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1.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(5): 92-95, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034184

RESUMO

The article presents a clinical case of an immunohistochemical study of a rare disease: necrotizing sialometaplasia in the hard palate. Due to the complexity of the differential diagnosis between necrotizing sialometaplasia and squamous cell carcinoma, an immunohistochemical method was used with antibodies to proteins Ki-67, P53, P63 and cytokeratins-7 and Immunohistochemical study established low proliferative activity of glandular cells in excretory ducts and metaplastic squamous epithelium for Ki-67 protein, significant expression of protein P63 was detected both in the ductal epithelium nuclei and in metaplastic areas and expression of the mutant protein P53 was approximately absent. Marked expression of cytokeratin-7 in the ducts cells and weak expression in necrotic acini of the glands and metaplastic epithelium was noted. It was shown that cytokeratin-15 homogeneously stains the peripheral zone of metaplastic epithelium, which is characteristic of a benign lesion. Thus, the panel of antibodies to proteins Ki-67, P53 and cytokeratins-7 and 15 allows to verify necrotizing sialometaplasia.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Sialometaplasia Necrosante , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Epitélio , Humanos , Palato Duro , Sialometaplasia Necrosante/diagnóstico
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1372-1375, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018244

RESUMO

Classification of normal lung tissue, lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) by pathological images is significant for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Due to the large scale of pathological images and the absence of definitive morphological features between LUAD and LUSC, it is time-consuming, laborious and challenging for pathologists to analyze the microscopic histopathology slides by visual observation. In this paper, a pixel-level annotation-free framework was proposed to classify normal tissue, LUAD and LUSC slides. This framework can be divided into two stages: tumor classification and localization, and subtype classification. In the first stage, EM-CNN was utilized to distinguish tumor slides from normal tissue slides and locate the discriminative regions for subsequent analysis with only image-level labels provided. In the second stage, a multi-scale network was proposed to improve the accuracy of subtype classification. This method achieved an AUC of 0.9978 for tumor classification and an AUC of 0.9684 for subtype classification, showing its superiority in lung pathological image classification compared with other methods.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Patologistas
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22125, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899097

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rarely encountered clinically. SCC, which presents as a submucosal tumor, is even rarer. Without the support of pathological evidence, it is difficult to make a correct preoperative diagnosis. Due to limited clinical data, the pathogenesis and treatment of gastric SCC remain unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with unexplained weight loss. Endoscopy revealed a submucosal mass without any ulcer on its surface located on the body of the stomach. The results of 2 gastroscopic mucosal biopsies were chronic inflammation. DIAGNOSES: The clinical diagnosis by computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy was gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) preoperatively. The postoperative pathological examination demonstrated this tumor as moderately differentiated SCC. INTERVENTIONS: Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and splenectomy were performed. OUTCOMES: The patient was discharged 7 days after the surgery without any complications. The follow-up CT scan showed no evidence of metastatic disease 6 months after surgery. LESSONS: Large primary gastric SCC could present as a submucosal mass. Gastroscopic mucosal biopsy may not be able to get tumor tissue due to inflammatory reaction.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21631, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769927

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon histopathologic variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity. Though ASCC showed poor prognosis, the exact diagnosis is challenging. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 59-year-old female patient with 1-month long symptoms of pain and burning sensation in the right maxilla. DIAGNOSES: Incisional biopsy in the maxilla established the pathologic diagnosis of SCC. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent mass resection with near total maxillectomy. OUTCOMES: The final diagnosis through the microscopic examination was ASCC. Palliative chemotherapy was done to relive the symptoms after the recurrence, however, the patient died of the disease at 8 months after her initial presentation. LESSONS: Special attention should be paid to this variant of SCC because most patients with ASCC have a very poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Acantólise/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Maxila/anormalidades , Acantólise/complicações , Biópsia/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Maxila/efeitos da radiação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841288

