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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 198: 111565, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374350

RESUMO

The incidence of skin cancers has increased worldwide, requiring more prevention of this type of cancer. The use of sunscreen and the control of the time of exposure to sunlight are the recognized forms of prevention. However, new substances have been researched in order to develop formulations with more efficient protective activity. Citral is a natural compound with lemon scent that is used in food and cosmetic industries. The present work evaluated the chemoprotective effect of citral during UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Male hairless mice HRS/J, 8-12 weeks old, were exposed to UVB irradiation for 24 weeks, with a cumulative radiation dose of 13.875 J/cm2. Citral (0.1, 0.5 and 1%) was applied to the skin at a dosage of 0.1 g/animal, 5 min after UVB exposure. At the end of the experiment, the number of lesion/animal, and size of lesions were measured. The histological sections of the skin were evaluated for the presence and intensity of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. TUNEL assay was performed for apoptosis evaluation. Skin samples were used for the measurement of oxidative stress parameters (total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter of skin, glutathione, catalase activity and malondialdehyde), and cytokines levels (IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-10, IL-23, TNF-α, and IFNγ). Citral 1% completely inhibited UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis by reducing levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines, increasing apoptotic rate in the skin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ceratose/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mortality from oral cancer, the prevalence of the main risk factors and the implementation of policies to control current trends and the distribution of data among the countries of Latin America. The objective of this study was to describe the trends of mortality from oral cancer between 2000 and 2017, by sex, in 20 countries in Latin America, and to know the effect of measures to control tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption on the Mortality from oral cancer. METHODS: Ecological study that evaluates the relationship between the rates standardized by the age of cancer by oral sex, the prevalence of tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption, and the implementation of control policies. To calculate the annual percentage change of the rates, the Prais-Winsten regression was used; and the effect of measures of control of risk factors on oral cancer mortality is assessed by Spearman correlations. RESULTS: The greatest decreases in oral cancer mortality were in men in Brazil (APC -7.83, -14.25,-0.93). Mortality from cancer the oral relationship between men and the prevalence of tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption (r = 0.358, r 0.537) (p <0.01), and between the non-implementation of control policies of smoking (r = 0.738) (p= 0.003), the restrictions on the hours and days of sale of alcohol (r = 0.777, p = 0.001), and the states on sponsorship and promotion of alcohol sales (r =0.739 , p =0.040). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of the implementation of control policies is evidenced by a greater relationship with oral cancer mortality in the countries with the least progress in their execution.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha
4.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(7): 629-642, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are limited areas of irregular epidermal growth on a background of excessive solar exposure. The entire sun-damaged skin is considered a field of cancerization with multiple visible and subclinical lesions. AK management requires field-directed therapies to block lesion relapse and prevent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). AREAS COVERED: In this review, we focused on phase II clinical trials for AKs, involving well-known agents and newer molecules such as proapoptotic drugs (VDA-1102, SR-T100, oleogel-S10, ICVT, eflornithine), immunomodulants (isotretinoin, tretinoin) and chemopreventive agents (nicotinamide, perillyl alcohol, liposomal T4N5). We used the website 'ClinicalTrials.Gov' as main reference. We selected and discussed completed and ongoing trials and analysed chemical structure and mechanism of action of the investigated molecules. EXPERT OPINION: AK therapy should be tailored on the patient's profile considering first of all the age and site of the AKs, which are relevant parameters for local immune response. The new molecules could be combined to obtain a synergic effect blocking the different steps of skin tumorigenesis. Phase II trials highlight a new therapeutic opportunity to block selectively cell proliferation regulators and work both on the field of cancerization and on the AKs currently present.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Drogas em Investigação/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
6.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: 216-225, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099616

RESUMO

Our aim is to discuss the current established management of care and associated prevention strategies of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA). In general, the development of SCCA is commonly linked to a prior history of HPV. Unfortunately, HPV vaccination continues to be underutilized in the United States versus other countries. Increased acknowledgment of the importance of HPV vaccination as an anticancer vaccine should be encouraged. The present standard of care is primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT), which results in a high level of disease control for small, early-stage SCCA. More advanced cancers still fare poorly with this treatment, and the disease relapses locoregionally in the majority of cases (30%-50% of patients), resulting in an abdominoperineal resection. Current treatment recommendations are associated with substantial morbidity; alternative radiation doses and/or novel combinations of agents with CRT are needed to improve quality of life and oncologic outcomes. Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the standard of care for treatment-naïve patients with metastatic disease, with a possible new treatment paradigm of carboplatin/weekly paclitaxel. In addition, immune checkpoint inhibition appears to have a promising role in the setting of patients with refractory disease. Several clinical trials with immunotherapeutic and vaccine approaches for locally advanced and metastatic anal cancer are ongoing, as are HPV-agnostic umbrella trials. Whenever possible, clinical trial enrollment is always encouraged for further therapeutic development in the setting of a rare cancer, given the potentially substantial global impact for other HPV-associated malignancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Ânus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Ânus/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Ânus/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(3): 262-264, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909330

