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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 123-154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034030

RESUMO

Since many decades, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSCs) is the most common malignancy worldwide. Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the major types of NMSCs, representing approximately 70% and 25% of these neoplasias, respectively. Because of their continuously rising incidence rates, NMSCs represent a constantly increasing global challenge for healthcare, although they are in most cases nonlethal and curable (e.g., by surgery). While at present, carcinogenesis of NMSC is still not fully understood, the relevance of genetic and molecular alterations in several pathways, including evolutionary highly conserved Notch signaling, has now been shown convincingly. The Notch pathway, which was first developed during evolution in metazoans and that was first discovered in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), governs cell fate decisions and many other fundamental processes that are of high relevance not only for embryonic development, but also for initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. Choosing NMSC as a model, we give in this review a brief overview on the interaction of Notch signaling with important oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways and on its role for several hallmarks of carcinogenesis and cancer progression, including the regulation of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, and senescence.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/irrigação sanguínea
2.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(5): 484-488, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085229

RESUMO

How to improve the effects of treatment on patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has always been the focus of clinical and basic studies. The standardized diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors aim to improve the effects of treatment, and individualized treatment based on standardized diagnosis and treatment may further improve these effects. On the basis of the existing guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with OSCC, this study explored the opportunities and challenges of standardized and individualized diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. These challenges and opportunities were related to the updates of clinical and pathological staging system, surgical margins, and neck dissection in patients with OSCC at early stage and preoperative induction therapy and postoperative adjuvant treatment in patients with advanced OSCC. This study also shared ideas on clinical studies of OSCC to optimize the existing treatment schemes, improve the treatment effects, and enhance the guidelines.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Esvaziamento Cervical , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
3.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 895-900, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975065

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) radiomics-based machine learning algorithms in differentiating squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from lymphoma in the oropharynx. MR images from 87 patients with oropharyngeal SCC (n=68) and lymphoma (n=19) were reviewed retrospectively. Tumors were semi-automatically segmented on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images registered to T2-weighted images, and radiomic features (n=202) were extracted from contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted images. The radiomics classifier was built using elastic-net regularized generalized linear model analyses with nested five-fold cross-validation. The diagnostic abilities of the radiomics classifier and visual assessment by two head and neck radiologists were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses for distinguishing SCC from lymphoma. Nineteen radiomics features were selected at least twice during the five-fold cross-validation. The mean area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the radiomics classifier was 0.750 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.613-0.887], with a sensitivity of 84.2%, specificity of 60.3%, and an accuracy of 65.5%. Two human readers yielded AUCs of 0.613 (95% CI, 0.467-0.759) and 0.663 (95% CI, 0.531-0.795), respectively. The radiomics-based machine learning model can be useful for differentiating SCC from lymphoma of the oropharynx.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Linfoma/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Orofaringe/patologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e20993, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898991

RESUMO

Radiotherapy (RT) can affect the immune function of patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RT on lymphocyte and its subsets in patients with esophageal cancer (EC).All patients received RT with a mean dose of 5369 cGy (gray). Blood parameters were measured in 31 patients on 3 occasions (before, at the end of radiotherapy, and at 3 months follow-up). The whole blood count and lymphocyte subsets were measured and correlated with short time efficiency and radiation dose parameters.White blood count (WBC) and lymphocyte count (ALC) were greatly decreased at the end of radiotherapy, and the percentages of CD3+, CD3+CD8+ T cells were significantly increased, on the other hand, a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio was observed. The percentages of CD3-CD16/56+NK cells and CD19+ B cell were decreased at the end of RT compared with prior RT. The percentages of CD3+ T cells before RT and the WBC and ALC count after RT can be used as prognostic indicators for survival. The PTV dose can cause significant changes in lymphocytes count after RT. CD3+T cells after RT were significantly correlated with mean heart dose and heart V50.Our study identified that RT causes changes in lymphocyte subsets, and these changes may indicate differences in immune function between individuals. Radiotherapy plan should be designed to minimize normal tissue dose to reduce the impact on WBC and lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Idoso , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21980, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899039