RESUMO

The TNM staging system for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) provides clinicians a dependable foundation for patient prognosis and management decisions, but in clinical practice, treatment outcomes of patients with OSCC are sometimes unsatisfactory. This retrospective study investigated the association between survival and clinicopathological characteristics and histological grades of 2535 patients with OSCC. Additionally, the present study aimed to compare the predictive abilities of histological grades with other common prognostic factors. The enrolled patients were divided into three groups by two experienced pathologists into well-differentiated, moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated groups, according to the WHO classification. Finally, we designed an observational, retrospective study based on the histological grading of tumors to compare their clinicopathological characteristics and conducted survival analysis among the three groups. Advanced tumor stage was diagnosed in 23.9%, 44.0%, and 55.1% of patients with grades 1-3 OSCC, respectively. By T status, T3 or T4 tumors were found in approximately 22%, 34%, and 40% of patients with grades 1-3 OSCC, respectively. By N status, lymph node metastases were found in 6.1%, 29.3%, and 45.9% of patients with grades 1-3 OSCC, respectively. Thus, significant survival differences were observed based on different OSCC histological grades. Meanwhile, in the multivariate (adjusted) analysis, N1 and N2 stages, extranodal spread, and poor differentiation were associated with a higher recurrence risk than the other common prognostic factors. In conclusion, 5% of patients in our study presented with poorly differentiated OSCC at diagnosis. Furthermore, grade 3 OSCC has worse prognosis and is more aggressive than grades 1 and 2 OSCC. In the future, we should focus on modifying individual therapy for poorly differentiated OSCC to achieve improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is the most common ocular surface tumour. Diagnosis and management have traditionally been by excision biopsy. Recently there has been success with the use of topical chemo or immunotherapy, which has resulted in a move from invasive diagnosis by histology to an array of non-invasive diagnostic tests. METHODS: This observational study aims to describe the characteristics of patients with OSSN at St John Eye Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Non-invasive diagnostic tests (impression cytology, anterior segment-OCT, methylene blue staining) will be compared to the gold standard, histology. Treatment success, recurrence and adverse events will be documented between three treatment options that include: surgical excision, topical 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) chemotherapy, and topical 5FU with retinoic acid therapy. DISCUSSION: There is a trend to the use of less invasive diagnosis and management for OSSN. Minimally invasive diagnostic tests include cytology, anterior-segment OCT and methylene blue staining. The study will compare these to the gold standard histology, thereby providing evidence for their use in clinical practice. Interferon alpha 2b is commonly used as immunotherapy for OSSN. The cost of this medication is prohibitive to its adoption in a developing country. We therefore decided to use 5FU as the chemotherapeutic agent of choice in this study. The success, adverse events and recurrence rates with this agent may provide additional evidence for its use in the management of OSSN. Overall, if diagnosis and management can be implemented with good success in the outpatient environment, care can be improved for this condition in a developing country.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Oculares/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Neoplasias Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Oculares/etiologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(6): 784-788, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs) are frequently abnormally expressed in tumors and involved in the occurrence and progression of human cancer. Recently, a disease-related lncRNA, TMPO antisense RNA 1 (TMPO-AS1), was identified to be dysregulated in several tumors. Hence, we aimed to demonstrate whether TMPO-AS1 could be a promising prognostic marker for patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). METHODS RT-PCR was performed to test TMPO-AS1 expressions in 187 LSCC specimens compared with matched normal specimens. Chi-squared tests were used to determine the associations between TMPO-AS1 expressions and the clinicopathological characteristics of LSCC patients. Then, the clinical outcome of LSCC patients who had lower or higher TMPO-AS1 expression was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier assays. Finally, a Cox proportional hazards model was carried out to evaluate the prognostic values of TMPO-AS1 and other clinical features. RESULTS We found that TMPO-AS1 was distinctly upregulated in human LSCC tissues compared with corresponding normal specimens (p < 0.01). Higher expressions of TMPO-AS1 were observed to be positively associated with the clinical stage (p = 0.020) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.027). A clinical study in 187 patients revealed that patients with TMPO-AS1 low expressions had poorer survival than those with TMPO-AS1 high expressions (p = 0.0012). In addition, the result of multivariate assays demonstrated TMPO-AS1 expression is an independent predictor for the overall survival of LSCC patients. CONCLUSIONS TMPO-AS1 might be considered a novel molecule involved in LSCC progression, which provides a possible prognostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico , Timopoietinas/metabolismo , Óxidos N-Cíclicos , Humanos , Prognóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante
8.
Gene ; 757: 144936, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640301

