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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23746, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease. Chemotherapy is the standard treatment for SCLC, but the resistance and the adverse effects of Chemotherapy still remains a major problem. Although Chinese herbal medicine (traditional Chinese medicine) is wildly applied for patients with SCLC in China, the evidence of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment for SCLC is limited. METHOD: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the VIP Information Database, and the Wanfang Database for relevant studies. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Two investigators independently reviewed the included studies and extracted relevant data. The effect estimate of interest was the relative risk or mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required, as this study is based on the review of published research. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020110055.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22637, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy that progresses rapidly and easily relapses. To the best of our knowledge, advances have been minimal for decades and the first-line treatment is still platinum-etoposide and radiotherapy. However, elderly patients with severe renal failure who suffer from SCLC usually show more serious drug-related side effects. A large proportion of them cannot tolerate the standard treatment, and their prognosis is poorer compared with that of younger patients. Presently, oral etoposide capsules may be accepted as a replaceable option. We report the case of a male patient with SCLC on hemodialysis who was successfully treated with concurrent oral etoposide monotherapy and radiotherapy and achieved excellent outcomes. PATIENT'S CONCERNS: A 63-year-old man with severe renal failure was diagnosed with SCLC. PRIMARY DIAGNOSES: SCLC was diagnosed using transbronchial biopsy. INTERVENTIONS: He received concomitant single-agent oral etoposide (6 cycles) and local radiotherapy. Etoposide 100 mg once daily combined with thoracic radiation treatment (2 Gy/f, total DT: 50 Gy/25 f), was subsequently followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation plus anlotinib. OUTCOMES: The patient achieved complete response after 1 cycle and the subsequent treatment was effective without any kidney damage and other severe side effects. CONCLUSION: Though etoposide capsule is an old drug, its use should be considered in SCLC patients with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis. However, treatment guidelines and research data for such patients are still lacking and further studies are needed. Although recent research focuses mainly on new drugs, some old drugs like etoposide which can bring unexpected positive effects should not be neglected.


Assuntos
Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Terapia Combinada , Irradiação Craniana/métodos , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2015748, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074323

RESUMO

Importance: Combinations of chemotherapy with immunotherapy or bevacizumab in first-line treatments of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) have been evaluated in various clinical trials. However, it remains unclear what the optimal combination regimen is. Objective: To clarify which first-line combination regimen is associated with the best tumor response among patients with ES-SCLC. Data Sources: Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science) were systematically searched to extract eligible literature from database inception to December 2019. Study Selection: Head-to-head randomized clinical trials on first-line treatments for patients with ES-SCLC were included with outcomes and toxic effects reported, including objective response rate (ORR, involving complete response and partial response), disease control rate (DCR, involving complete response, partial response, and stable disease), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment related adverse events (TRAEs) of grades 3 to 5. Of 199 eligible articles, 14 were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were independently extracted and collected by 2 reviewers based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were OS, PFS, DCR, ORR, and TRAEs of grades 3 to 5. Results: A total of 3 phase 2 and 11 phase 3 randomized clinical trials involving 4838 patients were included. Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor (durvalumab and atezolizumab) plus etoposide-based chemotherapy, compared with etoposide-based chemotherapy alone, showed the most favorable OS (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.80) and the best DCR (odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.81). Bevacizumab plus etoposide-based chemotherapy provided the best PFS compared with etoposide-based chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.09-2.27), although this was not translated into OS benefit. The addition of PD-L1 inhibitors to etoposide-platinum chemotherapy caused no more toxic effects in general (compared with etoposide-based chemotherapy alone: OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.36-2.31), while bevacizumab plus etoposide-platinum regimen induced the most TRAEs grades 3 to 5 among all first-line treatments (eg, compared with irinotecan-platinum regimen: OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.26-14.57). Based on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve value, PD-L1 inhibitor plus etoposide-platinum had the highest probability of being ranked first for OS (0.87) and DCR (0.97). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this systematic review and network meta-analysis suggest that the combination of a PD-L1 inhibitor (durvalumab and atezolizumab) and etoposide-based chemotherapy may be an optimal first-line treatment option for patients with ES-SCLC patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to analyse the tumor expression of Notch1, Hes1, Ascl1, and DLL3 in Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) and each such biomarker's potential association with clinical characteristics and prognosis after platinum-doublet chemotherapy (PDCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The protein expression of the biomarkers was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Patients were categorized according to their sensitivity to first line PDCT: with a Progression-free survival (PFS) ≥ 3 months after completion of treatment considered "sensitive" and < 3 months after completion of treatment considered "refractory". PFS and overall survival were computed using Kaplan-Meier curves with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study included 46 patients, with 21 and 25 of the patients having "sensitive" and "refractory" disease, respectively. The majority of patients had a high DLL3 expression (n = 38), while a minority had Notch 1-high expression (n = 10). The chi-square test showed that there was a statistically significant negative association between Notch1 and Ascl1 expression (p = 0.013). The overall survival for patients with Notch1- high vs. low expression was 8.1 vs. 12.4 months, respectively (p = 0.036). Notch1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.02). No other biomarker showed any prognostic impact in this highly selected SCLC cohort. DLL3 is highly expressed in the majority of advanced staged SCLC cases, as expected. In the same patient population, Notch1 expression might have a potential prognostic implication, by driving a non-neuroendocrine differentiation process. Given the small number of cases with Notch1 high expression, the results of this study needs to be confirmed on a larger cohort.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Platina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Platina/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Receptor Notch1 , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1 , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(5): 1134-1139, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004760