RESUMO

For the diagnosis of gastric adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), discrepancies regarding a rational diagnostic proportion of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) component exist among different organizations. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the SCC component on the survival of gastric cancer patients and identify the optimal cutoff value for the SCC component necessary for diagnosing gastric ASC.Cases of gastric cancer with an SCC component were obtained from our center and from case reports and series extracted from Medline. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to compare the overall survival between groups and examine the prognostic value of various clinical parameters.We identified 45 qualified cases in published literature and 13 in our center. Forty-two of them were males and 16 females (M: F = 2.6:1). Thirty of them were Asian patients and the rest were mainly from the United States and Europe. The mean age was 61.1 years (median 64 years, range 32-84 years). The average tumor size was 6.9 cm (median 6.0 cm, range 2.0-16.0 cm). The most common location of the cancer was the lower third (39.7%). Although a statistical difference was not achieved, the Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated that as the proportion of the SCC component in the primary lesion increased, the patients' survival risk increased (P = .489), and the presence of the SCC component in metastatic lymph nodes also increased the risk of survival (P = .259); both of these findings indicated a negative impact of the SCC component on survival. Furthermore, we identified the optimal cutoff for the SCC component as 35% (χ = 6.544, P = .011), which was subsequently validated in a Cox regression model as an independent prognostic factor (P = .026).An increased proportion of the SCC component is associated with worse survival in gastric cancer patients with an SCC component. The optimal cutoff for the proportion of the SCC component necessary for the diagnosis of gastric ASC is 35%.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Estômago/patologia , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22125, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899097

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rarely encountered clinically. SCC, which presents as a submucosal tumor, is even rarer. Without the support of pathological evidence, it is difficult to make a correct preoperative diagnosis. Due to limited clinical data, the pathogenesis and treatment of gastric SCC remain unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with unexplained weight loss. Endoscopy revealed a submucosal mass without any ulcer on its surface located on the body of the stomach. The results of 2 gastroscopic mucosal biopsies were chronic inflammation. DIAGNOSES: The clinical diagnosis by computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy was gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) preoperatively. The postoperative pathological examination demonstrated this tumor as moderately differentiated SCC. INTERVENTIONS: Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and splenectomy were performed. OUTCOMES: The patient was discharged 7 days after the surgery without any complications. The follow-up CT scan showed no evidence of metastatic disease 6 months after surgery. LESSONS: Large primary gastric SCC could present as a submucosal mass. Gastroscopic mucosal biopsy may not be able to get tumor tissue due to inflammatory reaction.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
7.
Clin Imaging ; 67: 198-206, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866821

RESUMO

Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) carcinoma (NC) (formerly known as NUT midline carcinoma) is an aggressive pleomorphic squamous cell carcinoma with a dismal prognosis. Primary NC tumors are commonly located in the chest or head and neck regions. Imaging plays an indispensable role in the staging, management, treatment response assessment, and surveillance of NC. Primary pulmonary NC usually presents as a large mass with lymphadenopathy and pleural involvement. Primary head and neck NC presents as a large expansile necrotic mass in the sinonasal region with locoregional destruction and occasional cervical lymph node involvement. These imaging features are relatively non-specific but are consistent among patients. Currently, there are no standardized guidelines for the treatment of NC. Because of its rarity, paucity of reports in the medical literature, and the lack of awareness among radiologists, NUT carcinoma (NC) has been largely underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed. Clinical aggressive features and pleomorphic/undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma should prompt genetic evaluation for NUT translocation to diagnose NC. In this article, we discuss NC's clinicopathologic and imaging features and treatment options, including emerging new treatments.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pescoço/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4885-4894, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878776

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor potential of guaiazulene-3-carboxylate derivatives against oral malignant cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve guaiazulene-3-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized by introduction of either with alkyl group [1-5], alkoxy group [6, 7], hydroxyl group [8, 9] or primary amine [10-12] at the end of sidechains. Tumor-specificity (TS) was calculated by the ratio of mean 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) against 3 human oral mesenchymal cell lines to that against 4 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Potency-selectivity expression (PSE) was calculated by dividing TS value by CC50value against OSCC cell lines. Cell cycle analysis was performed by cell sorter. RESULTS: [6, 7] showed the highest TS and PSE values, and induced the accumulation of both subG1 and G2/M cell populations in HSC-2 OSCC cells. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis demonstrated that their tumor-specificity was correlated with chemical descriptors that explain the 3D shape, electric state and ionization potential. CONCLUSION: Alkoxyl guaiazulene-3-carboxylates [6, 7] can be potential candidates of lead compound for developing novel anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azulenos/química , Azulenos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Azulenos/síntese química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/síntese química
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22252, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991421

