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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365901

RESUMO

The growth models of total bacterial count in freshly squeezed strawberry juice were established by gas and taste sensors in this paper. By selecting the optimal sensors and fusing the response values, the Modified Gompertz, Logistic, Huang and Baranyi models were used to predict and simulate the growth of bacteria. The results showed that the R2 values for fitting the growth model of total bacterial count of the sensor S7 (an electronic nose sensor), of sweetness and of the principal components scores were 0.890-0.944, 0.861-0.885 and 0.954-0.964, respectively. The correlation coefficients, or R-values, between models fitted by the response values and total bacterial count ranged from 0.815 to 0.999. A single system of electronic nose (E-nose) or electronic tongue (E-tongue) sensors could be used to predict the total bacterial count in freshly squeezed strawberry juice during cold storage, while the higher rate was gained by the combination of these two systems. The fusion of E-nose and E-tongue had the best fitting-precision in predicting the total bacterial count in freshly squeezed strawberry juice during cold storage. This study proved that it was feasible to predict the growth of bacteria in freshly squeezed strawberry juice using E-nose and E-tongue sensors.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico , Fragaria , Carga Bacteriana , Paladar , Língua
2.
Br J Nurs ; 31(19): S26-S31, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306235

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: Compare effectiveness of chemical disinfectants in reducing S. aureus. Five disinfectants reduced the bacterial load, especially chlorhexidine solutions. Focus on Brazilian clinical practice of needleless connector disinfection. PURPOSE: This study aimed to gain further knowledge about the comparative effectiveness of chemical disinfectants in reducing the bacterial load of NCs inoculated with S. aureus. METHODS: Disinfection of needleless connectors was undertaken in vitro against S. aureus comparing 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 70% ethanol, 0.5% and 2% chlorhexidine in 70% IPA applied with gauze, and 70% IPA single-use cap (Site-Scrub®). RESULTS: All disinfectants reduced the bacterial load (P<0.001), especially the chlorhexidine solutions. Mechanical friction should follow guidelines. CONCLUSION: This study found that all tested disinfectants effectively reduced the bacterial load and more clinical studies must be developed with a focus on the Brazilian clinical practice of needleless connector disinfection.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Desinfecção , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Clorexidina , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Carga Bacteriana , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , 2-Propanol/farmacologia , Etanol
3.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 7967569, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36187286

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the microbial quality of raw milk along the milk value chain at Africa University (AU). Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows were used in this experiment. A total of 270 milk samples were collected for laboratory analysis at three different stages, during milking (DM), from the bulk tank (BT), and at the dining hall (DH), to determine the total bacterial count (TBC), Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica. Samples were cultured in Petri dishes using an appropriate medium for 48 hours. The plate count method was used to determine the quantity of bacteria. Data were analyzed using GLM SPSS. The results indicated that TBC increased (P < 0.05) from one site to the next along the value chain, yet it undulates when measured over time. Escherichia. coli and S. enterica counts increased (P < 0.05) at the last site of collection and the highest counts were recorded in week two. In conclusion, the current study indicates the hygiene of the dairy parlor with very low TBC, E. coli, and S. enterica counts during milking and bulk tank storage and that the relationship between TBC and E. coli is nonlinear with respect to time.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Leite , Animais , Bactérias , Carga Bacteriana , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Escherichia coli , Feminino , Leite/microbiologia
4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 5798857, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36262869

RESUMO

Objective: A previous meta-analysis has revealed that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) might not be clinically beneficial to chronic wounds. However, several new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported that CAP was an effective treatment option for accelerating wound healing in chronic wounds. The purpose of this review is to incorporate these new results and evaluate the efficacy of CAP in chronic wounds. Methods: The major databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, were searched for articles related to CAP treatment in chronic wounds until March 21, 2022. The literature retrieval and evaluation were carried out by two independent researchers. Result: A total of 13 randomized clinical trials published between 2010 and 2022 were finally included. CAP therapy showed to be more effective in reducing the area of wounds (mean difference (MD): -1.74, 95%; confidence interval (CI): [-3.14, -0.33], p = 0.02), compared with non-CAP treatments. The immediate reduction of the bacterial load was higher in the CAP group than in the control group. (MD: -0.37, 95%; CI: [-0.7, -0.05], p = 0.02). Conclusion: No significant changes were found in long-term antibacterial efficacy and pain perception between the two groups. However, more RCTs of excellent methodological quality are required to confirm technical details of the source of AP and the appropriate duration of the treatment with plasma.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Gases em Plasma , Humanos , Gases em Plasma/uso terapêutico , Carga Bacteriana , Bases de Dados Factuais , Antibacterianos
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 915288, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093203

