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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0263130, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Cardiac Care Bridge (CCB) nurse-led transitional care program in older (≥70 years) cardiac patients compared to usual care. METHODS: The intervention group (n = 153) received the CCB program consisting of case management, disease management and home-based cardiac rehabilitation in the transition from hospital to home on top of usual care and was compared with the usual care group (n = 153). Outcomes included a composite measure of first all-cause unplanned hospital readmission or mortality, Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and societal costs within six months follow-up. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Statistical uncertainty surrounding Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) was estimated by using bootstrapped seemingly unrelated regression. RESULTS: No significant between group differences in the composite outcome of readmission or mortality nor in societal costs were observed. QALYs were statistically significantly lower in the intervention group, mean difference -0.03 (95% CI: -0.07; -0.02). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the maximum probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 0.31 at a Willingness To Pay (WTP) of €0,00 and 0.14 at a WTP of €50,000 per composite outcome prevented and 0.32 and 0.21, respectively per QALY gained. CONCLUSION: The CCB program was on average more expensive and less effective compared to usual care, indicating that the CCB program is dominated by usual care. Therefore, the CCB program cannot be considered cost-effective compared to usual care.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Cuidado Transicional/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and its consequent end-organ damage including Hypertensive Heart Disease (HHD) are a major concern that impact health, resulting into impairment and reduced quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to describe the burden of HHD in Iran and comparing it with the World Bank upper middle-income countries (UMICs) in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY), mortality and prevalence. METHODS: Using data from the Global Burden of Disease study 2017, we compared the number of DALYs, deaths and prevalence trends for HHD from 1990 to 2017 in all age groups for both sex in Iran, and compared the epidemiology and trends with UMICs and globally. RESULTS: The age-standardized DALY rate for HHD increased by 51.6% for men (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 305.8 to 436.7 per 100,000) and 4.4% for women (95% UI 429.4 to 448.7 per 100,000) in Iran. The age-standardized prevalence of HHD in Iran was almost twice times higher than globally and 1.5-times more than the World Bank UMICs. The age-standardized death rate for HDD increased by 60.1% (95% UI 17.3 to 27.7% per 100,000) for men and by 21.7% (95% UI 25.85 to 31.48 per 100,000) for women from 1990 to 2017. Age-standardized death rate in Iran was 2.4 and 1.9 times higher than globally and UMICs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The higher prevalence and death rate in Iran in comparison with UMICs and globally should encourage health care provider to perform intensive screening activities in at risk population to prevent HHD and mitigate its mortality.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Cardiopatias/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Qual Life Res ; 30(7): 1985-1995, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590463

RESUMO

PURPOSE: According to estimations of the World Health Organization, depressive disorders, and cardiovascular disease will be the leading causes for global burden of disease in 2030. The aim of the present study was to estimate the value a representative sample of the German population places on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for depressive disorders compared to heart disease. METHODS: A representative sample of N = 967 of the German general public was randomly presented with one of two hypothetical health-loss scenarios: One version of the questionnaire presented respondents with health loss due to depression, while the other version dealt with health loss due to experiencing a heart disease. Respondents were asked to indicate their willingness to pay (WTP) for four hypothetical health-gain scenarios with different treatment options. RESULTS: In the depression questionnaire median WTP values ranged from 1000 to 1500 EUR; in the heart disease questionnaire from 1000 to 2000 EUR. Results of the Mann-Whitney U-Test and Median Test indicate higher WTP values for heart disease compared to depressive disorders when QALY gains were minor and stretched over a long period of time, and when treatment with bypass operation (rather than treatment with ECT) was offered. Zero WTP was significantly higher in all scenarios of the depression questionnaire in comparison to the hearth disease questionnaire. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that respondents valued the necessity of paying for treatment higher when presented with heart disease compared to depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/psicologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Circulation ; 143(8): e254-e743, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). METHODS: The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2021 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, vascular contributions to brain health, the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors related to cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Each of the 27 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics. CONCLUSIONS: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, health care administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , American Heart Association , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Carga Global da Doença , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/patologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Heart Vessels ; 36(5): 724-730, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399899