RESUMO

A 31-year-old male patient with psoriasis received administration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) during a disease course of 14 years. He showed multiple keratoma together with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in left lower limbs. After admission, the conditions were stable after treatment, and received surgery for treating SCC. The skin defect was treated using full-thickness skin graft. The postoperative survival of the flap was satisfactory, and the conditions of psoriasis were well controlled. In this case, we presented the feasibility of graft in the donor site from a psoriatic lesion. Besides, we analyzed the possibility of SCC and keratinizing lesions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/transplante , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Psoríase/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
11.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 50-60, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994593

RESUMO

AIM: Therapeutic lymphadenectomy remains the gold standard for surgical management of clinically evident regional cervical disease for cutaneous malignancy. However, international consensus on adequate lymphadenectomy is lacking. Attempts have been made to establish quality measures; suggested benchmarks for minimum and average nodal yield, as well as recurrence and complication rates have been quoted. We aim to compare our key performance indicators to those benchmarks published in the literature. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study conducted with prospectively maintained data, over an 11-year period (2007-2018). RESULTS: Of 91 cervical lymphadenectomies included, mean nodal yield for ≤3 and ≥4 dissection levels were 19.7 and 38.7 respectively. We observed a combined locoregional recurrence rate of 25%. Subgroup analysis for melanoma (60) and cSCC (28) revealing regional nodal recurrence of 15% and 11%, respectively. We observed a 38.5% complication rate; however, less than 5.5% was considered grade IIIb/IIIb(d) [Clavein-Dindo]. Median follow-up of 19.3 months, five-year survivial rate of 38% and 32% for melanoma and cSCC, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data indicates that we are meeting quality measures, set by higher volume centres. We believe that any surgeon with subspecialty training in head and neck surgery can meet quality measures with regards to cervical lymphadenopathy for cutaneous malignancy.


Assuntos
Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Cirurgiões/educação , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 191-197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820732

RESUMO

Background: Sinonasal neoplasia comprises approximately 3% of all head-and-neck tumors. However, the incidence of these tumors may be greater in some parts of the world including Asia and Africa. Aim and Objective: The study aimed to review the clinical and histopathological pattern of sinonasal neoplasms in Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The records of patients managed for sinonasal neoplasia at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, over a period of 10 years were reviewed. Information obtained from the case files included demographic characteristics, tumor characteristics, and clinical information. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results: A total of 245 patients were reviewed with sinonasal neoplasms. Among these, 168 (68.57%) were males, with a sex ratio (M:F) of 2.18:1. The mean age was 40.2 ± 18.9 years. Malignant sinonasal neoplasm constituted 55.92%% of the sinonasal neoplasia, with peak age at the fifth decade. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological subtypes seen in 50.36% of the patients. Inverted papilloma was the most common benign sinonasal neoplasia (42.59%). The most common symptom presented by the patients was nasal obstruction (77.55%), mostly presented within 6 months of onset of symptoms (63.67%), and farmers were the predominant (27.76%). The most common treatment modality was surgical extirpation (54%), and most of the patients presented with Stage IV disease (88%). The site of tumor was found to statistically correlate with the type of tumor among the patients (P ≤ 0.0001), whereas the type of tumor and site of tumor correlated significantly with the duration of symptoms before the presentation. Conclusion: Malignant sinonasal disease is the predominant sinonasal neoplasm in this environment, and most of the patients presented with advanced disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Epistaxe/etiologia , Obstrução Nasal/etiologia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Seios Paranasais/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 23, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826859

