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1.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(1): 61-69, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902173

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer surgery originated in the early 20(th) century. However, the true meaning of trans-thoracic esophagectomy and digestive tract reconstruction began in the 1930s. Almost at the same time, Japan and Western countries began the surgical exploration of esophageal cancer. Based on the pathological type of esophageal cancer in Asia, squamous cell carcinoma is the majority, and its biological characteristics and treatment strategies are different from those of European and American patients. After more than eighty years of development, the surgical treatment of esophageal cancer in Japan has been developed from the initial attempt, deep cultivation practice to the pursuit of excellence, and explored a set of more advanced surgical techniques and diagnostic strategies, which is unique in the world. On the basis of the establishment of the Japanese Society of Esophagus, Japanese scholars have developed and irregularly updated the Japanese Classification of Esophageal Cancer and published the professional academic journal Esophagus. The Japanese Clinical Oncology Group organized a number of phase Ⅲ clinical studies on esophageal cancer, providing strong evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal squamous carcinoma. Focused on the origin, development, current situation and future of esophageal cancer surgery in Japan, this paper summarized the development of esophageal cancer surgery in Japan through literature review, interviews with senior experts and Hot topics of esophageal cancer surgery-questionnaire survey of Japanese experts.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Neoplasias Esofágicas/história , Esofagectomia/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Japão , Estados Unidos
2.
Clin Dermatol ; 36(4): 568-575, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047439

RESUMO

The history of zinc chloride therapy before and including Frederic E. Mohs' (1910-2002) early contributions to dermatologic oncology is presented. In 1932, Mohs devised a method of cutaneous surgery that employed zinc-chloride paste to devitalize basal or squamous cell carcinoma. Because zinc chloride coagulates malignant tissue without destroying cellular architecture, he described the surgery and its preservative effect as the fixed-tissue method. This method involved the serial removal of devitalized malignant tissue and the freezing and histologic examination of each layer; the process was continued until a cancer-free plane was reached. In 1953, a modified version of the micrographic system, the fresh-tissue method, was introduced. For improved efficiency, Mohs retained the systematic mapping of a neoplasm but eliminated the chemical escharotic. Although the fresh-tissue method has become the preferred treatment mode, zinc-chloride paste therapy remains in use today. Although the history of Mohs micrographic surgery is well documented, its background has not received sufficient attention. This paper surveys the chemical synthesis of zinc chloride, the formulation of zinc-chloride paste as a cutaneous escharotic, and the extent to which Mohs' method compares with those of 19th and early 20th century predecessors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Cloretos/história , Cirurgia de Mohs/história , Neoplasias Cutâneas/história , Compostos de Zinco/história , Carcinoma Basocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Cloretos/uso terapêutico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Cirurgia de Mohs/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Estados Unidos , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico
3.
J BUON ; 22(4): 1088-1091, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28952239

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers due to its aggressive behavior and poor survival. It was mentioned in the works of ancient Chinese and Arabo-islamic physicians, centuries before the recognition of high incidence in the Asian esophageal cancer belt. Till the 19th century the disease was considered incurable and the main goal of the proposed treatments was to alleviate dysphagia and pain. The introduction of esophagoscope in 1868 by Adolf Kussmaul (1822-1902) contributed to the observation of the living esophagus and to the diagnosis of esophageal pathologies, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches. In 1877, Vincenz Czerny (1842-1916) performed the first successful resection of the cervical esophagus for carcinoma, followed by Franz Torek (1861-1938) who carried out in 1913 the first successful subtotal thoracic esophagectomy and Tohru Ohsawa (1882-1984) who performed the world's first esophagectomy with an intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis. Nowadays, despite the advent of biomedical technology and the development of operation techniques, the surgical treatment of esophagus still remains a challenge.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Neoplasias Esofágicas/história , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica/história , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Transtornos de Deglutição/história , Transtornos de Deglutição/patologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/história , Esofagectomia/métodos , Esôfago/patologia , Esôfago/cirurgia , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 165(7-8): 140-51, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925224

