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2.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 339-349, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute atrial fibrillation is the most common arrythmia treated in the emergency department. Our primary aim was to compare conversion to sinus rhythm between pharmacological cardioversion followed by electrical cardioversion (drug-shock), and electrical cardioversion alone (shock-only). Our secondary aim was to compare the effectiveness of two pad positions for electrical cardioversion. METHODS: We did a partial factorial trial of two protocols for patients with acute atrial fibrillation at 11 academic hospital emergency departments in Canada. We enrolled adult patients with acute atrial fibrillation. Protocol 1 was a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled comparison of attempted pharmacological cardioversion with intravenous procainamide (15 mg/kg over 30 min) followed by electrical cardioversion if necessary (up to three shocks, each of ≥200 J), and placebo infusion followed by electrical cardioversion. For patients having electrical cardioversion, we used Protocol 2, a randomised, open-label, nested comparison of anteroposterior versus anterolateral pad positions. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by study site) for Protocol 1 by on-site research personnel using an online electronic data capture system. Randomisation for Protocol 2 occurred 30 min after drug infusion for patients who had not converted and was stratified by site and Protocol 1 allocation. Patients and all research and emergency department staff were masked to treatment allocation for Protocol 1. The primary outcome was conversion to normal sinus rhythm for at least 30 min at any time after randomisation and up to a point immediately after three shocks. Protocol 1 was analysed by intention to treat and Protocol 2 excluded patients who did not receive electrical cardioversion. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01891058. FINDINGS: Between July 18, 2013, and Oct 17, 2018, we enrolled 396 patients, and none were lost to follow-up. In the drug-shock group (n=204), conversion to sinus rhythm occurred in 196 (96%) patients and in the shock-only group (n=192), conversion occurred in 176 (92%) patients (absolute difference 4%; 95% CI 0-9; p=0·07). The proportion of patients discharged home was 97% (n=198) versus 95% (n=183; p=0·60). 106 (52%) patients in the drug-shock group converted after drug infusion only. No patients had serious adverse events in follow-up. The different pad positions in Protocol 2 (n=244), had similar conversions to sinus rhythm (119 [94%] of 127 in anterolateral group vs 108 [92%] of 117 in anteroposterior group; p=0·68). INTERPRETATION: Both the drug-shock and shock-only strategies were highly effective, rapid, and safe in restoring sinus rhythm for patients in the emergency department with acute atrial fibrillation, avoiding the need for return to hospital. The drug infusion worked for about half of patients and avoided the resource intensive procedural sedation required for electrical cardioversion. We also found no significant difference between the anterolateral and anteroposterior pad positions for electrical cardioversion. Immediate rhythm control for patients in the emergency department with acute atrial fibrillation leads to excellent outcomes. FUNDING: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(678): 123-127, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967754

RESUMO

2019 has continued to bring important progress in all areas of internal medicine, impacting our daily practice. From new indications for SGLT2 inhibitors and rivaroxaban, to antibiotic duration for Gram negative bacteriemia, passing by the delay for cardioversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation or for beginning sacubitril/valsartan after stabilization of a cardiac failure, internal medicine journals are full of novelties. Every year, the chief residents of the CHUV internal medicine ward meet up to share their readings: here is their selection of eleven articles, chosen, summarized and commented for you.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Medicina Interna , Aminobutiratos , Cardioversão Elétrica , Humanos , Medicina Interna/tendências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Rivaroxabana , Tetrazóis , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18658, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914051