RESUMO

The integrity of the basal stem cell layer is critical for epithelial homoeostasis. In this paper, we review the expression of oral mucosal stem cell markers (OM-SCMs) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to understand the role of basal cells in potentiating cancer stem cell behaviour in OSF. While the loss of basal cell clonogenicity triggers epithelial atrophy in OSF, the transition of the epithelium from atrophic to hyperplastic and eventually neoplastic involves the reactivation of basal stemness. The vacillating expression patterns of OM-SCMs confirm the role of keratins 5, 14, 19, CD44, ß1-integrin, p63, sex-determining region Y box (SOX2), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), c-MYC, B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) in OSF, OPMDs and OSCC. The downregulation of OM-SCMs in the atrophic epithelium of OSF and their upregulation during malignant transformation are illustrated with relevant literature in this review.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/patologia , Animais , Camundongos , Mucosa Bucal , Células-Tronco
14.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(6)2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the upper limb, and can pose a significant therapeutic challenge. Early treatment needs to be radical whilst maintaining function. METHODS: We describe two cases of upper limb squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy, review the literature on radiotherapy as a primary treatment modality, and discuss the specific difficulties treating SCC in the hand. RESULTS: Radiation therapy was inadequate in tumor clearance in both cases, with recurrence both extensive and distal to the initial focus. Moreover, both patients developed progressive functional loss related to pain, swelling, and stiffness. CONCLUSION: The evidence basis for radiation therapy as a primary modality is limited, although clearance rates are comparable to surgery. Both radiotherapy and surgery can be utilized to treat SCC. However, we make the case for the hand being especially susceptible to the unwanted side effects of radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braquiterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Mãos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
15.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(6)2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815690

RESUMO

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by a reciprocal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22 leading to the formation of a constitutively active tyrosine kinase. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the treatment of choice for patients diagnosed with CML and have many associated side effects including the rarely-reported eruption of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Herein, we report a patient with CML who presented with sudden onset of multiple scaly lesions on his legs and trunk after beginning treatment with nilotinib, a novel TKI. Six biopsies were performed at his initial presentation and four of these lesions were confirmed to be keratoacanthoma-type SCCs. One month later, the patient reported the development of multiple new similar lesions on his legs, arms, and face. Four more biopsies were performed revealing keratoacanthoma-type and well-differentiated SCCs. Certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib and quizartinib have been reported to cause eruptive keratoacanthoma (KA)-type SCCs as seen in our patient. However, there is only one other report in the literature of nilotinib promoting the development of SCCs or KAs. Physicians should be aware of this potential adverse effect and patients taking nilotinib should be closely monitored by a dermatologist.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237465, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes include tumor-reactive lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells. However, the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of tumor-infiltrating FoxP3⁺ T-cells and CTLA-4⁺ cells in four distinct histological compartments (tumor parenchyma and stroma at the tumor center, and parenchyma and stroma at the invasive front) and assessed the association between the prevalence of these cells and the histopathological status of 137 patients with OSCC. RESULTS: Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival were favorable in patients with high numbers of FoxP3⁺ T-cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front. Recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival were decreased in patients with high numbers of CTLA-4⁺ cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of FoxP3⁺ T-cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front may be a useful prognostic factor. Our results indicate that FoxP3⁺ T-cells may exert site-specific anti-tumor effects but may not play an immunosuppressive role in OSCC. In addition, our results suggest that CTLA-4+ cells suppress the function of FoxP3+ T-cells and promote anti-tumor immunity in OSCC.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/citologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841288