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for nearly 90 percent of oral cavity malignancies and is one of the most widespread oral cancers in the world. The microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have an important role in cellular processes comprising cell cycle, differentiation, and also apoptosis. MiRNAs are also implicated in the progression of cancers, including OSCC, through a variety of signaling pathways. One of the most significant signaling pathways in OSCC is the PI3K / Akt pathway that has been illustrated to be under the tight regulation of miRNAs. Deregulation or activation of the PI3K / Akt pathway due to mutations has been revealed to be implicated in the development of oral cancer. According to studies, more than 47% of HNSCC and around 38% of OSCC samples indicate at least one molecular alteration in this signaling pathway. The potential of miRNAs for their use as therapeutic tools in the diagnosis as well as treatment of numerous diseases have been confirmed. In the current review, we summarize miRNAs and their possible mechanisms as well as their functions in OSCC advancement and progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo
9.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(4)2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621687

RESUMO

Kaposi sarcoma typically presents as violaceous macules and papules in immunocompromised, specifically HIV-positive, patients. Its distinct clinical features often facilitate rapid diagnosis. In this article, we report a case of Kaposi sarcoma presenting as a concerning yet nondescript lesion in an HIV-negative woman. Although Kaposi sarcoma is frequently part of the differential diagnosis for skin lesions affecting HIV-positive patients, it is less frequently considered in HIV-negative individuals. Additionally, this case differs from the classic clinical presentation of Kaposi sarcoma by resembling a squamous cell carcinoma or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Therefore, it illustrates the importance of suspicious lesion biopsies to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Soronegatividade para HIV , Sarcoma de Kaposi/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Sarcoma de Kaposi/diagnóstico
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16167-16173, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601197

RESUMO

Saliva is a noninvasive biofluid that can contain metabolite signatures of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Conductive polymer spray ionization mass spectrometry (CPSI-MS) is employed to record a wide range of metabolite species within a few seconds, making this technique appealing as a point-of-care method for the early detection of OSCC. Saliva samples from 373 volunteers, 124 who are healthy, 124 who have premalignant lesions, and 125 who are OSCC patients, were collected for discovering and validating dysregulated metabolites and determining altered metabolic pathways. Metabolite markers were reconfirmed at the primary tissue level by desorption electrospray ionization MS imaging (DESI-MSI), demonstrating the reliability of diagnoses based on saliva metabolomics. With the aid of machine learning (ML), OSCC and premalignant lesions can be distinguished from the normal physical condition in real time with an accuracy of 86.7%, on a person by person basis. These results suggest that the combination of CPSI-MS and ML is a feasible tool for accurate, automated diagnosis of OSCC in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Metabolômica , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Testes Imediatos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
11.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(3): 401-404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719243

RESUMO

To review the relevance of sialic acid as a tumour marker in oral cancer. Tumour marker are useful in the screening for early malignancy. Sialic acids are important in determining the surface properties of cells and has been implicated in cellular invasiveness, adhesiveness, and immunogenicity. Sialic acids are commonly found at the outermost end of glycan chains of all cell types. Increase in the levels of sialic acid in oral cancer indicates its importance as a tumour marker.Both serum and salivary sialic acid levels can be used as a screening tool and a diagnostic aid for oral cancer. Salivary sialic acid can be used as a non-invasive, cost effective and reliable diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of oral cancer. In patients with oral cancer, glycoprotein metabolism is altered. Increase in the levels of sialic acid in oral cancer indicate its importance as a tumour marker. Changes in the serum is reflected in saliva. Salivary sialic acid can be used as non-invasive, cost effective and reliable diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of oral cancer. Early the diagnosis, better the prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/análise , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Saliva/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Saliva/química
12.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(3): 440-444, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719248