RESUMO

Despite the recent attention given to palliative care for patients with heart disease, data about the treatments in their actively dying phase are not sufficiently elaborated. In this study, we used the sampling dataset of a national database to compare the aggressive treatments performed in patients with cancer and those with heart disease. We only included patients deceased in January or July from 2011 to 2015, using the Diagnosis Procedure Combination sampling dataset of the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB). Patients who were discharged within the first 10 days of each month were excluded. We explored and compared aggressive treatments such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation and intensive care utilization, performed within seven days before death in cancer patients. We used 10,637 (0.4% of the dataset) deceased target population (40.0% female), with 7844 (73.7%) and 2793 (26.3%) being the proportion of cancer and heart disease patients, respectively. Aggressive treatments and procedures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (18.4%), intensive care utilization (5.4%), use of inotropes (43.4%), use of respirators (29.1%), and dialysis (4.5%) were frequently observed in heart disease patients. These associations remained after adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity. This study indicates the possible use of an NDB sampling dataset to evaluate the aggressive treatments and procedures in the actively dying phase in both heart disease and cancer patients. Our results showed the differences in aggressive treatment strategies in the actively dying phase between patients with cancer and those with heart disease.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/terapia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Cardiopatias/economia , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(1): 135-143, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women utilise cardiac rehabilitation (CR) significantly less than men. Gender-tailored CR improves adherence and mental health outcomes when compared to traditional programs. This study ascertained the availability of women-only (W-O) CR classes globally. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, an online survey was administered to CR programs globally, assessing delivery of W-O classes, among other program characteristics. Univariate tests were performed to compare provision of W-O CR by program characteristics. RESULTS: Data were collected in 93/111 countries with CR (83.8% country response rate); 1,082 surveys (32.1% program response rate) were initiated. Globally, 38 (40.9%; range 1.2-100% of programs/country) countries and 110 (11.8%) programs offered W-O CR. Women-Only CR was offered in 55 (7.4%) programs in high-income countries, versus 55 (16.4%) programs in low- and middle-income countries (p<0.001); it was offered most commonly in the Eastern Mediterranean region (n=5, 55.6%; p=0.22). Programs that offered W-O CR were more often located in an academic or tertiary facility, served more patients/year, offered more components, treated more patients/session, offered alternative forms of exercise, had more staff (including cardiologists, dietitians, and administrative assistants, but not mental health care professionals), and perceived space and human resources to be less of a barrier to delivery than programs not offering W-O CR (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Women-Only CR was not commonly offered. Only larger, well-resourced programs seem to have the capacity to offer it, so expanding delivery may require exploiting low-cost, less human resource-intensive approaches such as online peer support.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Cardiopatias/reabilitação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
7.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(1): E9-E15, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) significantly impacted cardiac care delivery in a manner that has not been previously experienced in the United States. Attention and resources have focused on physicians, patients, and healthcare systems with little information regarding the effects on nurses and technologists in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL). METHODS: A national, online survey was conducted for nurses and technologists working in the CCL in the United States. The survey was self administered, anonymous, and included 45 questions assessing baseline demographics, logistical changes to workflow and responsibilities, staff preparedness, and mental health. RESULTS: A total of 450 respondents completed the survey, including 283 nurses (63%) and 167 technologists (37%). A total of 349 (78%) were female and mean age range was 41-50 years. Responses indicated that 68% were the primary financial provider for their families, and 74% experienced >75% decrease in case volume despite a low inpatient COVID-19 census (54% of respondents with census <10%). There were high rates of direct care for COVID-19 patients (47%), relocation (45%), lay-off/furloughs of part-time or per diem staff (42%), lay-offs of full-time staff (12%), and decreased work hours (65%). A total of 95% expressed decreased morale with an increase in mental distress, including depression (36%). Predictors of depression included relocation status, staff preparedness, and work hours. CONCLUSION: Logistical changes to CCL staffing resulted in relocation, lay-offs, furloughs, and diminished work hours, with financial and emotional ramifications. Particular attention should be paid to those in large urban hospitals, those at risk for relocation, layoffs, and furloughs, and when preparedness and administrative communication is perceived as poor.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Pandemias/economia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Cateterismo Cardíaco/enfermagem , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) represent the main cause of death among non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Brazil, and they have a high economic impact on health systems. Most populations around the world, including Brazilians, consume excessive sodium, which increases blood pressure and the risk of CVDs. OBJECTIVE: To model the estimated deaths and costs associated with CVDs, which are mediated by increased blood pressure attributable to excessive sodium consumption in adults from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system in 2017. METHODS: We employed two macrosimulation methods, using top-down approaches and based on the same relative risks. The models estimated the mortality and costs-of-illness attributable to excessive sodium intake and mediated by hypertension for adults aged over 30 years in 2017. Direct healthcare cost data (inpatient care, outpatient care and medications) were extracted from the Ministry of Health information systems and official records. RESULTS: In 2017, an estimated 46,651 deaths from CVDs could have been prevented if the average sodium consumption had been reduced to 2 g/day in Brazil. Premature deaths related to excessive sodium consumption caused 575,172 Years of Life Lost and US$ 752.7 million in productivity losses to the economy. In the same year, the National Health System's costs of hospitalizations, outpatient care and medication for hypertension attributable to excessive sodium consumption totaled US$192.1 million. The main causes of death and costs associated with CVDs were coronary heart disease and stroke, followed by hypertensive disease, heart failure and aortic aneurysm. CONCLUSION: Excessive sodium consumption is estimated to account for 15% of deaths by CVDs and to 14% of the inpatient and outpatient costs associated with CVD. It also has high societal costs in terms of premature deaths. CVDs are a leading cause of disease and economic burden on the global, regional and country levels. As a largely preventable and treatable conditions, CVDs require the strengthening of cost-effective policies, supported by evidence, including modeling studies, to reduce the costs relating to illness borne by the Brazilian public health system and society.