RESUMO

Objective: The hemoglobin, albumin, lymphocyte, and platelet (HALP) score, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are the important prognostic markers in some tumor types. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of pretreatment using HALP, NLR, and PLR for patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), who were undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 335 patients with SCLC were included between 2016 and 2018. The cutoff values for HALP, NLR, and PLR were defined using X-tile software. Survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences analyzed through the log-rank test. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the prognostic significance of HALP, NLR, and PLR for SCLC. Results: The median follow-up period was 27.1 months (range: 0.5-46.2 months). Based on the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis, it was noticed that the low pretreatment HALP (≤18.6), high pretreatment NLR (>2.4), and high PLR (>191.6) were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (P = 0.009, 0.001, and 0.033, respectively). Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that low pretreatment HALP and high pretreatment NLR were the independent prognostic factors for worse OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.468, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.004-2.146, P = 0.047; HR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.542-0.960, P = 0.025, respectively). Conclusion: HALP and NLR were the independent prognostic factors of OS for SCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Albuminas/análise , Plaquetas/patologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22087, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925748

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Anti-gamma-aminobutyric-acid B receptor (anti-GABAB R) encephalitis is clinically characterized by seizures, cognitive disorders, and behavioral changes. Most patients are diagnosed with small-cell lung carcinoma. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient suffered from a repeated grand mal seizure lasting for 10 minutes, intermittent speech vagueness, manic at night, and mental disorder. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis. The gamma-aminobutyric-acid B(GABAB) receptor antibody test result was positive. After a bronchoscopic biopsy, the patient was diagnosed with small-cell lung carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was administered with intravenous immunoglobulin and Methylprednisolone. Etoposide was used after the small-cell lung carcinoma was diagnosed. OUTCOMES: After immunotherapy, following the 4 months of Etoposide and antiseizure treatment, the neurology examination revealed a remarkable improvement. MRS score reduced from 5 to 1. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recovered to normal from an extreme delta brush (EDB) electroencephalographic-pattern. CONCLUSION: Immunotherapy and Etoposide can improve the outcome of severe anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor encephalitis with small-cell lung carcinoma. After immunotherapy and antineoplastic therapy, Electroencephalogram (EEG) can be recovered to normal from an extreme delta brush.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Eletroencefalografia , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Doença de Hashimoto/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite/complicações , Encefalite/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/complicações , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de GABA-B/imunologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/complicações , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5919-5923, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Early stage extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSC) of the esophagus is very rare and is usually treated with chemo-radiation or surgical resection. CASE REPORT: A case of early stage small cell carcinoma of the esophagus that was treated with all three current modalities of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. To our best knowledge this is the first case treated with triple therapy. The patient is a 64-year-old male with increasing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms. EGD biopsy of the mass showed small cell carcinoma. Metastatic work up was negative. Patient was treated with 6 cycles of a platinum-based agents and Etoposide along with radiation. Patient underwent distal esophagectomy. Patient is alive without evidence of recurrent disease at 20 months follow up. CONCLUSION: Currently there are no definite treatment recommendations, but we present a possible future option with good outcomes in patients who can tolerate triple therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/secundário , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/cirurgia