RESUMO

Crownprince Frederick Wilhelm of Prussia was once the hope of the liberal movement in Germany. He embodied and lived a humanistic ideal based on the spirit of the enlightenment. Starting in January 1887 the passionate pipe smoker suffered on an unusual long hoarseness. A polyp of the vocal cord was diagnosed. Although this diagnosis seemed harmless, an odyssee was launched that made history. Rudolf Virchow-the foremost pathologist of that time-was involved in the following histological diagnosis. His role and that of the sprouting histopathology will be presented in this essay.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Pessoas Famosas , Neoplasias Laríngeas/história , Otolaringologia/história , Patologia/história , Política , Pólipos/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Prússia , Reino Unido
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 129(6): 535-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26004289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper attempts to chart the history of head and neck cancers and their surgical treatment, starting from ancient Egypt and concluding with Galen. CONCLUSION: The ancient Egyptians appear to have treated head and neck cancers with local applications. The ancient Greek corpus contains a reference to treating pharyngeal carcinoma with cautery, but the description is too vague to establish the diagnosis conclusively. The ancient Romans moved away from surgical treatments, with Galen establishing a prejudice against surgery that would last through the Middle Ages.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/história , Otolaringologia/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Antigo Egito , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , História Antiga , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
7.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0121323, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25822850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer (LC) incidence in the United States (US) continues to decrease but with significant differences by histology, gender and race. Whereas squamous, large and small cell carcinoma rates have been decreasing since the mid-80s, adenocarcinoma rates remain stable in males and continue to increase in females, with large racial disparities. We analyzed LC incidence trends by histology in the US with an emphasis on gender and racial differences. METHODS: LC incidence rates from 1973-2010 were obtained from the SEER cancer registry. Age-adjusted incidence trends of five major histological types by gender and race were evaluated using joinpoint regression. Trends of LC histology and stage distributions from 2005-2010 were analyzed. RESULTS: US LC incidence varies by histology. Squamous, large and small cell carcinoma rates continue to decrease for all gender/race combinations, whereas adenocarcinoma rates remain relatively constant in males and increasing in females. An apparent recent increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma since 2005 can be explained by a concomitant decrease in the number of cases classified as other non-small cell carcinoma. Black males continue to be disproportionally affected by squamous LCs, and blacks continue to be diagnosed with more advanced cancers than whites. CONCLUSIONS: LC incidence by histology continues to change over time. Additional variations are expected as screening becomes disseminated. It is important to continue to monitor LC rates to evaluate the impact of screening on current trends, assess the continuing benefits of tobacco control, and focus efforts on reducing racial disparities.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/história , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/história , Masculino , Programa de SEER/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/história , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 103(16): 955-60, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25097164

RESUMO

520 new cases of esophageal carcinoma are diagnosed in Switzerland per year. 80% of these patients eventually die from their disease despite recent advances in surgical technique and systemic treatment. The first successful thoracic esophageal resection for carcinoma was performed in 1913, but only the introduction of modern anesthesia with oral intubation and positive pressure ventilation made thoracic operations routinely feasible. Esophageal resection can be performed open or minimally invasive. The minimally invasive esophageal resection has been proven to be safe with comparable mortality to open resection. Also, there is no difference in terms of radicality of the operation. Overall survival seems to be equal in published series, but results of prospective trials are still pending.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/história , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/história , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/história , Esofagectomia/métodos , Esofagoscopia/história , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Esofagostomia/história , Esofagostomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
9.
Pathologe ; 35(2): 143-51, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24619524