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(9): 1224-1233, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most persons with dementia have multiple chronic conditions; however, it is unclear whether co-existing chronic conditions contribute to health-care use and cost. METHODS: Persons with dementia and ≥2 chronic conditions using the National Health and Aging Trends Study and Medicare claims data, 2011 to 2014. RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease were significantly associated with increased adjusted risk ratios of annual hospitalizations, hospitalization costs, and direct medical costs. Depression, hypertension, and stroke or transient ischemic attack were associated with direct medical and societal costs, while atrial fibrillation was associated with increased hospital and direct medical costs. No chronic condition was associated with informal care costs. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults with dementia, proactive and ambulatory care that includes informal caregivers along with primary and specialty providers, may offer promise to decrease use and costs for chronic kidney disease, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, depression, and hypertension.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/economia , Multimorbidade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Cardiopatias/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Medicare , Estados Unidos
11.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient evaluation before cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) remains heterogeneous across centres and it is suspected a proportion of patients with unfavourable characteristics proceed to implantation. We developed a unique CRT preassessment clinic (CRT PAC) to act as a final review for patients already considered for CRT. We hypothesised that this clinic would identify some patients unsuitable for CRT through updated investigations and review. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether the CRT PAC led to savings for the National Health Service (NHS). METHODS: A decision tree model was made to evaluate two clinical pathways; (1) standard of care where all patients initially seen in an outpatient cardiology clinic proceeded directly to CRT and (2) management of patients in CRT PAC. RESULTS: 244 patients were reviewed in the CRT PAC; 184 patients were eligible to proceed directly for implantation and 48 patients did not meet consensus guidelines for CRT so were not implanted. Following CRT, 82.4% of patients had improvement in their clinical composite score and 57.7% had reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥15%. Using the decision tree model, by reviewing patients in the CRT PAC, the total savings for the NHS was £966 880. Taking into consideration the additional cost of the clinic and by applying this model structure throughout the NHS, the potential savings could be as much as £39 million. CONCLUSIONS: CRT PAC appropriately selects patients and leads to substantial savings for the NHS. Adopting this clinic across the NHS has the potential to save £39 million.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/economia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/economia , Seleção de Pacientes , Medicina Estatal/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Árvores de Decisões , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Reino Unido
12.
Cardiol Young ; 30(2): 197-204, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The standard transthoracic echocardiography has some limitations in emergent and community-based situations. The emergence of pocket-sized ultrasound has led to influential advancements. METHODS: In this prospective study, in the hospital-based phase, children with suspected structural heart diseases were enrolled. In the school-based phase, healthy children were randomly selected from six schools. All individuals were examined by experienced operators using both the standard and the pocket-sized echocardiography. RESULTS: A total of 73 individuals with a mean age of 9.9 ± 3.2 years in the hospital-based cohort and 143 individuals with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.9 years in the school-based cohort were examined. The agreements between the standard and the pocket-sized echocardiography were good or excellent for major CHDs in both cohorts (κ statistics > 0.61). Among valvular pathologies, agreements for tricuspid and pulmonary valves' regurgitation were moderate among school-based cohorts (0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.12-1] and 0.6 [95% confidence interval 0.28-0.91], respectively). The agreements for tricuspid and pulmonary valves' regurgitation were excellent (>0.9) among hospital-based population. Other values for valvular findings were good or excellent. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% (95% confidence interval 47.3-99.7) and 93.8% (95% confidence interval 85-98.3) among the hospital-based individuals, respectively, and those were 88% (95% confidence interval 77.8-94.7) and 68.4% (95% confidence interval 56.7-78.6) among the school-based individuals, respectively. The cost of examination was reduced by approximately 70% for an individual using the pocket-sized device. CONCLUSIONS: When interpreted by experienced operators, the pocket-sized echocardiography can be used as screening tool among school-aged population.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/economia , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/instrumentação , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Cardiopatias/economia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Miniaturização , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 41(5): 877-884, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many challenges facing Syrian refugee children with heart disease. In this report, we present the spectrum, management, and outcome of heart disease in Syrian refugee children over six-year period, highlighting challenges in management and availability of funding. METHODS: Data on Syrian refugee children with heart disease diagnosed between 2012 and 2017 were collected. Patients were followed until January 2019. Data reported included age, diagnosis, recommended treatment, types of procedures done, mortality, cost, financial sources for procedures, and outcome. RESULTS: 415 Syrian refugee children were diagnosed with heart disease at our institution. Median age was 1·9 years (0·4-6·05) years. Children were either born in Syria and fled to Jordan with their families (224, 54%), or born in Jordan to refugee parents (191, 46%). Follow-up was established for 335 patients (81%). Of 196 patients needing surgery, 130 (72%) underwent Surgery, and of 97 patients needing interventional catheterization, 95 underwent the procedure. Waiting time was 222(± 272) days for surgery and 67(± 75) days for catheterizations. Overall mortality was 17% (56 patients), of which 28 died while waiting for surgery. Cost of surgical and interventional catheterization procedures was $7820 (± $4790) and $2920 (± $2140), respectively. Funding was obtained mainly from non-government organizations, private donors, and United Nations fund. CONCLUSION: Despite local and international efforts to manage Syrian refugee children with heart disease, there is significant shortage in providing treatment resulting in delays and mortality. More organized efforts are needed to help with this ongoing crisis.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Refugiados , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síria/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076564