RESUMO

Introduction: Crystallization test is based on the principle that, when a salt crystallizes out of an aqueous solution, the crystal growth is influenced by the presence of other substances in the solution, such as blood or plant extracts. If a mixture of copper chloride solution with a small amount of whole blood is allowed to crystallize under controlled experimental conditions, an aggregate of crystals forms. Crystallization method can be used as a diagnostic aid to provide information about the systemic conditions and general health of the patient. Aim: This study aims to study the patterns of crystallization and to further determine the efficacy of crystallization test as a screening modality in premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of OSCC, 50 patients of premalignant lesions, and 50 healthy individuals were selected. One drop of blood was collected from the study groups to perform crystallization using cupric chloride. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test, Student's t-test (two-tailed), and analysis of variance. Results: The different patterns of crystals formed were studied and statistically analyzed. Conclusion: Based on the study, it was concluded that Crystallization test can be used as an effective screening modality for detection of premalignant lesions and OSCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Cobre/química , Cristalização/métodos , Leucoplasia/sangue , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoplasia/patologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/sangue , Neoplasias Bucais/química , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(3): 452-457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719250

RESUMO

Introduction: Cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA21-1), a constituent of the intermediate filament protein is known to be elevated in cancer. In vitro cleavage of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) protein results in the release of it's fragments into the supernatants of premalignant cell lines. This study was designed with the aim to investigate the concentrations of CYFRA21-1 in serum and saliva of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), to evaluate CK19 expression in tissues of the same patients and to correlate the levels of CYFRA21-1 concentration in serum and saliva with CK19 expression in OPMDs, and to compare it with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which was taken as positive control. Materials and Methods: Concentration of CYFRA21-1 was measured in saliva and serum of 30 OPMD cases with five patients having OSCC using ELISA technique and analysis of CK19 protein expression in the tissue of same patients using immunohistochemical technique was done. Results: Concentration of CYFRA21-1 in saliva and serum with regard to CK19 protein expression in tissues was significantly higher in control group than in study groups. Conclusion: CYFRA21-1 can be used as a promising diagnostic molecule and as an adjunctive marker for early detection, disease staging, and monitoring.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Queratina-19/análise , Queratina-19/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo
14.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1112): 20190825, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High throughput pre-treatment imaging features may predict radiation treatment outcome and guide individualized treatment in radiotherapy (RT). Given relatively small patient sample (as compared with high dimensional imaging features), identifying potential prognostic imaging biomarkers is typically challenging. We aimed to develop robust machine learning methods for patient survival prediction using pre-treatment quantitative CT image features for a subgroup of head-and-neck cancer patients. METHODS: Three neural network models, including back propagation (BP), Genetic Algorithm-Back Propagation (GA-BP), and Probabilistic Genetic Algorithm-Back Propagation (PGA-BP) neural networks were trained to simulate association between patient survival and radiomics data in radiotherapy. To evaluate the models, a subgroup of 59 head-and-neck patients with primary cancers in oral tongue area were utilized. Quantitative image features were extracted from planning CT images, a novel t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) method was used to remove irrelevant and redundant image features before fed into the network models. 80% patients were used to train the models, and remaining 20% were used for evaluation. RESULTS: Of the three supervised machine-learning methods studied, PGA-BP yielded the best predictive performance. The reported actual patient survival interval of 30.5 ± 21.3 months, the predicted survival times were 47.3 ± 38.8, 38.5 ± 13.5 and 29.9 ± 15.3 months using the traditional PCA. Combining with the novel t-SNE dimensionality reduction algorithm, the predicted survival intervals are 35.8 ± 15.2, 32.3 ± 13.1 and 31.6 ± 15.8 months for the BP, GA-BP and PGA-BP neural network models, respectively. CONCLUSION: The work demonstrated that the proposed probabilistic genetic algorithm optimized neural network models, integrating with the t-SNE dimensionality reduction algorithm, achieved accurate prediction of patient survival. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The proposed PGA-BP neural network, integrating with an advanced dimensionality reduction algorithm (t-SNE), improved patient survival prediction accuracy using pre-treatment quantitative CT image features of head-and-neck cancer patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias da Língua/mortalidade , Algoritmos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Probabilidade , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Língua/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Língua/patologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19793, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358351