RESUMO

In 1921 Alexander Schmincke established the visionary concept of a clinically and histomorphologically defined carcinoma entity of different lymphoepithelial organs that he named "lymphoepithelioma". This nowadays mainly comprises non-keratinizing oropharyngeal carcinomas frequently associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) and non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinomas mostly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The term lymphoepithelioma was originally defined by A. Schmincke and J. Ewing as a combined clinical and histological tumor entity of lymphoepithelial organs. The main reason for the longstanding terminological confusion regarding the term lymphoepithelioma is based on the fact that lateron a pure histological interpretation (lymphoepithelial differentiation) caused an artificial and nonreproducible exclusion of tumors with transitional and basaloid differentiation. For the forthcoming new WHO classification it has been suggested that squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck should no longer be classified according to the heterogeneous histological differentiation but according to etiopathogenetic criteria (e.g. HPV-related, EBV-related, nicotine and alcohol-related). This proposed classification corresponds much better to the prognosis and therapy and would represent a late acknowledgement of Schmincke's visionary concept of a clinically and histomorphologically defined tumor entity. In addition, the ongoing terminological confusion over the heterogeneous and prognostically weak spectrum of histological differentiation would subside.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/história , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/história , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/história , Infecções por Papillomavirus/história , Terminologia como Assunto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Orofaringe/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Prognóstico
10.
Lung Cancer ; 84(1): 13-22, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24524818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Trends in overall lung cancer incidence in different countries reflect the maturity of the smoking epidemic. Further understanding of the underlying causes for trends over time can be gained by assessing the trends by sex and histological subtype. We provide a temporal analysis of lung cancer incidence in 12 populations (11 countries), with a focus on cohort-specific trends for the main histological subtypes (squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), adenocarcinomas (AdC), and small cell carcinoma). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We restrict the analysis to population-based registry data of sufficient quality to provide meaningful interpretation, using data in Europe, North America and Oceania, extracted from successive Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volumes. Poorly specified morphologies were reallocated to a specified grouping on a population, 5-year period and age group basis. RESULTS: In men, lung cancer rates have been declining overall and by subtype, since the beginning of the study period, except for AdC. AdC incidence rates have risen and surpassed those of SCC (historically the most frequent subtype) in the majority of these populations, but started to stabilize during the mid-1980s in North America, Australia and Iceland. In women, AdC has been historically the most frequent subtype and rates continue to increase in most populations studied. Early signs of a decline in AdC can however be observed in Canada, Denmark and Australia among very recent female cohorts, born after 1950. CONCLUSIONS: The continuing rise in lung cancer among women in many countries reinforces the need for targeted smoking cessation efforts alongside preventive actions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/história , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/história , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Rev Med Chil ; 139(4): 529-34, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21879194

RESUMO

The death of Freud raises the ethical dilemma about euthanasia. It can be characterized as indirect active euthanasia according to the rule of double effect, or terminal sedation, or palliated death. The primacy of the principle of autonomy over non maleficence, conditioned the physician's attitude toward his patient Freud. The physician assisted death was and remains punishable in western medicine. Therefore, a fundamental tradition was infringed. In contrast, the present study attempts to characterize the final position of Freud himself to his death and called it appropriation of his finitude; he assumes his being-unto-death, that is, he now projects his being not as a being-at-his-end but as a being-unto-end, indicating thereby that he understood that the end always penetrated his whole existence.


Assuntos
Eutanásia Ativa/ética , Eutanásia Ativa/história , Psicanálise/história , Temas Bioéticos/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neoplasias Palatinas/história , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Autonomia Pessoal
13.
Virchows Arch ; 458(6): 649-57, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21494762

RESUMO

On 15 June 1888, the German Emperor, Kaiser Friedrich III, died of laryngeal cancer. Three biopsies of his laryngeal lesion had been taken by the British laryngologist, Morel Mackenzie, in 1887 and diagnosed by Rudolf Virchow as "pachydermia verrucosa laryngis", confirming Mackenzie's assessment that the Kaiser's disease was benign. A fourth specimen coughed up by the patient was considered by Virchow to be nondiagnostic. A further specimen expectorated by the patient 3 months before his death was diagnosed as carcinoma by Wilhelm Waldeyer. The autopsy revealed squamous carcinoma in the larynx with a cervical lymph node metastasis. The discrepancies between the initial diagnoses and the final outcome of the Kaiser's disease gave rise to a never-ending medical controversy. Our investigations on this historical case were limited to the official German documents and publications and their English translations and to subsequent literature sources of the time, after having received confirmation that the histological slides and Virchow's original reports had been lost. Based on current surgical pathology knowledge, we propose that the tumour that challenged the diagnostic skills of the founder of pathology was hybrid verrucous carcinoma (HVC), an extremely rare, metastasizing variant of verrucous carcinoma (VC) composed of pure VC mixed with clusters of conventional squamous cell carcinoma. As we see it now, Virchow was therefore not totally wrong. Our retrospective evaluation suggests that Virchow's detailed description of the Kaiser's cancer preceded the paper that contributed to the full understanding of HVC of the larynx by 110 years.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Verrucoso/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma Verrucoso/história , Carcinoma Verrucoso/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/história , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 139(4): 529-534, abr. 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-597651