RESUMO

Objectives: To enhance adherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a patient education programme called 'learning and coping' (LC-programme) was implemented in three hospitals in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the cost-utility of the LC-programme compared with the standard CR-programme. Methods: 825 patients with ischaemic heart disease or heart failure were randomised to the LC-programme or the standard CR-programme and were followed for 3 years.A societal cost perspective was applied and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were based on SF-6D measurements. Multiple imputation technique was used to handle missing data on the SF-6D. The statistical analyses were based on means and bootstrapped SEs. Regression framework was employed to estimate the net benefit and to illustrate cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the two programmes in total societal costs (4353 Euros; 95% CI -3828 to 12 533) or in QALY (-0.006; 95% CI -0.053 to 0.042). At a threshold of 40 000 Euros, the LC-programme was found to be cost-effective at 15% probability; however, for patients with heart failure, due to increased cost savings, the probability of cost-effectiveness increased to 91%. Conclusions: While the LC-programme did not appear to be cost-effective in CR, important heterogeneity was noted for subgroups of patients. The LC-programme was demonstrated to increase adherence to the rehabilitation programme and to be cost-effective among patients with heart failure. However, further research is needed to study the dynamic value of heterogeneity due to the small sample size in this subgroup.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Reabilitação Cardíaca/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/reabilitação , Aprendizagem , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dinamarca , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Cooperação do Paciente , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 14(3): 211-213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932261

