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2.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(11): 2209-2219, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613382

RESUMO

Chagas' disease (CD), caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is the leading cause of cardiac disability from infectious diseases in Central and South America. The disease progresses through an extended, asymptomatic form characterized by latency without clinical manifestations into a symptomatic form with cardiac and gastro-intestinal manifestations. In the terminal phase, chronic Chagas' myocarditis results in extensive myocardial fibrosis, chamber enlargement with aneurysms and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has proven useful in characterizing myocardial fibrosis (MF). Sub-epicardial and mid-wall fibrosis are less common patterns of MF in CHD than transmural scar, which resembles myocardial infarction. Commonly involved areas of MF include the left ventricular apex and basal infero-lateral wall, suggesting a role for watershed ischemia in the pathophysiology of MF. Electrophysiology studies have helped refine the relationship between MF and VT in this setting. This article reviews the patterns of MF in CHD and correlate these patterns with electrogram patterns to predict risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/parasitologia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Taquicardia Ventricular/parasitologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 745-751, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431281

RESUMO

Chronic Chagas disease can progress to myocardial involvement with intense fibrosis, which may predispose patients to sudden cardiac death through ventricular arrhythmia. The associations of myocardial fibrosis detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) were evaluated. This cross-sectional study included patients in early stages of Chagas disease (n = 47) and a control group (n = 15). Patients underwent cardiac evaluation, including CMR examination. Myocardial fibrosis assessment by CMR with measurement of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), native T1, and extracellular volume (ECV) was performed. There was an increase in myocardial fibrosis CMR parameters and ventricular arrhythmias among different stages of Chagas disease, combined with a decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by CMR and also in the right ventricular systolic function by S' wave on tissue Doppler. Fibrosis mass and ECV were associated with the Rassi score, ventricular extrasystole, and E/e' ratio in a logistic regression model adjusted for age and gender. The ECV maintained an association with the presence of NSVT, even after adjustments for fibrosis mass and LVEF assessed by CMR. The receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve for global ECV (0.85; 95% CI: 0.71-0.99) and NSVT was greater than that for fibrosis mass (0.75; 95% CI: 0.54-0.96), although this difference was not statistically significant. Extracellular volume could be an early marker of increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia in Chagas disease, presenting an independent association with NSVT in the initial stages of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy, even after adjustment for fibrosis mass and LVEF.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Chagas/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Espaço Extracelular , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Curva ROC , Volume Sistólico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Função Ventricular Direita
6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 115(6): 1094-1101, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) as neglected secondary form of suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). OBJECTIVES: Comparison of patients with CMD related to CD (CMD-CE) versus patients with CMD caused by other etiologies (CMD-OE). METHODS: Of 1292 stable patients referred for invasive coronary angiography to elucidate the hemodynamic pattern and the cause of angina as a cardinal symptom in their medical history, 247 presented normal epicardial coronary arteries and 101 were included after strict exclusion criteria. Of those, 15 had suspected CMD-CE, and their clinical, hemodynamic, angiographic and scintigraphic characteristics were compared to those of the other 86 patients with suspected CDM-OE. Level of significance for all comparisons was p < 0.05. RESULTS: Patients with suspected CMD-CE showed most anthropometric, clinical, angiographic hemodynamic and myocardial perfusion abnormalities that were statistically similar to those detected in the remaining 86 patients with suspected CMD-OE. LV diastolic dysfunction, expressed by elevated LV end-diastolic pressure was equally found in both groups. However, as compared to the group of CMD-OE the group with CMD-CE exhibited lower left ventricular ejection fraction (54.8 ± 15.9 vs 61.1 ± 11.9, p= 0.049) and a more severely impaired index of regional wall motion abnormalities (1.77 ± 0.35 vs 1.18 ± 0.26, p= 0.02) respectively for the CMD-OE and CMD-CE groups. CONCLUSION: Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy was a secondary cause of suspected coronary microvascular disease in 15% of 101 stable patients whose cardinal symptom was anginal pain warranting coronary angiography. Although sharing several clinical, hemodynamic, and myocardial perfusion characteristics with patients whose suspected CMD was due to other etiologies, impairment of LV segmental and global systolic function was significantly more severe in the patients with suspected CMD related to Chagas cardiomyopathy. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1094-1101).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Circulação Coronária , Humanos , Microcirculação , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616643