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(9): 1224-1233, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Topotecan is currently the only drug approved in Europe in a second-line setting for the treatment of small-cell lung cancer. This study investigated whether the doublet of carboplatin plus etoposide was superior to topotecan as a second-line treatment in patients with sensitive relapsed small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial done in 38 hospitals in France, we enrolled patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced stage IV or locally relapsed small-cell lung cancer, who responded to first-line platinum plus etoposide treatment, but who had disease relapse or progression at least 90 days after completion of first-line treatment. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive combination carboplatin plus etoposide (six cycles of intravenous carboplatin [area under the curve 5 mg/mL per min] on day 1 plus intravenous etoposide [100 mg/m2 from day 1 to day 3]) or oral topotecan (2·3 mg/m2 from day 1 to day 5, for six cycles). Randomisation was done using the minimisation method with biased-coin balancing for ECOG performance status, response to the first-line chemotherapy, and treatment centre. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was centrally reviewed and analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02738346. FINDINGS: Between July 18, 2013, and July 2, 2018, we enrolled and randomly assigned 164 patients (82 in each study group). One patient from each group withdrew consent, therefore 162 patients (81 in each group) were included in the intention-to-treat population. With a median follow-up of 22·7 months (IQR 20·0-37·3), median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the combination chemotherapy group than in the topotecan group (4·7 months, 90% CI 3·9-5·5 vs 2·7 months, 2·3-3·2; stratified hazard ratio 0·57, 90% CI 0·41-0·73; p=0·0041). The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (18 [22%] of 81 patients in the topotecan group vs 11 [14%] of 81 patients in the combination chemotherapy group), thrombocytopenia (29 [36%] vs 25 [31%]), anaemia (17 [21%] vs 20 [25%]), febrile neutropenia (nine [11%] vs five [6%]), and asthenia (eight [10%] vs seven [9%]). Two treatment-related deaths occurred in the topotecan group (both were febrile neutropenia with sepsis) and no treatment-related deaths occurred in the combination group. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that carboplatin plus etoposide rechallenge can be considered as a reasonable second-line chemotherapy option for patients with sensitive relapsed small-cell lung cancer. FUNDING: Amgen and the French Lung Cancer Group (Groupe Français de Pneumo-Cancérologie).


Assuntos
Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Topotecan/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Topotecan/efeitos adversos
9.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(9): 771-776, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988161

RESUMO

Objective: Recently, increasing number of lung cancer patients benefit from immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). However, the data of Chinese small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients is limited. This study aims to analyze the response and survival data of ICIs treatment in SCLC and to explore the predictive biomarkers. Methods: Forty-seven SCLC patients who received ICIs treatment from Peking University Cancer Hospital from May 2017 to September 2019 was recruited. Clinical characteristics including sex, age, smoking status, ICIs strategy, PD-L1 expression and therapeutic efficacy were collected to explore the clinical predictive biomarkers for SCLC ICIs treatment. Results: Among the 47 patients, 18 (38.3%) cases were partial repose (PR), 11 (23.4%) were stable disease (SD), 18 (38.3%) were progressive disease (PD), and the objective response rate (ORR) was 38.3%, disease control rate (DCR) was 61.7%, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.3 months. ICIs monotherapy accounts for 27.7%, the ORR was 15.4%, DCR was 53.8%, median PFS was 2.7 months. Combined therapy accounts for 72.3%, the ORR was 47.1%, DCR was 64.7%, median PFS was 5.4 months. Fourteen (29.8%) patients received ICIs as the first line treatment, their ORR was 85.7%, DCR was 100%, median PFS was 9.1 month. The ORR was not related to the age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression (P>0.05). The ORRs were higher in patients underwent PD-L1 monotherapy (P=0.001), combined therapy (P=0.002) and received ICIs as the first line treatment (P<0.001). Log-rank analysis indicated that the PFS of female patients were 12.0 months, significantly longer than 4.4 months of male patients in ICIs treatment (P=0.038). Patients who received PD-L1 monotherapy, combined treatment, or ICIs as the first line treatment had longer PFS than their counterparts, though no statistical significant was observed (P>0.05). Cox multivariate analysis showed that, the gender was not an independent predictor for PFS in ICIs treatment (HR=3.777, 95%CI=0.974~30.891, P=0.054). Conclusions: Immunotherapy is an effective treatment strategy for SCLC. Patients who receive combined ICIs treatment, first line ICIs treatment and PD-L1 treatment may get greater benefits. PD-L1 expression cannot predict the response and PFS in SCLC ICIs treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico
10.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 752-756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930114