RESUMO

The proposed 2020 CMS Physician Fee Schedule (MFPS) and Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) rules issued a reduction in the technical component (TC) payment that would decrease reimbursement for cardiac CT codes by nearly 29% compared to the 2018 final rule. Cardiac CT codes are currently allocated to ambulatory payment classification (APC) 5571, which is used for level I imaging tests with contrast. However, cardiac CT exams utilize more resources and are very different in clinical scope. Current CMS methodology markedly underestimates the actual cost of performing cardiac CT exams. The low reimbursement is a key factor in slowing the adoption of cardiac CT into clinical practice. Grassroot efforts are needed at all institutions who perform cardiac CT, and at local and national levels, to "right-size" reimbursement for cardiac CT exams. This article will provide an overview of various factors affecting cardiac CT reimbursements and advocacy effort.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S./economia , Tabela de Remuneração de Serviços/economia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/economia , Sistema de Pagamento Prospectivo/economia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/economia , Alocação de Custos , Preços Hospitalares , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estados Unidos
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(2): 255.e1-255.e6, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797886

RESUMO

The rate of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection is increasing with time. We sought to determine the predictors, relative mortality, and cost burden of early-, mid- and late-onset CIED infections. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all CIED implantations in Ontario, Canada between April 2013 and March 2016. The procedures and infections were identified in validated, population-wide health-care databases. Infection onset was categorized as early (0-30 days), mid (31-182 days) and late (183-365 days). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the mortality impact of CIED infections, with infection modelled as a time-varying covariate. A generalized linear model with a log-link and γ distribution was used to compare health-care system costs by infection status. Among 17 584 patients undergoing CIED implantation, 215 (1.2%) developed an infection, including 88 early, 85 mid, and 42 late infections. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of death was higher for patients with early (aHR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7-4.9), mid (aHR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9-5.7) and late (aHR 19.9, 95% CI 9.9-40.2) infections. Total mean 1-year health costs were highest for late-onset (mean Can$113 778), followed by mid-onset (mean Can$85 302), and then early-onset (Can$75 415) infections; costs for uninfected patients were Can$25 631. After accounting for patient and procedure characteristics, there was a significant increase in costs associated with early- (rate ratio (RR) 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.1), mid- (RR 2.8, 95% CI 2.4-3.3) and late- (RR 4.7, 95% CI 3.6-6.2) onset infections. In summary, CIED infections carry a tremendous clinical and economic burden, and this burden is disproportionately high for late-onset infections.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/economia , Cardiopatias/economia , Marca-Passo Artificial/economia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/microbiologia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Marca-Passo Artificial/microbiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/economia
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(24): e008831, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838970

RESUMO

Background We examined the prevalence of high burdens and barriers to care among adults with heart disease treatment. Methods and Results The participants were aged 18 to 64 years from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component (MEPS-HC) for 2010-2015. High burden is out-of-pocket spending on care and insurance premiums >20% of income. Barriers to care are forgoing and delaying care for financial reasons. Logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds of having high burdens and barriers. Adults treated for heart disease have odds ratios (ORs) of 2.18 (95% CI, 1.91-2.50) for having high burden, 2.51 (95% CI, 2.23-2.83) for forgoing care, and 3.57 (95% CI, 3.8-4.13) for delaying care compared with adults without any chronic condition. Among adults treated for heart disease compared with adults with private group coverage, ORs for having high burdens were significantly lower among those with public insurance (OR: 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.26) or the uninsured (OR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92) and higher among those with private nongroup insurance (OR: 5.30; 95% CI, 3.26-8.61). Compared with adults with private group coverage, ORs for delaying care were 2.07 (95% CI, 1.37-3.12) for those with public insurance, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.70-4.10) for those without insurance, and 2.16 (95% CI, 1.24-3.76) for those with private nongroup insurance. Conclusions Public insurance provides protection against high burdens but not against forgoing or delaying care. Future research should investigate whether and to what extent barriers to care are associated with worse health outcomes and higher costs in the long term.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Med Decis Making ; 39(7): 842-856, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431188