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Despite increasing number of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) protocol for patients with LVAD, especially in out-of-hospital settings are not well known. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 41-year-old LVAD implanted man became cardiac arrest in an out-of-hospital setting. Bystander CPR was started and the patient was brought to our hospital without noticing LVAD. Upon arrival, the medical staff noted the LVAD and that the battery of the LVAD was exhausted. DIAGNOSIS: Cardiac arrest on LVAD. INTERVENTIONS: It took 50 minutes to change the battery, then the patient has become ventricular fibrillation; hence, we introduced extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and defibrillated the patient. After the sinus rhythm was restored, the LVAD started working uneventfully. OUTCOMES: The patient became brain dead. LESSONS: There are several difficulties in treating these patients. First, hemodynamic collapse is difficult to diagnose. Second, chest compression for LVAD implanted patients remains controversial. Third, education to first responders who are not familiar with LVAD are not enough. Appropriate education for those issues is needed.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Coração Auxiliar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Cardioversão Elétrica , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Fibrilação Ventricular/etiologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
7.
Lancet ; 394(10216): 2255-2262, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 80% of public-access defibrillation attempts do not result in sustained return of spontaneous circulation in patients who have had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and a shockable heart rhythm before arrival of emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. Neurological and survival outcomes in such patients have not been evaluated. We aimed to assess the neurological status and survival outcomes in such patients. METHODS: This is a retropective analysis of a cohort study from a prospective, nationwide, population-based registry of 1 299 784 patients who had an OHCA event between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2015 in Japan. The primary outcome was favourable neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2) at 30 days after the OHCA and the secondary outcome was survival at 30 days following the OHCA. This study is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000009918. FINDINGS: We identified 28 019 patients with bystander-witnessed OHCA and shockable heart rhythm who had received CPR from a bystander. Of these, 2242 (8·0%) patients did not achieve return of spontaneous circulation with CPR plus public-access defibrillation, and 25 087 (89·5%) patients did not achieve return of spontaneous circulation with CPR alone before EMS arrival. The proportion of patients with a favourable neurological outcome was significantly higher in those who received public-access defibrillation than those who did not (845 [37·7%] vs 5676 [22·6%]; adjusted odds ratio [OR] after propensity score-matching, 1·45 [95% CI 1·24-1·69], p<0·0001). The proportion of patients who survived at 30 days after the OHCA was also significantly higher in those who received public-access defibrillation than those who did not (987 [44·0%] vs 7976 [31·8%]; adjusted OR after propensity score-matching, 1·31 [95% CI 1·13-1·52], p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the benefits of public-access defibrillation and greater accessibility and availability of automated external defibrillators in the community. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Desfibriladores , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Logradouros Públicos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794045

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias. As the symptoms can be abrupt in onset it is associated with a substantial burden on the medical emergency system. By routine practice patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation of a duration less than 48 hours are commonly offered cardioversion therapy. Data from a recent study shows that more than two thirds of patients convert to sinus rhythm spontaneously within 48 hours. A watch-and-wait approach in rhythm control management may be suggested for clinical praxis, considering the high chance of spontaneous cardioversion. Long-term results for a group with early and delayed cardioversion were similar with regards to maintenance of sinus rhythm at 4 weeks.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Humanos , Conduta Expectante
9.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 47(12): 963-968, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877591

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nifekalan (NIF) on cardioversion in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients post radiofrequency ablation, and investigate the relevant factors related to the cardioversion efficacy of NIF. Methods: We screened patients with sustained AF rhythm after radiofrequency ablation between November 2016 and July 2018. Participants were treated with intravenous NIF 0.4 mg/kg within 5-10 minutes after ablation. We observed the adverse reaction, and monitored the rhythm, heart rate, QT interval and QTc interval before the medication and at 5, 10, 20, 120 min after the medication. According to the drug outcome of NIF, patients were divided into conversion group and non-conversion group, related factors affecting conversion efficacy were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Results: (1)A total of 116 patients were enrolled in the study (63 males and 53 females, mean age was (64±18) years). Among them, 72 patients were converted to sinus rhythm, and the overall successful rate was 62.1%. There were 84 patients with persistent AF, of which 50 cases (59.2%) were restored to sinus rhythm. There were 32 patients with paroxysmal AF, 22 cases (68.8%) of them were restored to sinus rhythm. The conversion time was 1.5 to 12 (6.8±3.4)min. (2) In 116 patients, the QT interval and QTc interval were significantly longer after medication than before the drug administration (P<0.01), and peaked at about 10th min, and restored to the level before drug administration at about 120th min. (3) There were 8 cases of bradycardia (6.9%), 3 cases of frequent and short ventricular tachycardia (2.6%). (4) The duration of atrial fibrillation was shorter and left atrial diameter was smaller in the cardioversion group than in the non-cardioversion group (both P<0.05). There were no significant differences in gender, disease history, atrial fibrillation type and structural heart disease between the two groups (P>0.05). (5) Multifactorial logistic regression analysis showed that the duration of atrial fibrillation (OR=0.980, 95%CI 0.966-0.994, P=0.004) and the left atrial diameter (OR=0.888, 95%CI 0.814-0.967, P=0.007) were the factors that influence the cardioversion efficacy of NIF on atrial fibrillation post ablation. Conclusions: The total effective rate of NIF was 62.1% in patients witrh sustained AF post radiofrequency ablation, was 68.8% in patients with paroxysmal AF. Besides, NIF has the advantage of short conversion time and few adverse reactions. Left atrium diameter and AF duration were relevant factors that influence the efficacy of NIF of cardioversion in patients with sustained AF after radiofrequency ablation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Feminino , Átrios do Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(18): 3842-3860, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872715