RESUMO

Perineural invasion (PNI) is associated with high risk keratinocyte carcinomas. Identification of PNI during Mohs surgery is important for staging and post-adjuvant treatment decisions but can be challenging. To confirm or exclude PNI suspected on hematoxylin and eosin sections, we performed immunohistochemical double staining on Mohs frozen sections. Neural marker SOX10 and pan-cytokeratin marker AE1/AE3 were combined in a simultaneous assay using species-specific (mouse and rabbit) antibodies and horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase detection systems. Of 23 Mohs cases with suspected PNI, 18 were confirmed to have definitive nerve involvement by tumor using double staining. Double staining frozen tissue is feasible and can be beneficial for real time confirmation of PNI during Mohs. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(3):262-264.


Assuntos
Queratinas/análise , Cirurgia de Mohs/métodos , Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/análise , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Pele/inervação , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
8.
Acta Cytol ; 63(2): 118-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861525

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus is associated with several anogenital and oropharyngeal lesions, including warts, premalignant lesions, and cancer. There are specific groups that were identified as high-risk groups for anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal human papillomavirus infection, namely HIV-positive patients, men who have sex with men, women with genital tract neoplasia, and solid organ transplant recipients. Condylomas have classically been considered to be a benign lesion, with an exception made for the Buschke-Loewenstein tumor, but several publications have shown that a high percentage of condylomas harbor high-grade lesions. Due to the similarities between anal and cervical carcinogenesis, anal cancer screening based on anal cytology and referral to high-resolution anoscopy, in case of abnormalities, have been advocated. Testing for anal human papillomavirus is not routinely done in anal cancer screening, because of the very high prevalence in high-risk populations. The large majority of anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and around 90% are attributed to human papillomavirus. Human papillomavirus positivity in anal SCC seems to have a prognostic value, with better survival in those patients with positive tumors. Prophylactic vaccination has been shown to be important for prevention of anal human papillomavirus-related lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Verrugas/patologia , Verrugas/virologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Humanos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinação , Verrugas/imunologia , Verrugas/prevenção & controle
9.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213095, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865688