RESUMO

The death of Freud raises the ethical dilemma about euthanasia. It can be characterized as indirect active euthanasia according to the rule of double effect, or terminal sedation, or palliated death. The primacy of the principle of autonomy over non maleficence, conditioned the physician’s attitude toward his patient Freud. The physician assisted death was and remains punishable in western medicine. Therefore, a fundamental tradition was infringed. In contrast, the present study attempts to characterize the final position of Freud himself to his death and called it appropriation of his finitude; he assumes his being-unto-death, that is, he now projects his being not as a being-at-his-end but as a being-unto-end, indicating thereby that he understood that the end always penetrated his whole existence.


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Eutanásia Ativa , Eutanásia Ativa/história , Psicanálise/história , Temas Bioéticos/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Autonomia Pessoal , Neoplasias Palatinas/história , Direitos do Paciente
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21372617

RESUMO

The various medical histories of eminent members of state have been well documented and explored. Such accounts provide interesting insights into advances in treatment and management of disease. Moreover, historical cases serve as a timely reminder of how the central tenets of good medical practice do not change with time. Two American presidents, Ulysses S. Grant and Grover Cleveland, were afflicted with diseases of the head and neck, and one would subsequently die from his illness. Here we examine their diagnosis, treatment and their disease in the context of modern management.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Pessoas Famosas , Governo Federal/história , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/história , Otolaringologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Sarcoma/história , Estados Unidos
16.
J Surg Oncol ; 103(2): 193-5, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21259256

RESUMO

Marjolin's ulcer refers to malignant change within burn scar. The French surgeon Jean-Nicolas Marjolin is honored with the eponym. Marjolin described the "warty ulcer" in the first edition of Dictionnaire de Medécine. In his description, Marjolin did not actually state that this ulcer represented malignant transformation. Credit for noting the specific association involved in Marjolin's ulcer belongs to Caesar Hawkins, an English Surgeon, who described skin cancer arising in burn and flogging scars.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Cicatriz/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
17.
Gen Dent ; 59(6): 492-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22313921

RESUMO

Two former U.S. presidents, Ulysses S. Grant and Grover Cleveland, were diagnosed with head and neck cancer in 1884 and 1893, respectively. A historical review of the risk factors, diagnoses, and treatments is examined and compared with modern-day interpretations. A comparison was made using the original diagnoses with today's equivalent diagnosis. Different treatment outcomes at the time of the original diagnoses relative to today's treatment are reviewed. Clinicians must be familiar with risk factors, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of head and neck cancer.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Governo Federal/história , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/história , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Carcinoma Verrucoso/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Maxilares/história , Neoplasias da Língua/história , Estados Unidos
19.
Invest Clin ; 51(2): 193-208, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20928978

RESUMO

The history on the relationship of VPH infection and cervical cancer was examined. Findings were initially reported in Maracaibo(1971), later in Mexico(1973) and thereafter several studies on the ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of VPH infection and its role on cervical cancer were described. The ultrastructural findings of viral particles of HPV and their proteins, as well as their role in the incorporation of the viral genome to the human cervical cells were also described. Glycoproteins on the surface of cervical cells were reviewed and their importance on HPV infection was related to p16, blood group antigens and early genetic changes in the cell cycle with loss of heterozigocity, all of which, stimulated by the high risk HPV infection lead to cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/patogenicidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/história , Ginecologia/história , Infecções por Papillomavirus/história , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/história , Alphapapillomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Alphapapillomavirus/ultraestrutura , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/ultraestrutura , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/genética , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colposcopia/história , Congressos como Assunto/história , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/fisiologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genes Virais , Glicolipídeos/análise , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica/história , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Venezuela/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/análise , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia
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