RESUMO

Zhigancao decoction recorded in Treatise on Febrile Disease by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han dynasty have been widely used in treating palpitation and irregular pulse by traditional Chinese medicine physicians for thousands of years. It is all known that Zhigancao Decoction is used to treat consumptive disease. However,why it has been used to treat exogenous febrile disease? According to studies,Fumai Decoctions in Treatise on Differentiation and Treatment of Epidemic Febrile Disease,that was modified based on Zhigancao Decoction,have their names without reality. Serious defects,including unclear diagnosis,curative effect,and prognosis,have been found in ancient and modern medical records about Zhigancao Decoction. The indications of Zhigancao Decoction include atrial premature beats,ventricular premature beats,and viral myocarditis; tachyarrhythmia( supraventricular tachycardia,atrial fibrillation)with long interval or conduction block,during or after severe infection or high fever; chronic consumptive disease due to tumor after radiotherapy and chemotherapy,malignant fluid state of tumor,hematopathy,terminal stage of heart failure after major operation,and acute hemorrhage after control of severe infection and other major diseases; cough,phlegm and asthma due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,pulmonary interstitial fibrosis,lung cancer,after lung cancer surgery; increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure due to insufficient capacity after acute blood loss; the symptoms included palpitation,chest tightness,sweating,lassitude,lacking in strength,shortness of breath,syncope,sudden death,cough,expectoration,excessive phlegm,clear and dilute sputum,emaciation,dry and haggard skin,constipation,haemorrhagic,uterine bleeding,enjoy sweet taste,red tongue without moss,knotted pulse,intermittent pulse,thready rapid pulse,and weak pulse. Besides,Zhigancao Decoction has effect on cardioversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm without thrombosis in persistent atrial fibrillation and permanent atrial fibrillation. Zhigancao Decoction could stop bleeding soon for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding,and achieve positivity of occult blood test; Zhigancao Decoction could promote thrombocytopenia for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura,with the number of platelets 1×109/L. Zhigancao Decoction could promote the rise of granulocytic,erythroid and megakaryocytic hematopoietic lines in unexplained severe anemia,thrombocytopenia,and leukocyte reduction. Zhigancao Decoction could treat cough,asthma,and chest tightness in lung cancer and after lung cancer surgery; chronic consumptive disease due to lung cancer after lung cancer surgery,hematopathy and acute blood loss,which all belonged to the scope of consumptive disease. Zhigancao Decoction could ascend platelets,which was considered as " oriental interleukins" for the ancients. Zhigancao Decoction possesses dual-directional regulation on anticoagulant and hemostasis,which was considered as " oriental low molecular heparin" and " oriental proton pump inhibitors". Large dose of Rehmannia glutinosa is the key of the efficacy of Zhigancao Decoction. This study is expected to enrich the guidelines for modern medical diagnosis and treatment. However,the clinical evidence,relevant genes and targeting network need to be deepened in future studies. In conclusion,it may be a shortcut to restore and explain Zhigancao Decoction formula syndromes based on modern pathophysiology and severe cases of critical care.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Plaquetas/citologia , Cuidados Críticos , Hemostasia , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
JAMA ; 322(18): 1819-1820, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714984
14.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 27(Special Issue): 643-652, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747157

RESUMO

The article deals with methods of treating patients with bradyarrhythmias, life-threatening tachyarrhythmias and chronic heart failure with the use of implantable antiarrhythmic devices permanent pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, and cardio-resynchronizing systems. Methods of instrumental and electrocardiographic diagnosis acceptable for such patients are described. The work defines management approaches to these patients in the postoperative and subsequent periods of life.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Marca-Passo Artificial , Taquicardia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletrocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Taquicardia/diagnóstico , Taquicardia/terapia
16.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 335-340, oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184123