RESUMO

Background: Automated urine technology providing standard urinalysis data can be used to support clinicians in screening and managing a UTI-suspected sample. Fully automated urinalysis systems have expanded in laboratory practice. Commonly used were devices based on digital imaging with automatic particle recognition, which expresses urinary sediment results on an ordinal scale. There were introduced fluorescent flow cytometry analyzers reporting all parameters quantitatively. There is a need to harmonize the result and support comparing bacteria and WBC qualitative versus semiquantitative results. Methods: A total of 1,131 urine samples were analyzed on both automated urinalysis systems. The chemical components of urinalysis (leukocyte esterase and nitrate reductase) and the sediment results (leukocytes and bacteria) were investigated as potential UTI indicators. Additionally, 106 specimens were analyzed on UF-5000 and compared with culture plating to establish cut-offs that can be suitable for standard urinalysis requirements and help to guide on how to interpret urinalysis results in the context of cultivation reflex. Results: The medians of bacteria counts varies from 16.2 (absence), 43.0 (trace), 443.5 (few), 5,389.2 (moderate), 19,356.6 (many) to 32,545.2 (massive) for particular digital microscopic bacteriuria thresholds. For pyuria thresholds, the medians of WBC counts varies from 0.8 (absence), 2.0 (0-1), 7.7 (2-3), 21.3 (4-6), 38.9 (7-10), 61.3 (11-15) to 242.2 (>30). Comparing the culture and FFC data (bacterial and/or WBC counts) was performed. Satisfactory sensitivity (100%), specificity (83.7%), negative predictive value (100%), and positive predictive value (75%) were obtained using indicators with the following cut-off values: leukocytes ≥40/µl or bacteria ≥300/µl. Conclusions: Accurate urinalysis gives information about the count of bacteria and leukocytes as useful indicators in UTIs, in general practice it can be a future tool to cross-link clinical and microbiology laboratories. However, the cut-off adjustments require individual optimization.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias , Bactérias , Carga Bacteriana , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Programas de Rastreamento , Urinálise/métodos , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
6.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(4): 604-611, 20220906. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396387

RESUMO

Introducción. Las infecciones del árbol biliar surgen principalmente por estasis asociada a colecistitis aguda, coledocolitiasis y colecistitis alitiásica, siendo pilar del tratamiento un drenaje apropiado y un régimen antibiótico eficaz. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la flora bacteriana de los cultivos de bilis. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal y retrospectivo de pacientes llevados a colecistectomía, colangiopancreatografía retrograda endoscópica y colecistostomía en nuestra institución, a quienes se les tomó cultivo de líquido biliar entre 2017 - 2021. Resultados. Se incluyeron 119 pacientes intervenidos, de los cuales 55,4 % fueron mujeres y el promedio de edad fue de 63,1 (± 16). La clasificación Tokio 2 fue la más frecuente (55,4 %). El germen aislado con mayor frecuencia fue E. coli (51,2 %). El antibiótico más usado fue ampicilina más sulbactam (44,6 %) seguido de piperacilina tazobactam (40,3 %). Conclusión. La Escherichia coli es el germen aislado con mayor frecuencia en infecciones del árbol biliar. No hay claridad con respecto al uso de antimicrobianos de manera profiláctica en esta patología, por esto es conveniente generar protocolos para la toma de muestras y cultivos de bilis en esta población, con el fin de establecer la necesidad del uso de antibióticos y conocer los perfiles de resistencia bacteriana.