RESUMO

Background: In extensive-disease-small cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC), the median survival is 8-10 months and 2-year survival is <5%. Primary tumor progression occurs in 90% of patients approximately within 1 year. The role of consolidative thoracic radiotherapy (C-TRT) for the postchemotherapy residue with the aim of improving local control (LC) and survival is currently of great interest. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of C-TRT on LC, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in ED-SCLC. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients diagnosed as SCLC between January 2010 and December 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients who received C-TRT were identified. Pre- and post-chemotherapy radiological evaluations, radiotherapy schedules, relapse patterns, toxicity incidence, LC, PFS, and OS were analyzed. Results: Among 552 SCLC patients, 26 ED-SCLC patients who underwent C-TRT were analyzed. Median follow-up was 7.5 months (range, 6.5-8.5 months). Nearly 50% of the patients had >4 metastatic lesions. Restaging was performed mostly by positron emission tomography/computed tomography and cranial magnetic resonance imaging. All patients had complete or near-complete response distantly. C-TRT was 10 × 300 cGy (n = 1), 23 × 200 cGy (n = 2), 25 × 200 cGy (n = 7), 30 × 200 cGy (n = 12), and 33 × 200 cGy (n = 4). There was no toxicity ≥ Grade 3. LC rate was 77%; there was no isolated local relapse. PFS was 3 months. Median survival was 13 months. The 1- and 2-year OS rates were 62% and 8%, respectively. Conclusion: In ED-SCLC patients, C-TRT may prevent isolated local recurrence and may improve 1-year survival. This survival improvement might be the reflection of high intrathoracic control achieved in 77% of patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 764-770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930116

RESUMO

Background: The benefits of second-line chemotherapy on the overall survival (OS) of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients might be confounded by subsequent therapies. In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of progression-free survival (PFS) and postprogression survival (PPS) on OS after second-line chemotherapy in patients with refractory SCLC treated with amrubicin monotherapy. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the data of 35 patients with refractory SCLC who were treated with amrubicin monotherapy as second-line chemotherapy between July 2005 and December 2015. The correlations of PFS and PPS with OS were statistically analyzed at the individual level using Spearman's rank correlation and linear regression analyses. Results: The correlation between PPS and OS was strong (r = 0.88, P < 0.05, R2 = 0.87), while that between PFS and OS was weak (r = 0.60, P < 0.05, R2 = 0.15). The number of regimens administered after disease progression postsecond-line chemotherapy was significantly associated with PPS (P = 0.003). Conclusions: OS is more strongly linked to PPS than to PFS in refractory SCLC patients who undergo amrubicin monotherapy as a second-line treatment. These results suggest that treatments administered after second-line chemotherapy affect the OS of refractory SCLC patients treated with amrubicin monotherapy.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Tumour Biol ; 42(9): 1010428320958603, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964798

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether changes in progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) levels correlate with treatment response and can be used to optimize clinical management of patients with small-cell lung cancer. Patients with small-cell lung cancer (any stage) receiving chemotherapy were eligible. ProGRP was measured in serum/plasma at baseline and after each chemotherapy cycle using the Elecsys® ProGRP assay (Roche Diagnostics). Treatment response was assessed by computed tomography scan. The primary objective was to examine whether changes in ProGRP levels correlated with computed tomography scan results after two cycles of chemotherapy. The prognostic value of ProGRP among patients receiving first-line chemotherapy was also assessed. Overall, 261 patients from six centers were eligible. Among patients with elevated baseline ProGRP (>100 pg/mL), a ProGRP decline after Cycle 2 was associated with nonprogression (area under the curve: 84%; 95% confidence interval: 72.8-95.1; n = 141). ProGRP changes from baseline to end of Cycle 1 were predictive of response, as determined by computed tomography scan 3 weeks later (area under the curve: 87%; 95% confidence interval: 74.1-99.2; n = 137). This was enhanced by repeat measurements, with a 92% area under the curve (95% confidence interval: 85.3-97.8) among patients with ProGRP data after both Cycles 1 and 2 (n = 123); if a patient experienced a ≥25% decline in ProGRP after Cycle 1, and ProGRP remained stable or decreased after Cycle 2, the probability of finding progression on the interim computed tomography scan at the end of Cycle 2 was almost zero (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 71%). Both ProGRP levels at baseline and at the end of first-line chemotherapy were prognostic; the latter provided a moderately improved hazard ratio of 2.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.33-4.46; n = 110) versus 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-3.37; n = 216). In summary, for patients with small-cell lung cancer and elevated baseline ProGRP levels, ProGRP may be a simple, reliable, and repeatable tool for monitoring response to chemotherapy and provide valuable prognostic information.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , China , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Recombinantes/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4947-4960, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the anticancer effects and potential mechanisms of sclareol in a human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Cell cycle, apoptosis and caspase activity were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell cycle and DNA damage related protein expression was determined by western blotting. In vivo evaluation of sclareol was carried out in xenografted tumor mice models. RESULTS: Sclareol significantly reduced cell viability, induced G1 phase arrest and subsequently triggered apoptosis in H1688 cells. In addition, this sclareol-induced growth arrest was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX, activation of ATR and Chk1. Moreover, in vivo evaluation of sclareol showed that it could inhibit tumor weight and volume in a H1688 xenograft model. CONCLUSION: Sclareol might be a novel and effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of SCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(8): 624-628, 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867452