RESUMO

Background: The failure to translate preclinical results to the clinical setting is the rule, not the exception. One reason that is frequently overlooked is whether the animal model reproduces distinctive features of human disease. Another is the reproducibility of the method used to measure treatment effects in preclinical studies. Left ventricular (LV) function improvement is the most common endpoint in preclinical cardiovascular disease studies, while echocardiography is the most frequently used method to evaluate LV function. In this work, we conducted a robust echocardiographic evaluation of LV size and function in dogs chronically infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Methods and Results: Echocardiography was performed blindly by two distinct observers in mongrel dogs before and between 6 and 9 months post infection. Parameters analyzed included end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and fractional shortening (FS). We observed a significant LVEF and FS reduction in infected animals compared to controls, with no significant variation in volumes. However, the effect of chronic infection in systolic function was quite variable, with EF ranging from 17 to 66%. Using the cut-off value of EF ≤ 40%, established for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs, only 28% of the infected dogs were affected by the chronic infection. Conclusions: The canine model of CCC mimics human disease, reproducing the percentage of individuals that develop heart failure during the chronic infection. It is thus mandatory to establish inclusion criteria in the experimental design of canine preclinical studies to account for the variable effect that chronic infection has on systolic function.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Função Ventricular
9.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221028, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas cardiomyopathy (CDC) is associated with a poor prognosis compared to other cardiomyopathies. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), which provides direct assessment of myocardial fiber deformation, may be useful in predicting prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed STE in CDC and compared with idiopathic cardiomyopathy (IDC), and also examined the incremental prognostic information of STE over left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in these patients. METHODS: We enrolled 112 patients, age of 56.7 ± 11.8 years, 81 with CDC and 31 with IDC. STE indices were obtained at baseline in all patients. The endpoint was a composite of death, hospitalization for heart failure, or need for heart transplantation. RESULTS: Patients with IDC had worse LV systolic function compared to CDC, with LVEF of 34.5% vs 41.3%, p = 0.004, respectively. After adjustment for LVEF, there were no differences in STE values between CDC and IDC. During a median follow-up of 18.2 months (range, 11 to 22), 26 patients met the composite end point (24%). LV longitudinal strain was a strong predictor of adverse events, incremental to LVEF and E/e' ratio (HR 1.463, 95% CI 1.130-1.894; p = 0.004). The risk of cardiac events increased significantly in patients with GLS > - 12% (log-rank p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: STE indices were abnormal in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, without differences between CDC and IDC. LV longitudinal strain was a powerful predictor of outcome, adding prognostic information beyond that provided by LVEF and E/e' ratio.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
11.
Echocardiography ; 36(7): 1338-1345, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is an important tool in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, there is hesitation in clinical practice for using it in patients with Chagas disease (CD) due to the arrhythmogenic potential of this heart condition. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and variables associated with arrhythmias during DSE in a population of patients with CD. METHODS: A population of 205 consecutive patients with CD and suspected coronary heart disease was assessed through a retrospective database analysis. CD was confirmed in all patients by serological testing. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients selected was 64 years, and 65.4% of the patients were female. Significant arrhythmias occurred as follows: nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 7.3% of patients; supraventricular tachycardia and sustained ventricular tachycardia in 1%; and atrial fibrillation in 0.5%. Nonsignificant arrhythmias occurred as follows: premature ventricular contractions in 48% of patients and bigeminy in 4.4%. Values for the wall-motion score index at rest greater than 1.12 and 1.18 were independently correlated with the occurrence of nonsignificant arrhythmias (odds ratio [OR] = 2.90, P < 0.001) and significant arrhythmias (OR = 4.23, P = 0.044), respectively. CONCLUSION: DSE should be considered a safe examination in patients with CD despite the known increased risk of arrhythmias in this group of patients. The occurrence of arrhythmias was low in this study. Abnormal wall-motion score index values at rest were associated with the occurrence of significant and nonsignificant arrhythmias during the test.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Dobutamina , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(9): 1427-1435, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272827