RESUMO

Objetivo. Analizar la seguridad de la cardioversión de la fibrilación auricular (FA) de reciente comienzo realizada en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH). Método. Estudio observacional, retrospectivo y analítico en un SUH. Se recogieron de forma consecutiva los episodios de FA de menos de 48 horas de evolución y hemodinámicamente estables, en los que se realizó una cardioversión urgente (CVU) y los episodios derivados para valorar cardioversión programada ambulatoria (CVP). La variable de resultado fue la presencia de eventos embólicos (EE) o hemorrágicos (EH) a los 90 días. Resultados. Se analizaron 718 cardioversiones en 570 pacientes. La edad media fue de 64 años (DE 13,5). Se realizaron 479 (66,7%) CVU y 239 (33,3%) CVP. Se recogieron un total de 11 (1,5%) eventos: dos EE (0,3%) y 9 EH (1,3%). Todos los EH fueron hemorragias menores. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos. Conclusión. La CVU de la FA de reciente comienzo en los SUH es una estrategia segura


Objective. To analyze the safety of electric cardioversion performed for recent-onset atrial fibrillation in a hospital emergency department. Methods. Observational retrospective analysis of consecutive emergency department cases of atrial fibrillation of less than 48 hours’ duration in hemodynamically stable patients. All included cases were either treated with emergency electric cardioversion or referred for evaluation and scheduling of outpatient cardioversion. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a thromboembolic or hemorrhagic event within 90 days. Results. A total of 718 cardioversions in 570 patients were analyzed. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 64 (13.5) years. Four hundred seventy-nine emergency cardioversions (66.7%) and 239 (33.3%) scheduled cardioversions were performed. Eleven adverse events (1.5% of the cohort) occurred: 2 were thromboembolic events (0.3%) and 9 were hemorrhagic (1.3%). All bleeds were minor. There were no statistically significant differences in the rate of adverse events between the emergency and scheduled cardioversion groups. Conclusion. Emergency cardioversion for recent-onset atrial fibrillation is safe


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/tendências , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Multivariada
17.
Metas enferm ; 22(8): 5-12, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184993

RESUMO

Objetivo: describir el grado de conocimiento en maniobras de soporte vital básico (SVB) de los árbitros de fútbol del Principado de Asturias. Metodología: estudio descriptivo transversal. Se diseñó un cuestionario de 20 preguntas dividido en cuatro áreas: reanimación cardiopulmonar y compresiones torácicas, ventilación, uso del desfibrilador automático (DEA) y desobstrucción de la vía aérea. Se distribuyó por correo electrónico a los 412 árbitros censados en el Comité Técnico de Árbitros del Principado de Asturias. Se realizó análisis descriptivo usando el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 23.0. Resultados: participaron 186 sujetos, el 45,25% del total de árbitros censados: 176 hombres (94,6%) y 10 mujeres (5,4%), con una edad media (desviación estándar) de 24,78 (6,98) años. Los árbitros cuentan con una media (DE) de tiempo arbitral de 6,02 (5,78) años. El 87,63% (n= 163) no tiene una profesión relacionada con el deporte ni con la sanidad. El 65,6% (n= 122) no ha recibido formación en SVB, solo el 51,07% (n= 95) obtuvo una puntuación mayor o igual a 10 respuestas correctas. El porcentaje de respuestas correctas a las cuestiones sobre reanimación cardiopulmonar fue del 49,28%, sobre ventilación fue del 76,66%, 39,71% en el bloque relacionado con el DEA y un 41% en desobstrucción de la vía aérea. Se detectaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p< 0,05) en el grado de conocimientos relacionado con la edad, la profesión y la formación previa en SVB. Conclusiones: los árbitros del Principado de Asturias poseen un nivel de conocimiento medio-bajo en SVB. Los que han mostrado mayor nivel de conocimientos son aquellos con profesiones relacionadas con la sanidad y el deporte, con formación previa en SVB y con edades comprendidas entre 20-40 años


Objectives: to describe the level of knowledge regarding basic life support (BLS) maneuvers by football referees from the Principality of Asturias. Methodology: a descriptive cross-sectional study. A 20-item questionnaire was designed, split into four areas: cardiopulmonary resuscitation and chest compressions, ventilation, use of automatic defibrillator (AED), and airway clearance. This questionnaire was sent by email to the 412 referees registered in the Technical Committee of Referees of the Principality of Asturias. Descriptive analysis was conducted, using the SPSS statistical package version 23.0. Results: the study included 186 subjects, 45.25% of the referees registered in the census: 176 men (94.6%) and 10 women (5.4%), with a mean age (standard deviation) of 24.78 (6.98) years. These referees had a mean (SD) referee time of 6.02 (5.78) years; the profession of 87.63% (n= 163) of them was not associated with sports or healthcare, while 65.6% (n= 122) had received no training in BLS. Only 51.07% (n= 95) reached a score equal to or above 10 correct answers. The percentage of correct answers to questions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 49.28%, about ventilation: 76.66%, in the block dealing with AED: 39.71%, and 41% in airway clearance. Statistically significant differences (p< 0.05) were detected in the level of knowledge in association with age, profession, and previous training in BLS. Conclusions: referees in the Principality of Asturias had medium-low knowledge about BLS. Those who showed a higher level of knowledge were those with professions associated with healthcare and sports, previous training in BLS, and ages in the 20-to-40-year range