RESUMO

The TNM staging system for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) provides clinicians a dependable foundation for patient prognosis and management decisions, but in clinical practice, treatment outcomes of patients with OSCC are sometimes unsatisfactory. This retrospective study investigated the association between survival and clinicopathological characteristics and histological grades of 2535 patients with OSCC. Additionally, the present study aimed to compare the predictive abilities of histological grades with other common prognostic factors. The enrolled patients were divided into three groups by two experienced pathologists into well-differentiated, moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated groups, according to the WHO classification. Finally, we designed an observational, retrospective study based on the histological grading of tumors to compare their clinicopathological characteristics and conducted survival analysis among the three groups. Advanced tumor stage was diagnosed in 23.9%, 44.0%, and 55.1% of patients with grades 1-3 OSCC, respectively. By T status, T3 or T4 tumors were found in approximately 22%, 34%, and 40% of patients with grades 1-3 OSCC, respectively. By N status, lymph node metastases were found in 6.1%, 29.3%, and 45.9% of patients with grades 1-3 OSCC, respectively. Thus, significant survival differences were observed based on different OSCC histological grades. Meanwhile, in the multivariate (adjusted) analysis, N1 and N2 stages, extranodal spread, and poor differentiation were associated with a higher recurrence risk than the other common prognostic factors. In conclusion, 5% of patients in our study presented with poorly differentiated OSCC at diagnosis. Furthermore, grade 3 OSCC has worse prognosis and is more aggressive than grades 1 and 2 OSCC. In the future, we should focus on modifying individual therapy for poorly differentiated OSCC to achieve improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between primary tumor volume and cancer failure patterns in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and examine whether increasing radiation dose can improve the outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 124 patients with stage III ESCC treated by definitive CCRT. The primary tumor volume calculated from the radiotherapy planning computed tomography scans was correlated to treatment response, time to disease progression, and overall survival. We further analyzed whether a higher radiation dose correlated with better disease control and patient survival. RESULTS: Patients with poor CCRT response had a larger primary tumor volume than those with good response (97.9 vs 64.3 cm3, P = 0.032). The optimal cutoff value to predict CCRT response was 55.3 cm3. Large primary tumor volume (≥ 55.3 cm3) correlated with shorter time to tumor progression in the esophagus (13.6 vs 48.6 months, P = 0.033) compared with small tumor volume (< 55.3 cm3). For the large esophageal tumors (≥ 55.3 cm3), radiation dose > 60 gray significantly prolonged the time to tumor progression in esophagus (20.3 vs 10.1 months, P = 0.036) and overall survival (12.2 vs 8.0 months, P = 0.030), compared with dose ≤ 60 gray. In contrast, higher radiation dose did not benefit local disease control or overall survival in the small esophageal tumors (< 55.3 cm3). CONCLUSION: Large primary tumor volume correlates with poor local control and overall survival in ESCC treated with definitive CCRT. Radiation dose > 60 gray can improve the outcomes in patients with large primary tumor. Further prospective dose escalation trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Doses de Radiação , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Carga Tumoral
19.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(11): 2843-2850, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725356

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Demethylation of DNA through enzymes like LSD1 showed a crucial impact on different kind of cancers. Epigenetic modifications in cervical cancer are still not fully investigated nevertheless of high interest for a therapeutic use. METHODS: Tumor samples of 250 cervical cancer patients were immunochemically stained and evaluated based on Immunoreactive Score. Results were statistically analyzed for clinical and pathological parameters. RESULTS: Our patient collective showed a disadvantage for 10-year survival for patients with a strong expression of LSD1 in the cytoplasm of cervical cancer cells. The results of the correlational analysis further revealed a negative correlation of LSD1 to G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic changes through enzymes like LSD1 may also be of interest for patients with cervical cancer. A combined therapy with other proteins relayed to cervical cancer like GPER might be of interest for future investigations.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/enzimologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/enzimologia , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/enzimologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Histona Desmetilases/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
20.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(3): 425-433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719246

RESUMO

Head-and-neck cancer (HNC) is in close proximity to several critical structures. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential of generating highly conformal and concave dose distributions around complex target and is ideally suited for HNC treatment. Conventionally, the focus of IMRT for HNC patients has been on prevention of radiation-induced parotid dysfunction. In the present article, we review the potential of IMRT to reduce the risk of posttreatment aspiration and dysphagia and spare submandibular gland. We also discuss the impact of IMRT on overall survival and quality of life (QoL) for HNC patients. Small retrospective and prospective studies show that reducing dose to adjoining organs at risks is feasible and decreases the risk of posttreatment dysphagia and aspiration without compromising local control. IMRT is associated with improved QoL in several important domains including swallowing, dry mouth, sticky saliva, social eating, and opening of the mouth; however, improvement in global QoL is inconsistent. Delivery of IMRT for HNC is associated with improved survival at nasopharyngeal subsite. Small studies demonstrate improved treatment outcomes with swallowing-sparing IMRT. These results now need validation within the prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial setting.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Glândula Parótida/efeitos da radiação , Qualidade de Vida , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento
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