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are a common form of highly mutated keratinocyte skin cancers that are of particular concern in immunocompromised patients. Here we report on the efficacy of topically applied MS-275, a clinically used histone deacetylase inhibitor, for the treatment and management of this disease. At 2 mg/kg, MS-275 significantly decreased tumor burden in an SKH-1 hairless mouse model of UVB radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis. MS-275 was cell permeable as a topical formulation and induced histone acetylation changes in mouse tumor tissue. MS-275 was also effective at inhibiting the proliferation of patient derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma lines and was particularly potent toward cells isolated from a regional metastasis on an immunocompromised individual. Our findings support the use of alternative routes of administration for histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of high-risk squamous cell carcinoma which may ultimately lead to more precise delivery and reduced systemic toxicity.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Piridinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(4): 454-465, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in various malignant tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is associated with the pathogenesis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). This study aimed to explore the role of LINC00520 in the development of cSCC via EGFR and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways. METHODS: A microarray analysis was applied to screen differentially expressed lncRNAs in cSCC samples. The A431 cSCC cell line was transfected and assigned different groups. The expression patterns of LINC00520, EGFR, and intermediates in the PI3K/Akt pathway were characterized using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting analysis. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were detected using the MTT assay, scratch test, and Transwell assay, respectively. Cell-based experiments and a tumorigenicity assay were conducted to assess the effect of LINC00520 on cSCC progression. This study was ended in September 2017. Comparisons between two groups were analyzed with t-test and comparisons among multiple groups were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to analyze skewed data. The enumerated data were analyzed using the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Data from chip GSE66359 revealed depletion of LINC00520 in cSCC. Cells transfected with LINC00520 vector and LINC00520 vector + si-EGFR showed elevated LINC00520 level but decreased levels of the EGFR, PI3K, AKT, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNAs and proteins, and inhibition of the growth, migration and adhesion of cSCC cells, while the si-LINC00520 group showed opposite trends (all P < 0.05). Compared with the LINC00520 vector group, the LINC00520 vector + si-EGFR group showed decreased levels of the EGFR, PI3K, AKT, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNAs and proteins, and inhibition of the growth, migration and adhesion of cSCC cells, while the LINC00520 vector + EGFR vector group showed opposite results (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on our results, LINC00520-targeted EGFR inhibition might result in the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, thus inhibiting cSCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
11.
Gastric Cancer ; 22(4): 663-674, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence has been associated with reduced risks of esophageal and gastric cancer (subtypes) in a limited number of studies. We prospectively investigated associations between MD adherence and risks of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) in a Dutch cohort. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using data from the 120852 participants of the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), who were aged between 55 and 69 years at enrollment. Various MD scores, with and without alcohol, were calculated to estimate MD adherence. Using 20.3 years of follow-up, 133 ESCC, 200 EAC, 191 GCA, and 586 GNCA cases could be included in multivariable Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the investigated scores, the alternate Mediterranean diet score without alcohol (aMEDr) performed best. aMEDr was inversely associated with risks of GCA and GNCA in men and women. However, statistical significance was only reached in men [ptrend: 0.019 (GCA), 0.016 (GNCA)]. Furthermore, higher aMEDr values were significantly associated with a reduced ESCC risk in men [HRper two-point increment (95% CI) = 0.57 (0.41-0.80), ptrend = 0.013], but not in women (pheterogeneity = 0.008). There was no evidence of an association between aMEDr and EAC risk. Educational level was a significant effect modifier for the association between aMEDr and GNCA risk (pheterogeneity = 0.0073). CONCLUSIONS: Higher MD adherence was associated with reduced risks of ESCC, GCA, and GNCA in the NLCS. However, the decreased ESCC risk might be limited to men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Adenocarcinoma/dietoterapia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/dietoterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul ; 13(1): 16-36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a life-threatening global problem with high incidence rates. Prioritizing the prevention of cancer, chemopreventive agents have drawn much attention from the researchers. OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the discussion of the progress in the development of chemopreventive agents and formulations related to the prevention of oral cancer. METHODS: In this perspective, an extensive literature survey was carried out to understand the mechanism, control and chemoprevention of oral cancer. Different patented agents and formulations have also exhibited cancer preventive efficacy in experimental studies. This review summarizes the etiology of oral cancer and developments in prevention strategies. RESULTS: The growth of oral cancer is a multistep activity necessitating the accumulation of genetic as well as epigenetic alterations in key regulatory genes. Many risk factors are associated with oral cancer. Genomic technique for sequencing all tumor specimens has been made available to help detect mutations. The recent development of molecular pathway and genetic tools has made the process of diagnosis easier, better forecast and efficient therapeutic management. Different chemical agents have been studied for their efficacy to prevent oral cancer and some of them have shown promising results. CONCLUSION: Use of chemopreventive agents, either synthetic or natural origin, to prevent carcinogenesis is a worthy concept in the management of cancers. Preventive measures are helpful in controlling the occurrence or severity of the disease. The demonstrated results of preventive agents have opened an arena for the development of promising chemopreventive agents in the management of oral squamous cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/prevenção & controle , Anticarcinógenos/síntese química , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Quimioprevenção/tendências , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Papillomaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia
13.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 33(7): 1261-1267, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801825

RESUMO

The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is dramatically increasing worldwide, despite the increased use of improved sunscreens. In 2014, the Surgeon General estimated that 2.2-5.0 million people were treated annually for NMSC. As the number of newly diagnosed skin cancers continues to rise, there is a need for additional preventative measures beyond sunscreens. Several newer topical products that focus on boosting DNA repair, modulating DNA transcription, decreasing inflammation and selectively targeting precancerous cells may play an important role in future skin cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Administração Cutânea , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Retinoides/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
14.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 33 Suppl 2: 104-109, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811688

RESUMO

Experimental investigations have definitely assessed that ultraviolet A (UVA) as well as ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induce mutagenic DNA photoproducts and other cell damages with a carcinogenic potential. Artificial tanning increases significantly the lifetime risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma particularly in subjects with fair skin type, subjects with a history of skin cancer or frequent childhood sunburn or if exposures took place at an age younger than 18 years. In addition, experimental and clinical evidence indicate that UVA exposure promotes skin photoageing. Therefore we are dealing with a recreational activity (for customers) and a profitable business (for the tanning industry) with human costs, i.e. an increase in morbidity and mortality by skin cancer, and health and social costs leading to an increased expenditure by the European national health systems. In a few European countries, legislation has recently prohibited the use of sunbeds for minors, pregnant women, people with skin cancer or a history of skin cancer and individuals who do not tan or who burn easily from sun exposure. However, this legislation seems to be insufficient from a photobiological perspective, and importantly, it is largely disregarded by consumers and tanning industry. Therefore the Euromelanoma group proposes a new, more stringent regulation for the tanning industry and restrictions for customers, particularly for those individuals with constitutional and anamnestic risk factors. Finally, we ask for an enhanced commitment to increase the awareness of the general population on the risk of artificial tanning.