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Tamponamento Cardíaco , Cardioversão Elétrica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Lancet ; 394(10206): 1344-1351, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A small proportion of patients undergoing primary prophylactic implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) experiences malignant arrhythmias. We postulated that periodic repolarisation dynamics, a novel marker of sympathetic-activity-associated repolarisation instability, could be used to identify electrically vulnerable patients who would benefit from prophylactic implantation of ICDs by way of a reduction in mortality. METHODS: We did a prespecified substudy of EUropean Comparative Effectiveness Research to Assess the Use of Primary ProphylacTic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (EU-CERT-ICD), a prospective, investigator-initiated, non-randomised, controlled cohort study done at 44 centres in 15 EU countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with ischaemic or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤35%) were eligible for inclusion if they met guideline-based criteria for primary prophylactic implantation of ICDs. Periodic repolarisation dynamics from 24-h Holter recordings were assessed blindly in patients the day before ICD implantation or on the day of study enrolment in patients who were conservatively managed. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Propensity scoring and multivariable models were used to assess the interaction between periodic repolarisation dynamics and the treatment effect of ICDs on mortality. FINDINGS: Between May 12, 2014, and Sept 7, 2018, 1371 patients were enrolled in our study. 968 of these patients underwent ICD implantation, and 403 were treated conservatively. During follow-up (median 2·7 years [IQR 2·0-3·3] in the ICD group and 1·2 years [0·8-2·7] in the control group), 138 (14%) patients died in the ICD group and 64 (16%) patients died in the control group. We noted a 43% reduction in mortality in the ICD group compared with the control group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [95% CI 0·41-0·79]; p=0·0008). Periodic repolarisation dynamics significantly predicted the treatment effect of ICDs on mortality (adjusted p=0·0307). The mortality benefits associated with ICD implantation were greater in patients with periodic repolarisation dynamics of 7·5 deg or higher (n=199; adjusted HR 0·25 [95% CI 0·13-0·47] for the ICD group vs the control group; p<0·0001) than in those with periodic repolarisation dynamics less than 7·5 deg (n=1166; adjusted HR 0·69 [95% CI 0·47-1·00]; p=0·0492; pinteraction=0·0056). The number needed to treat was 18·3 (95% CI 10·6-4895·3) in patients with periodic repolarisation dynamics less than 7·5 deg and 3·1 (2·6-4·8) in those with periodic repolarisation dynamics of 7·5 deg or higher. INTERPRETATION: Periodic repolarisation dynamics predict mortality reductions associated with prophylactic implantation of ICDs in contemporarily treated patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Periodic repolarisation dynamics could help to guide treatment decisions about prophylactic ICD implantation. FUNDING: The European Community's 7th Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Volume Sistólico
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD005049, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent sustained arrhythmia. Atrial fibrillation often recurs after restoration of normal sinus rhythm. Antiarrhythmic drugs have been widely used to prevent recurrence. This is an update of a review previously published in 2006, 2012 and 2015. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of long-term treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs on death, stroke, drug adverse effects and recurrence of atrial fibrillation in people who had recovered sinus rhythm after having atrial fibrillation. SEARCH METHODS: We updated the searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase in January 2019, and ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP in February 2019. We checked the reference lists of retrieved articles, recent reviews and meta-analyses. SELECTION CRITERIA: Two authors independently selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any antiarrhythmic drug with a control (no treatment, placebo, drugs for rate control) or with another antiarrhythmic drug in adults who had atrial fibrillation and in whom sinus rhythm was restored, spontaneously or by any intervention. We excluded postoperative atrial fibrillation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed quality and extracted data. We pooled studies, if appropriate, using Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). All results were calculated at one year of follow-up or the nearest time point. MAIN RESULTS: This update included one new study (100 participants) and excluded one previously included study because of double publication. Finally, we included 59 RCTs comprising 20,981 participants studying quinidine, disopyramide, propafenone, flecainide, metoprolol, amiodarone, dofetilide, dronedarone and sotalol. Overall, mean follow-up was 10.2 months.All-cause mortalityHigh-certainty evidence from five RCTs indicated that treatment with sotalol was associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate compared with placebo or no treatment (RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.81; participants = 1882). The number need to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) for sotalol was 102 participants treated for one year to have one additional death. Low-certainty evidence from six RCTs suggested that risk of mortality may be higher in people taking quinidine (RR 2.01, 95% CI 0.84 to 4.77; participants = 1646). Moderate-certainty evidence showed increased RR for mortality but with very wide CIs for metoprolol (RR 2.02, 95% CI 0.37 to 11.05, 2 RCTs, participants = 562) and amiodarone (RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 4.99, 2 RCTs, participants = 444), compared with placebo.We found little or no difference in mortality with dofetilide (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.27; moderate-certainty evidence) or dronedarone (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.09; high-certainty evidence) compared to placebo/no treatment. There were few data on mortality for disopyramide, flecainide and propafenone, making impossible a reliable estimation for those drugs.Withdrawals due to adverse eventsAll analysed drugs increased withdrawals due to adverse effects compared to placebo or no treatment (quinidine: RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.87 to 2.78; disopyramide: RR 3.68, 95% CI 0.95 to 14.24; propafenone: RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.46; flecainide: RR 15.41, 95% CI 0.91 to 260.19; metoprolol: RR 3.47, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.15; amiodarone: RR 6.70, 95% CI 1.91 to 23.45; dofetilide: RR 1.77, 95% CI 0.75 to 4.18; dronedarone: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.85; sotalol: RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.11). Certainty of the evidence for this outcome was low for disopyramide, amiodarone, dofetilide and flecainide; moderate to high for the remaining drugs.ProarrhythmiaVirtually all studied antiarrhythmics showed increased proarrhythmic effects (counting both tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias attributable to treatment) (quinidine: RR 2.05, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.41; disopyramide: no data; flecainide: RR 4.80, 95% CI 1.30 to 17.77; metoprolol: RR 18.14, 95% CI 2.42 to 135.66; amiodarone: RR 2.22, 95% CI 0.71 to 6.96; dofetilide: RR 5.50, 95% CI 1.33 to 22.76; dronedarone: RR 1.95, 95% CI 0.77 to 4.98; sotalol: RR 3.55, 95% CI 2.16 to 5.83); with the exception of propafenone (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.39 to 4.47) for which the certainty of evidence was very low and we were uncertain about the effect. Certainty of the evidence for this outcome for the other drugs was moderate to high.StrokeEleven studies reported stroke outcomes with quinidine, disopyramide, flecainide, amiodarone, dronedarone and sotalol. High-certainty evidence from two RCTs suggested that dronedarone may be associated with reduced risk of stroke (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.95; participants = 5872). This result is attributed to one study dominating the meta-analysis and has yet to be reproduced in other studies. There was no apparent effect on stroke rates with the other antiarrhythmics.Recurrence of atrial fibrillationModerate- to high-certainty evidence, with the exception of disopyramide which was low-certainty evidence, showed that all analysed drugs, including metoprolol, reduced recurrence of atrial fibrillation (quinidine: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.88; disopyramide: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.01; propafenone: RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.74; flecainide: RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.77; metoprolol: RR 0.83 95% CI 0.68 to 1.02; amiodarone: RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.58; dofetilide: RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.85; dronedarone: RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.91; sotalol: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.87). Despite this reduction, atrial fibrillation still recurred in 43% to 67% of people treated with antiarrhythmics. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is high-certainty evidence of increased mortality associated with sotalol treatment, and low-certainty evidence suggesting increased mortality with quinidine, when used for maintaining sinus rhythm in people with atrial fibrillation. We found few data on mortality in people taking disopyramide, flecainide and propafenone, so it was not possible to make a reliable estimation of the mortality risk for these drugs. However, we did find moderate-certainty evidence of marked increases in proarrhythmia and adverse effects with flecainide.Overall, there is evidence showing that antiarrhythmic drugs increase adverse events, increase proarrhythmic events and some antiarrhythmics may increase mortality. Conversely, although they reduce recurrences of atrial fibrillation, there is no evidence of any benefit on other clinical outcomes, compared with placebo or no treatment.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Cardioversão Elétrica , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária
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