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Many previous studies have investigated the necessity of routine histopathological analysis of tonsillectomy specimen, and most recent studies have suggested that such an analysis is not justified in asymptomatic patients or those with no risk factors for malignancy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old man diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea underwent surgery, including tonsillectomy; a tonsil specimen was sent to the department of pathology. DIAGNOSIS: Although the patient did not exhibit any tonsil-related signs or symptoms, nor did the appearance of the tonsil appear to be pathological, the right tonsil specimen was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma, with detection of human papilloma virus 16. INTERVENTIONS: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were used to treat the tonsil cancer. OUTCOMES: No recurrence was observed during the 4-year follow-up. LESSONS: In the future, it may be necessary to reinvestigate the necessity of routine histopathological analysis of tonsillectomy specimens in asymptomatic patients, considering the drastically increased rate of detection of human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas in these patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Neoplasias Tonsilares/diagnóstico , Tonsilectomia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of CEP55 as a diagnostic marker and independent prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and to analyze its co-expression genes and related signaling pathways. METHODS: TCGA database and GEO database were used to analyze the expression of CEP55 in LUAD and LUSC compared with normal tissues. The co-expression genes of CEP55 in LUAD and LUSC were excavated by cBioPortal and enriched by KEGG and GO. Establishing Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the value of CEP55 as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. The association between CEP55 expression and the clinicopathological features was evaluated using χ2 tests. ROC curves for diagnosis and prognosis detection were constructed. Prognostic values were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. RESULTS: Compared with normal lung tissues, CEP55 expression was significantly upregulated in both LUAD and LUSC. ROC curve analysis showed that CEP55 could be used as an effective diagnostic target for LUAD (AUC = 0.969) and LUSC (AUC = 0.994). When CEP55 gene was selected as an independent prognostic factor, high expression of CEP55 was more disadvantageous to OS and RFS of LUAD patients (P<0.05), but no significant difference was found in LUSC patients (P>0.05). The number of co-expression genes of CEP55 in LUAD is more than that in LUSC, and is related to cell cycle, DNA replication and P53 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: CEP55 can be used as a diagnostic marker for LUAD and LUSC, but only as an independent prognostic factor for LUAD rather than LUSC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(3): 629-634, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402305

RESUMO

Anal cancer is a rare cancer, comprising less than 5% of gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Diagnosis of anal canal cancer can be difficult given that presenting symptoms are similar to those of benign anorectal diseases. General surgeons who encounter suspected anal canal cancer need to have a good understanding of the anatomy of the anal canal, high index of suspicion for malignancy, and low threshold to biopsy lesions when indicated. This article discusses the most commonly encountered anal canal tumors, the evaluation of these tumors, and their management. The foundation for successful therapy includes timely diagnosis, accurate staging, and routine surveillance.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Ânus/cirurgia , Carcinoma Basocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Canal Anal/patologia , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Seguimentos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Metástase Linfática/terapia , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proctoscopia , Prognóstico
20.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 900-908, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424212

RESUMO

Skin conditions affect 1.9 billion people. Because of a shortage of dermatologists, most cases are seen instead by general practitioners with lower diagnostic accuracy. We present a deep learning system (DLS) to provide a differential diagnosis of skin conditions using 16,114 de-identified cases (photographs and clinical data) from a teledermatology practice serving 17 sites. The DLS distinguishes between 26 common skin conditions, representing 80% of cases seen in primary care, while also providing a secondary prediction covering 419 skin conditions. On 963 validation cases, where a rotating panel of three board-certified dermatologists defined the reference standard, the DLS was non-inferior to six other dermatologists and superior to six primary care physicians (PCPs) and six nurse practitioners (NPs) (top-1 accuracy: 0.66 DLS, 0.63 dermatologists, 0.44 PCPs and 0.40 NPs). These results highlight the potential of the DLS to assist general practitioners in diagnosing skin conditions.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Acne Vulgar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Nativos do Alasca , Americanos Asiáticos , Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Dermatite Seborreica/diagnóstico , Dermatologistas , Eczema/diagnóstico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Foliculite/diagnóstico , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Ceratose Seborreica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Fotografação , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Telemedicina , Verrugas/diagnóstico
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