RESUMO

The majority of global cardiovascular disease burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and indigenous populations. Although common diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, cause significant burden, there are also neglected diseases. Forgotten by many, these diseases-including rheumatic heart disease, endomyocardial fibrosis and Chagas cardiomyopathy-continue to take a tremendous toll on a large proportion of the world's population. Whilst the technology of echocardiography continues to evolve in many high-income countries, low resource countries are working out how to make this vital tool available and affordable for the most remote and poorest populations. This paper aims to highlight the neglected cardiovascular diseases and their echocardiographic features. It also highlights the latest research in relation to portable echocardiography, task shifting and disease screening. The authors make recommendations in relation to future directions, including making echocardiography an affordable and accessible tool for all.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Ecocardiografia/economia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica , Pobreza , Cardiopatia Reumática , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/economia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/economia , Humanos , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatia Reumática/economia
13.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(9): 1517-1525, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is one of the main predictors of mortality in Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC). Although the substrate of sustained and nonsustained-VT (NS-VT) seems to be the same, little is known about the distribution of late enhancement (LE). Our aim was to compare the clinical findings and the amount and patterns of LE in Chagas disease according to the presence and type of VT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 54 Chagas seropositive patients: 8 indeterminate and 46 with CC of whom 15 were without VT, 13 with NS-VT, and 18 with sustained-VT (S-VT). There were 31 males (57%), mean age was 55.9 ± 12.2 years. LE was found in 87% of all patients and in 50%, 80%, and 100% of the indeterminate, without VT and VT groups, respectively. The percentage of LE increased progressively in the indeterminate, CC without VT, and CC with VT groups; without a significant difference between NS-VT and S-VT (0.93%, 15.2%, 23.2%, and 21.4%, respectively). The amount of LE increased with the functional class. LE in the basal and mid lateral wall was more frequent in VT, without difference between S-VT and NS-VT. The only predictor of VT was the percentage of LE, odds ratio (OR), 6.2; (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-28.4; P = .01) with a cutoff of Odds Ratio 17.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of LE increases in relation to the clinical stage of the disease and its functional class in Chagas seropositive patients. The amount of LE was the main predictor of VT, without difference between S-VT and NS-VT.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletrocardiografia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Potenciais de Ação , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Gadolínio DTPA/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita
14.
PET Clin ; 14(2): 281-291, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826025

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with structural heart disease. In the last decade, advanced imaging modalities, such as cardiac MR and nuclear imaging, have progressively demonstrated to play a central role in the diagnosis and management of patients presenting with VAs. PET is acquiring a growing role thanks to its capability to assess different pathophysiologic aspects of the arrhythmogenic substrate by evaluating abnormal myocardial perfusion, presence of inflammation, myocardial viability, and sympathetic innervation. This review describes the principles and main clinical applications of PET imaging in the setting of VAs.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Recidiva , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(3): 240-246, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, a new epidemiological profile of Chagas' disease (CD) has been registered in the Brazilian Amazon where oral transmission has been indicated as responsible for the increase of acute cases. In the Amazonas state, five outbreaks of acute CD have been registered since 2004. The cardiac manifestations in these cases may be characterized by diffuse myocarditis, with alteration in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). OBJECTIVE: To perform a cardiac evaluation in autochthonous patients in the acute phase and at least one year after submitted to treatment for acute CD and evaluate the demographic variables associated with the presence of cardiac alterations. METHODS: We evaluated patients diagnosed with acute CD through direct parasitological or serological (IgM) methods from 2007 to 2015. These patients were treated with benznidazole and underwent ECG and TTE before and after treatment. We assumed a confidence interval of 95% (CI 95%, p < 0.05) for all variables analyzed. RESULTS: We observed 63 cases of an acute CD in which oral transmission corresponded to 75%. Cardiac alterations were found in 33% of the cases, with a greater frequency of ventricular repolarization alteration (13%), followed by pericardial effusion (10%) and right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block (2%). The follow-up occurred in 48 patients with ECG and 25 with TTE for a mean period of 15.5 ± 4.1 months after treatment. Of these, 8% presented normalization of the cardiac alterations in ECG, 62.5% remained with the normal exams. All of the patients presented normal results in TTE in the post-treatment period. As for the demographic variables, isolated cases presented more cardiac alterations than outbreaks (p = 0.044) as well as cases from Central Amazonas mesoregion (p = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: Although cardiac alterations have not been frequent in most of the studied population, a continuous evaluation of the clinical-epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the region is necessary in order to establish preventive measures.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 240-246, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989336