Assuntos
Indústria da Beleza/legislação & jurisprudência , Carcinoma Basocelular/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Banho de Sol/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria da Beleza/instrumentação , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Melanoma/etiologia , Fotobiologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Queimadura Solar/etiologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
16.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(4): 404-411, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547181

RESUMO

Keratinocyte cancer is the most common malignancy in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to investigate risk-factors responsible for development of keratinocyte cancer in Australia. A case-control study was conducted, including 112 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 95 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 122 controls. Freckling during adolescence (SCC: odds ratio (OR) 1.04, p < 0.01; BCC: OR 1.05, p < 0.01), propensity to sunburn (SCC: OR 2.75, p = 0.01, BCC: OR 2.68 p = 0.01) and high cumulative sun-exposure (SCC: OR 2.43, p = 0.04; BCC: OR 2.36 p = 0.04) were independent risk-factors for both SCC and BCC. This study provides further evidence that a sun-sensitive phenotype and excessive sun-exposure during adulthood contribute to the risk of developing keratinocyte cancer. Wearing a hat, long-sleeved shirts, and sunscreen did not significantly reduce the risk of keratinocyte cancer in this study.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Queimadura Solar/complicações , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Queratinócitos/patologia , Masculino , Melanose/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/patologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Proteção , Queensland , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(3): e12800, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523664

RESUMO

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its metabolic product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) are induced in response to growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, tumor promoters, activated oncogenes, and, in the skin, ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for the COX-2/PGE2 pathway in tumorigenesis in various tissue types including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. There is also strong evidence for a role in the development of actinic keratoses (AKs) - common dysplastic lesions of the skin associated with UV radiation overexposure - considered as part of a continuum with skin cancer. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects by reversibly or irreversibly acetylating COX isoforms, inhibiting downstream prostaglandins, and may have a chemopreventive role in malignancies, including skin cancer. Topical treatment of AK lesions with the NSAID diclofenac sodium 3% in combination with hyaluronic acid 2.5% has been shown to be effective and well tolerated, although the mechanism of action remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Diclofenaco/farmacologia , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
18.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 48(2): 115-121, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan) is commonly used in Indian traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases such as obesity, diabetes etc. The cytotoxic potential of S. cumini (SC) against oral cancer cell line remains elusive. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of S. cumini in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line (SCC-25 cells). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Oral squamous cell carcinoma cells are treated with different concentrations (10, 20, and 40 µg/mL) of S. cumuni for 24 hours and cytotoxicity was analyzed by MTT assay. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using the indicator dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Apoptosis-related morphological changes were evaluated by dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescent staining and phosphatidylserine externalization was measured by annexin V assays. The protein and gene expression of cadherin-1 was evaluated by western blotting and PCR analysis. RESULTS: Syzygium cumini treatments caused cytotoxicity of OSCC cell line and induced intracellular ROS accumulation. This treatment also caused apoptosis-related morphological changes and externalization of phosphatidylserine in OSCC cells. Further, S. cumini treatments increased protein and gene expression of cadherin-1. CONCLUSION: Syzygium cumini extract inhibits the proliferation of OSCC cells and induces apoptosis through ROS accumulation and therefore, it could be used for the prevention of OSCC.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Syzygium , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia
19.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 80(4): 998-1005, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil compared with that of imiquimod for preventing keratinocyte carcinoma is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil and that of imiquimod in preventing keratinocyte carcinoma in a real-world practice setting. METHODS: We identified 5700 subjects who filled prescriptions for 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod for treatment of actinic keratosis in 2007. An intention-to-treat analysis controlling for potential confounding variables was used to calculate 2- and 5-year cumulative risk differences for subsequent keratinocyte carcinoma overall and in field-treated areas. RESULTS: 5-Fluorouracil was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of any keratinocyte carcinoma compared with imiquimod (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.97), but there were no significant differences in risk by tumor subtype (for squamous cell carcinoma: aHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.74-1.07; for basal cell carcinoma: aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74-1.03) or site-specific keratinocyte carcinoma (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.81-1.14). There were no significant differences in 2- or 5-year cumulative risk of keratinocyte carcinoma among those treated with 5-fluorouracil versus with imiquimod. LIMITATIONS: Generalizability to other practice settings may be limited. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas 5-fluorouracil was more effective in reducing keratinocyte carcinoma risk overall, we found no differences in the short- or long-term risk of subsequent site-specific keratinocyte carcinoma in a real-world practice setting.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Administração Cutânea , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imiquimode/administração & dosagem , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Queratinócitos/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
20.
Dermatol Clin ; 37(1): 83-94, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466691

RESUMO

Immunosuppressed patients are at significantly increased risk of developing cutaneous malignancies. These malignancies are often more aggressive compared with the general population and require multidisciplinary care. This article highlights the incidence and risk factors of cutaneous malignancies in this cohort. The treatment and prevention strategies are discussed. There continues to be a need for evidence-driven guidelines regarding the management of skin cancers in these patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressão , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Transplante de Órgãos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoma de Kaposi/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
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