RESUMO

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a special type of lung cancer, is a highly malignant neuroendocrine tumor with strong invasiveness and rapid progression. SCLC is sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, so radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been the main first-line treatment of SCLC. However, it is easy to develop drug resistance after treatment. Therefore, the study of anti-angiogenic therapy has attracted more and more attention. At present, anti-angiogenic drugs mainly focus on four categories: monoclonal antibodies (such as bevacizumab), endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors (such as endostar), anti-angiogenic fusion protein (such as aflibercept) and small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitors (such as anlotinib). There are still some bottlenecks in the research and clinical application of antiangiogenic drugs. It is the right direction to explore better combination therapy and effective dual-field and multi-target drugs.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Medicina de Precisão , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(7): 590-593, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842449

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of olaparib in combination with pembrolizumab with pembrolizumab alone in second-line treatment for patients with extensive stage-small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) whose ages ranged from 40 to 80 years. Methods: From March 2017 to October 2019, 21 patients with progressed or relapsed small cell lung cancer after standard first line treatment were enrolled in this study. The olaparib/pembrolizumab group (n=11) was treated by olaparib 300mg twice per day combined with pembrolizumab 200mg once every 3 weeks, while pembrolizumab group was treated by pembrolizumab alone. Results: The objective response rate (ORR) of olaparib/pembrolizumab group and pembrolizumab group were 45.5% and 10.0%, respectively (P=0.149), and the disease control rate (DCR) were 81.8% and 70.0% (P=0.635). The median progression-free survival (PFS) were 5.93 months and 3.53 months (P=0.036), the median overall survival (OS) were 10.43 months and 8.43 months (P=0.063). The adverse reaction incidences of all grades were 90.9% and 70.0% (P=0.311), and the incidences of grade Ⅲ-Ⅴ including myelosuppression were 36.4% and 10.0% (P=0.311), gastrointestinal reaction were 9.1% and 10.0%, (P=1.000) and other immune-related adverse events were 18.2% and 30.0% (P=1.000). Further analysis showed the metastatic number (P=0.006), platinum sensitivity (P=0.036) and LDH level (P=0.022) significantly affected the ORR of olaparib/pembrolizumab therapy. Conclusion: Our preliminary study indicates that olaparib combined with pembrolizumab is an efficient and safe second-line treatment therapy for patients with ES-SCLC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(11): 2913-2935, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is the standard treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC), but chemotherapy resistance and adverse reactions remain major problems. Although Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is wildly applied for patients with SCLC in China, the evidence of TCM in the treatment for SCLC is limited. PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM combined with chemotherapy for patients with SCLC. METHOD: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the VIP Information Database, and the Wanfang Database for randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) that are relevant. The included studies were reviewed by two investigators, with relevant data extracted independently. The effect estimate of interest was the relative risk (RR) or mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: 22 RCTs involving 1887 patients were included in this study. Compared with patients treated with chemotherapy© alone, those with Chinese herbal medicine and chemotherapy (TCM-C) had better therapeutic effects (RR = 1.295, 95% CI 1.205-1.391, P < 0.001), KPS scores (RR = 1.310, 95% CI 1.210-1.418, P < 0.001), 1-year survival rate (RR = 1.282, 95% CI 1.129-1.456, P < 0.001), 3-year survival rate (RR = 2.109, 95% CI 1.514-2.939, P < 0.001), and 5-year survival rate (RR = 2.373, 95% CI 1.227-4.587, P = 0.01). The incidence of gastrointestinal reaction (RR of = 0.786, 95% CI 0.709-0.870, P < 0.000) and bone marrow depression (RR = 0.837, 95% CI 0.726-0.965, P = 0.014) in TCM-C group were lower than that in the C group. CONCLUSION: The systematic review indicated that TCM combined with chemotherapy may improve therapeutic effect, quality of life, and prolong survival time. More large-scale and higher quality RCTs are warranted to support our findings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016038016.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
17.
Oncology ; 98(11): 749-754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663833