RESUMO

Abstract Background: In the past two decades, a new epidemiological profile of Chagas' disease (CD) has been registered in the Brazilian Amazon where oral transmission has been indicated as responsible for the increase of acute cases. In the Amazonas state, five outbreaks of acute CD have been registered since 2004. The cardiac manifestations in these cases may be characterized by diffuse myocarditis, with alteration in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). Objective: To perform a cardiac evaluation in autochthonous patients in the acute phase and at least one year after submitted to treatment for acute CD and evaluate the demographic variables associated with the presence of cardiac alterations. Methods: We evaluated patients diagnosed with acute CD through direct parasitological or serological (IgM) methods from 2007 to 2015. These patients were treated with benznidazole and underwent ECG and TTE before and after treatment. We assumed a confidence interval of 95% (CI 95%, p < 0.05) for all variables analyzed. Results: We observed 63 cases of an acute CD in which oral transmission corresponded to 75%. Cardiac alterations were found in 33% of the cases, with a greater frequency of ventricular repolarization alteration (13%), followed by pericardial effusion (10%) and right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block (2%). The follow-up occurred in 48 patients with ECG and 25 with TTE for a mean period of 15.5 ± 4.1 months after treatment. Of these, 8% presented normalization of the cardiac alterations in ECG, 62.5% remained with the normal exams. All of the patients presented normal results in TTE in the post-treatment period. As for the demographic variables, isolated cases presented more cardiac alterations than outbreaks (p = 0.044) as well as cases from Central Amazonas mesoregion (p = 0.020). Conclusions: Although cardiac alterations have not been frequent in most of the studied population, a continuous evaluation of the clinical-epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the region is necessary in order to establish preventive measures.


Resumo Fundamento: Nas últimas duas décadas, um novo perfil epidemiológico da Doença de Chagas (DC) foi registrado na Amazônia brasileira, onde a transmissão oral foi indicada como responsável pelo aumento dos casos agudos. No estado do Amazonas, foram registrados cinco surtos da doença desde 2004. As manifestações cardíacas nesses casos podem ser caracterizadas por miocardite difusa, com alteração nos resultados eletrocardiograma (ECG) e ecocardiografia transtorácica (ETT). Objetivo: avaliar parâmetros cardíacos em pacientes autóctones com DC na fase aguda e em um ano ou mais após tratamento, e avaliar as variáveis demográficas associadas com a presença de alterações cardíacas. Métodos: Avaliamos os pacientes diagnosticados com DC aguda por método direto parasitológico e exame sorológico (IgM) entre 2007 e 2015. Os pacientes foram tratados com benzonidazol e submetidos à ECG e ETT antes e após tratamento. Assumimos um intervalo de confiança de 95% (p < 0,05) para todas as variáveis analisadas. Resultados: Observamos 63 casos de DC aguda em que a transmissão oral ocorreu em 75% dos casos. Alterações cardíacas foram encontradas em 33% dos casos, com maior frequência de repolarização ventricular (13%), seguida de derrame pericárdico (10%), e bloqueio do ramo direito e bloqueio fascicular anterior esquerdo (2%). O acompanhamento foi realizado com 48 pacientes com ECG e 25 com ETT por um período médio de 15,5±4,1 meses após o tratamento. Desses pacientes, observou-se normalização das alterações eletrocardiográficas em 8% dos pacientes, e 62,5% continuaram com os parâmetros normais. Todos os pacientes apresentaram resultados da ETT normais no período pós-tratamento. Quanto às variáveis demográficas, os casos isolados apresentaram mais alterações cardíacas em comparação aos casos de surtos (p=0,044) e os casos identificados na mesorregião do Amazonas Central (p = 0,020). Conclusões: Apesar de as alterações cardíacas não terem sido frequentes na maioria da população do estudo, é necessária uma avaliação contínua da dinâmica clínica-epidemiológica da doença na região para se estabelecer medidas preventivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Seguimentos , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia
17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(8): 2344-2348, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709593

