P = 0.65), diarrhea (RR 1.04; 95% CI: 0.66-1.64, P = 0.88), and liver injury (RR 1.00; 95% CI: 0.58-1.73, P = 1.00), CD3+ cells (WMD = 1.16; 95% CI: -2.64-4.97) and CD8+ cells (WMD = 6.78; 95% CI: -1.68-15.23). Conclusion: Co-use of KLT injection and gefitinib may benefit the patients with NSCLC through enhancing the therapeutic effectiveness compared with gefitinib alone. To confirm these results, further rigorously designed trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Gefitinibe/administração & dosagem , Gefitinibe/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 828-837, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930126

RESUMO

Background: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have improved survival compared to chemotherapy alone in advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This article aims to compare indirect evidence and rank the effect of different CPIs in this setting. Materials and Methods: In this network meta-analysis, we searched for trials comparing CPIs in advanced NSCLC. Figures for survival endpoints were extracted. In addition, a network meta-regression analysis was carried out. Results: A total of 9220 patients from 16 trials were included in the analysis. In the first-line setting, for the overall survival endpoint, the chemotherapy + Pembrolizumab combination had the highest effectivity rank probability as compared to chemotherapy (hazard ratio = 0.788, 95% credential interval = 0.728-0.855). For the second-line setting, and also for the efficacy in terms of progression-free survival, various CPIs and their combinations were ranked. Conclusion: Some degree of differences in terms of efficacy exists between different types, dosages, settings, and combinations of CPI. We quantify these differences to guide clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 89: 102085, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771858

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent one of the main steps forward for the treatment of advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), without oncogenic driver alterations. Despite this recent progress, only a minority of patients achieve a broad and durable benefit and another proportion report poor survival and sometimes fast disease progression, confirming the need to optimise the patient's selection. To date, several issues are unsolved about how to personalise the immunotherapy treatment for individual patients. In this review, analysing data from pivotal randomised clinical trials (RCTs), we discuss patient baseline clinical and demographic features, including sex, age, ECOG performance status, smoking habit and specific site of metastases (liver, bone and brain) that may influence the efficacy outcomes in patients treated with ICIs. The high performance of the ICIs blurred the vision on different efficacy-limiting factors, which require extensive evaluation to improve the understanding ofthe tumour-specificimmune response, in which clinical drivers could be useful for better patient stratification.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 85% of all lung cancer cases. Inflammation has been proven to be one of the characteristics of malignant tumors. Chronic inflammatory response mediated by cytokines in the tumor microenvironment is an important factor in tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to observe and evaluate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and hemoglobin-to-red blood cell distribution width ratio (HRR) in the progression of NSCLC. METHODS: A total of 245 patients with NSCLC, 97 patients with benign pulmonary nodules, and 94 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Factors, such as age, gender, smoking history, histological type, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM stage, and differentiation degree were statistically analyzed. The correlation of RDW, NLR, and HRR of patients with NSCLC with other clinical experimental parameters were also analyzed. Then, the diagnostic value of RDW, NLR, and HRR in the progression of NSCLC was evaluated. RESULTS: RDW, NLR, and HRR could be used to distinguish patients with NSCLC from healthy controls (p < 0.05). In addition, only the RDW in the NSCLC group with III-IV stage was significantly different from that in the benign pulmonary nodules group (p = 0.033), while NLR and HRR could significantly distinguish patients with NSCLC and benign pulmonary nodules (p < 0.001). RDW and NLR were positively correlated with NSCLC stage, whereas HRR was negatively correlated with NSCLC stage. RDW, NLR, and HRR were also significantly associated with the differentiation degree of NSCLC (p < 0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the combination of RDW with NLR, HRR, and CEA could show significantly higher diagnostic value than any one marker alone (AUC = 0.925, 95% CI: 0.897-0.954, and sensitivity and specificity of 79.60% and 93.60%, respectively). CONCLUSION: RDW, NLR, and HRR can be utilized as simple and effective biomarkers for the diagnosis and evaluation of NSCLC progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 89: 102067, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain metastases are frequent complications in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. Our goal is to give a global overlook on clinical efficacy from immune checkpoint inhibitors in this setting and to review the role of biomarkers and molecular interactions in brain metastases from patients with NSCLC. METHODS: We reviewed clinical trials reporting clinical outcomes of patients with NSCLC with brain metastases as well as publications assessing the tumor microenvironment and the complex molecular interactions of tumor cells with immune and resident cells in brain metastases from NSCLC biopsies or preclinical models. RESULTS: Although limited data are available on immunotherapy in patients with brain metastases, immune checkpoint inhibitors alone or in combination with chemotherapy have shown promising intracranial efficacy and safety results. The underlying mechanism of action of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the brain niche and their influence on tumor microenvironment are still not known. Lower PD-L1 expression and less T CD8+ infiltration were found in brain metastases compared with matched NSCLC primary tumors, suggesting an immunosuppressive microenvironment in the brain. Reactive astrocytes and tumor associated macrophages are paramount in NSCLC brain metastases and play a role in promoting tumor progression and immune evasion. CONCLUSIONS: Discordances in the immune profile between primary tumours and brain metastases underscore differences in the tumour microenvironment and immune system interactions within the lung and brain niche. The characterization of immune phenotype of brain metastases and dissecting the interplay among immune cells and resident stromal cells along with cancer cells is crucial to unravel effective immunotherapeutic approaches in patients with NSCLC and brain metastases.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
19.
Bull Cancer ; 107(9): 946-958, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646604

RESUMO

It has been found that occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) is associated with outcome in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1 or anti-PDL1 agents. Independent correlation with survival was not consistently demonstrated and correlation with the number of toxicities was also not previously described. All patients treated with nivolumab for advanced NSCLC, in the second line setting, were retrospectively reviewed in a single-center from March 2015 to March 2017. Sixty-nine patients were identified. After a median follow-up of 13 months (95% CI: 10.8; 15.3), there were 46 tumor progressions and 37 deaths. The 6-month and one-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 29%/61% and 24%/49%, respectively. Thirty-one patients (44.9%) presented irAEs. Patients presenting tumor response to previous chemotherapy had a higher rate of irAEs (P=0.01) and a better OS (HR=2, P=0.04). Occurrence of irAEs correlated with OS in multivariate analysis (HR=0.4, 95% CI [0.19; 0.8], P=0.02). The number of irAEs correlated with tumor response, PFS and OS in univariate analysis. Having≥2 irAEs correlated with better outcome compared with one irAE, which correlated with better tumor response and PFS in comparison with 0 irAE, in multivariate analysis. In this study, irAEs was associated with a better outcome in patients treated with nivolumab for advanced NSCLC in the second line setting. Interestingly, the number of irAEs correlated with tumor response and PFS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3889-3896, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have an important role in lung cancer therapy. Although the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) and tumor mutational burden are known prognostic factors, they are insufficient to predict clinical outcomes. This study was conducted to identify novel biomarkers for ICI treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed univariable and multivariable analyses of 110 patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with an ICI to identify novel biomarkers related to prognosis. We assessed their backgrounds, such as performance status (PS), PD-L1 TPS, smoking status, and peripheral white blood cell counts at baseline and on the day the second course of ICI administration. RESULTS: In the multivariable analysis, PS, driver gene, immune-related adverse events, and post-treatment absolute neutrophil counts (post-ANCs) were significantly associated with progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: A high level of post-ANCs was associated with poor outcome in ICI-treated NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
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