RESUMO

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States and around the world. Approximately 13% of lung cancers are small cell lung cancer (SCLC). SCLC is generally classified as a limited-stage and extensive-stage disease depending on the extent of involvement. For patients with the extensive-stage disease, until recently, chemotherapy alone has been the recommended treatment, although radiotherapy could be used in select patients for palliation of symptoms. The standard of care for extensive-stage SCLC is platinum doublet chemotherapy with either cisplatin or carboplatin in combination with etoposide. Even though first-line therapy has an initial response rate of 60-80%, the prognosis is poor, with overall survival of 10-12 months. The only FDA-approved second line of therapy is topotecan, approved both as an intravenous formulation as well as an oral formulation, with response rates of 6-12% in chemorefractory disease and 15-37% in chemosensitive disease. Immunotherapy has recently been approved as a first-line agent in metastatic SCLC in combination with chemotherapy. It is also approved as a third-line agent in metastatic SCLC after the failure of two chemotherapy regimens. The FDA approved four drugs, two of them being PD-1 inhibitors (pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and two of them being PD-L1 inhibitors (atezolizumab and durvalumab) in SCLC. This review article summarizes the significance of immunotherapy in the treatment of extensive-stage SCLC, its side effects, and limitations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/imunologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12705, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728103

RESUMO

miRNAs have been reported to be stably detectable in plasma and to function as potent biomarkers in multiple cancers. The study aimed to evaluate the expression of candidate circulating miRNAs in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) to identify potential noninvasive biomarkers. The expression of five miRNAs (miR-92b, miR-146a, miR-375, miR-1224, and miR-1246) was significantly upregulated in plasma after chemoresistance induction. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) values of miR-92b and miR-375 were 0.766 and 0.791, respectively. The data demonstrated that among the five miRNAs assessed, these two miRNAs had better diagnostic accuracy for monitoring drug resistance. In addition, miR-92b and miR-375 levels were decreased after effective chemotherapy. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed that high expression of miR-92b and miR-375 was closely related to shorter progression-free survival (PFS) in SCLC patients. In conclusion, these findings indicate that circulating miR-92b and miR-375 might be ideal noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring drug resistance during chemotherapy and evaluating the prognosis of patients with SCLC.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/sangue , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Cancer Control ; 27(2): 1073274820932004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551853

RESUMO

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a recalcitrant cancer for its dismal prognosis although extensive research had been done. Four to 6 cycles platinum-based chemotherapy is the mainstay treatment for the extensive-stage disease; but the role of maintenance treatment is not fully understood. This is a phase 2, open-label study. Patients with extensive-stage SCLC reaching an objective response or stable disease (SD) after induction chemotherapy were randomly assigned (1:1) with a minimization procedure. One group received oral S-1 and the other group received placebo as maintenance treatment until disease progression or unacceptable toxicities. The primary end point of this study was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary end points were overall survival (OS), response rates, and toxicities. This study was based on earlier work, the preliminary results was reported on 2019 ASCO annual meeting. A total of 89 patients were enrolled, of whom 45 received S-1 maintenance therapy and 44 received placebo. The median PFS and OS were 6.35 months and 10.82 months in the S-1 group, as compared to 5.98 months and 10.09 months in the placebo group. The PFS was 7.2 months and 5.3 months, and OS was 12.9 months and 10.9 months in patients with an objective response compared to in patients with SD after induction chemotherapy, respectively. S-1 maintenance therapy did not prolong PFS or OS in patients with extensive-stage SCLC; tumor regression rate was the prognostic factor of PFS or OS. Further research with novel agents in the maintenance setting is warranted.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Segurança do Paciente , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tegafur/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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