RESUMO

Introduction. Individuals from older populations tend to have more than 1 health condition (multimorbidity). Current approaches to produce economic evidence for clinical guidelines using decision-analytic models typically use a single-disease approach, which may not appropriately reflect the competing risks within a population with multimorbidity. This study aims to demonstrate a proof-of-concept method of modeling multiple conditions in a single decision-analytic model to estimate the impact of multimorbidity on the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Methods. Multiple conditions were modeled within a single decision-analytic model by linking multiple single-disease models. Individual discrete event simulation models were developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of preventative interventions for a case study assuming a UK National Health Service perspective. The case study used 3 diseases (heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, and osteoporosis) that were combined within a single linked model. The linked model, with and without correlations between diseases incorporated, simulated the general population aged 45 years and older to compare results in terms of lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results. The estimated incremental costs and QALYs for health care interventions differed when 3 diseases were modeled simultaneously (£840; 0.234 QALYs) compared with aggregated results from 3 single-disease models (£408; 0.280QALYs). With correlations between diseases additionally incorporated, both absolute and incremental costs and QALY estimates changed in different directions, suggesting that the inclusion of correlations can alter model results. Discussion. Linking multiple single-disease models provides a methodological option for decision analysts who undertake research on populations with multimorbidity. It also has potential for wider applications in informing decisions on commissioning of health care services and long-term priority setting across diseases and health care programs through providing potentially more accurate estimations of the relative cost-effectiveness of interventions.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Modelos Econômicos , Multimorbidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/economia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Osteoporose/economia , Osteoporose/terapia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Reino Unido
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217923, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many Western countries face the challenge of providing high-quality care while keeping the healthcare system accessible and affordable. In an attempt to deal with this challenge a new healthcare delivery model called primary care plus (PC+) was introduced in the Netherlands. Within the PC+ model, medical specialists perform consultations in a primary care setting. PC+ aims to support the general practitioners in gatekeeping and prevent unnecessary referrals to hospital care. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a cardiology PC+ intervention on the Triple Aim outcomes, which were operationalized by patient-perceived quality of care, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes, and healthcare costs per patient. METHODS: This is a quantitative study with a longitudinal observational design. The study population consisted of patients, with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints, who were referred to the PC+ centre (intervention group) or hospital-based outpatient care (control group; care-as-usual). Patient-perceived quality of care and HRQoL (EQ-5D-5L, EQ-VAS and SF-12) were measured through questionnaires at three different time points. Healthcare costs per patient were obtained from administrative healthcare data and patients were followed for nine months. Chi-square tests, independent t-tests and multilevel linear models were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The patient-perceived quality of care was significantly higher within the intervention group for 26 out of 27 items. HRQoL outcomes did significantly increase in both groups (P <0.05) but there was no significant interaction between group and time. At baseline and also at three, six and nine months' follow-up the healthcare costs per patient were significantly lower for patients in the intervention group (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: While this study showed no improvements on HRQoL outcomes, PC+ seemed to be promising as it results in improved quality of care as experienced by patients and lower healthcare costs per patient.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/normas , Cardiologia/tendências , Cardiopatias/terapia , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/economia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cardiopatias/economia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(6): e010258, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835593

RESUMO

Background Nature exposures may be associated with reduced risk of heart disease. The present study examines the relationship between objective measures of neighborhood greenness (vegetative presence) and 4 heart disease diagnoses (acute myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation) in a population-based sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Methods and Results The sample included 249 405 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older whose location ( ZIP +4) in Miami-Dade County, Florida, did not change from 2010 to 2011. Analyses examined relationships between greenness, measured by mean block-level normalized difference vegetation index from satellite imagery, and 4 heart disease diagnoses. Hierarchical regression analyses, in a multilevel framework, assessed the relationship of greenness to each heart disease diagnosis, adjusting successively for individual sociodemographics, neighborhood income, and biological risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia). Higher greenness was associated with reduced heart disease risk, adjusting for individual sociodemographics and neighborhood income. Compared with the lowest tertile of greenness, the highest tertile of greenness was associated with reduced odds of acute myocardial infarction by 25% (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI , 0.63-0.90), ischemic heart disease by 20% (odds ratio, 0.80; 95% CI , 0.77-0.83), heart failure by 16% (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI , 0.80-0.88), and atrial fibrillation by 6% (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI , 0.87-1.00). Associations were attenuated after adjusting for biological risk factors, suggesting that cardiometabolic risk factors may partly mediate the greenness to heart disease relationships. Conclusions Neighborhood greenness may be associated with reduced heart disease risk. Strategies to increase area greenness may be a future means of reducing heart disease at the population level.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Renda , Medicare/normas , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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