RESUMO

True left ventricular aneurysms are most frequently seen after acute transmural myocardial infarction. These aneurysms are distinct from apical left ventricular pseudoaneurysms, which can also be seen in ischemia, and have a different treatment course. A major dilemma for clinicians is using echocardiographic information to make this distinction. Coronary angiography aids in this distinction; however, in the case of normal coronaries alternate etiologies must be considered. The differential for a patient with a left ventricular aneurysm and normal coronaries or no prior cardiac surgery is broad and includes traumatic, infectious and infiltrative causes. In this e-challenge, we present an unusual cause of a left ventricular apical aneurysm in a patient with normal coronary arteries residing in the United States.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/cirurgia , Aneurisma Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Cardíaco/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Feminino , Aneurisma Cardíaco/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 26(5): 1569-1579, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion defects (MPD) due to coronary microvascular dysfunction is frequent in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) and may be involved with development of myocardial damage. We investigated whether MPD precedes left ventricular systolic dysfunction and tested the hypothesis that prolonged use of dipyridamole (DIPY) could reduce MPD in an experimental model of CCC in hamsters. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated female hamsters 6-months after T. cruzi infection (baseline condition) and control animals, divided into T. cruzi-infected animals treated with DIPY (CH + DIPY) or placebo (CH + PLB); and uninfected animals treated with DIPY (CO + DIPY) or placebo (CO + PLB). The animals were submitted to echocardiogram and rest SPECT-Sestamibi-Tc99m myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Next, the animals were treated with DIPY (4 mg/kg bid, intraperitoneal) or saline for 30 days, and reevaluated with the same imaging methods. At baseline, the CH + PLB and CH + DIPY groups showed larger areas of perfusion defect (13.2 ± 13.2% and 17.3 ± 13.2%, respectively) compared with CO + PLB and CO + DIPY (3.8 ± 2.2% e 3.5 ± 2.7%, respectively), P < .05. After treatment, we observed: reduction of perfusion defects only in the CH + DIPY group (17.3 ± 13.2% to 6.8 ± 7.6%, P = .001) and reduction of LVEF in CH + DIPY and CH + PLB groups (from 65.3 ± 9.0% to 53.6 ± 6.9% and from 69.3 ± 5.0% to 54.4 ± 8.6%, respectively, P < .001). Quantitative histology revealed greater extents of inflammation and interstitial fibrosis in both Chagas groups, compared with control group (P < .001), but no difference between Chagas groups (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The prolonged use of DIPY in this experimental model of CCC has reduced the rest myocardial perfusion defects, supporting the notion that those areas correspond to viable hypoperfused myocardium.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/tratamento farmacológico , Dipiridamol/administração & dosagem , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Perfusão , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trypanosoma cruzi , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 51(6): 827-830, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the occurrence of coronary sinus abnormalities in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease (CD). METHODS: Differences between the maximum and minimum diameters of the coronary sinus (∆%) on echocardiography were evaluated in individuals with the indeterminate form of CD (n=14) and those without (n=16) CD. The association of the difference with abnormalities detected by echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy was assessed. RESULTS: The mean Δ% values did not differ significantly between the groups. There was no correlation of the measurements with echocardiographic and myocardial scintigraphy findings. CONCLUSIONS: The coronary sinus evaluation revealed no differences between the groups.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Coronário/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Seio Coronário/parasitologia , Seio Coronário/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(21): 2567-2576, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) have pronounced myocardial fibrosis, which may predispose to sudden cardiac death, despite well-preserved global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Cardiac magnetic resonance can assess myocardial fibrosis by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences. OBJECTIVES: This prospective study evaluated if the presence of scar by LGE predicted hard adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with CCC. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 140 patients with CCC (52.1% female; median age 57 years [interquartile range: 45 to 67 years]) were included. Cardiac magnetic resonance cine and LGE imaging were performed at enrollment with a 1.5-T scanner. The primary endpoint was the combination of cardiovascular death and sustained ventricular tachycardia. The secondary endpoint was the combination of cardiovascular death, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or cardiovascular hospitalization during follow-up. RESULTS: After a median of 34 months (interquartile range: 24 to 49 months) of follow-up, 11 cardiovascular deaths, 3 episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia, and 20 cardiovascular hospitalizations were recorded. LGE scar was present in 71.4% of the patients, with the lateral, inferolateral, and inferior walls most commonly affected. Patients with positive LGE had lower LV ejection fraction and higher LV end-diastolic volume and LV mass than patients without LGE. No difference in other cardiovascular risk factors was noted. Patients with scar had higher event rates compared with those without scar for the primary (p = 0.043) and the secondary (p = 0.016) endpoint. In multivariable analysis, age and LGE area were related to primary outcome; age and lower LV ejection fraction were related to the secondary outcome. The pattern of LGE myocardial fibrosis was transmural, focal, or diffuse scar in approximately one-third of patients with positive LGE, and no pattern was specifically related to outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CCC, presence of scar by LGE is common and is strongly associated with major adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/mortalidade , Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem , Cicatriz/mortalidade , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
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