Introduction. Infections of the biliary tree arise mainly from stasis associated with acute cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, and acalculous cholecystitis, with appropriate drainage and an effective antibiotic regimen being the mainstay of treatment. This research is proposed with the aim aim to characterize the bacterial flora of bile cultures.Methods. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study of patients who underwent cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and cholecystostomy in our institution, whom bile fluid culture was taken between 2017 and 2021, was performed. Results. 119 operated patients were included, of which 55.4% were women, the average age was 63.1 (± 16). The TOKIO 2 classification was the most frequent with 55.4% of the patients. The most frequently isolated germ was E. coli with 51.2%. The most used antibiotic was ampicillin plus sulbactam with 44.6% prescription followed by piperacillin tazobactam with a prescription frequency of 40.3%.Conclusion. Escherichia coli is the most frequently isolated germ in infections of the biliary tree. There is no clarity regarding the use of antimicrobials prophylactically in this pathology. For this reason it is convenient to generate protocols for taking samples and bile cultures in this population, in order to establish the need for the use of antibiotics and to know the profiles of bacterial resistance.


Assuntos
Humanos , Colecistectomia , Carga Bacteriana , Colelitíase , Colecistite , Antibacterianos
7.
Food Microbiol ; 108: 104102, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088110

RESUMO

Wild deer hunting is necessary in Scotland to control deer population density, with most carcasses being processed for human consumption. As limited information is available on the microbial condition of Scottish venison, we studied the variation of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) on 214 wild deer carcasses collected from six approved establishments. Samples were collected from the hide, body cavity and external surface of each carcass and mean values were determined following bacterial plate counts. The mean log10/cm2 coliforms were 5.78 (hide), 6.80 (body cavity) and 6.36 (external surface). The mean log10/cm2E. coli were 1.82 (hide), 2.27 (body cavity) and 2.17 (external carcass). Significantly higher coliforms counts were associated with storage-to-dressing times above 6 days and with longer transport distances. Risk factors that increased E. coli were red deer species, ambient temperature above 7 °C during hunting, dirty hides, faecal contamination and moisture or slimy film on the carcass. Although the bacterial counts obtained in this study indicated some hygienic processing, for around half of the carcasses, the E. coli counts were above 2 log10/cm2. Therefore, the above risk factors suggest a few handling hygiene practices that should be further improved to enhance quality and safety.


Assuntos
Cervos , Escherichia coli , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Humanos , Higiene , Fatores de Risco
8.
Theriogenology ; 193: 114-119, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156423

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to estimate the number of colonies forming units (CFU) from penile mucosa and semen, the effect of two antiseptic solutions used to flush the preputial cavity to reduce the bacterial counts from those sites, and compare them. Six clinically healthy bulls between 15 and 16 mo old declared satisfactory potential breeders were used. A prospective, randomized, and controlled cross-over design was performed, in which each bull was first sampled from the penile mucosa and semen without treatment (control group) and 24 h later, after antiseptic preputial flushing (treated group). In the treated group, the preputial area was cleaned, the preputial hair was cut, urination was stimulated, prepuce area was scrubbed twice, and the preputial cavity was flushed with either 1% of povidone-iodine solution (POI; 500 mL) or 0.05% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG; 500 mL), maintained for 10 min. Then, the preputial cavity was emptied and flushed with 500 mL of sterile saline solution. Next, the accessory sexual glands were massaged per rectum. Finally, protrusion, erection, and ejaculation were obtained by electroejaculation, and samples from penile mucosa and semen were collected for microbiological culture. The number of CFU was determined for each sample by enumerate total aerobic bacteria using Standard Plate Surface Count cultured for 48 h. In the first replicate, half of the bulls were treated with CHG, and the other half were treated with POI. After 58.8 ± 5.3 days (x ± SD) of wash-out period, the treatments were reverted, and the same protocols were applied again. In the control group, the median number of CFUs from the penile mucosa was 750,000 (range from 60,000 to 1,800,000) and the median number of CFUs in semen was 8,000,000 (700,000-45,000,000). The CFU in semen was higher than the penile mucosa (P = 0.005). Both antiseptic solutions reduced the median number of CFUs on the penile mucosa to 915 (P = 0.002) and in semen to 1,680 (P = 0.002). The antiseptic effect on the penile mucosa was higher for CHG solution (490) than for POI solution (6,650; P = 0.05). The antiseptic effect on semen of CHG was also greater (200) than for the POI solution (31,000; P = 0.05). It can be concluded that the median number of CFU was higher in semen compared with penile mucosa, and flushing the preputial cavity either with 0.05% CHG or 1% POI maintained for 10 min reduced the number of CFUs from penile mucosa and semen. The level of antiseptic activity was higher for CHG than for POI.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Povidona-Iodo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Carga Bacteriana/veterinária , Bovinos , Clorexidina , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Solução Salina , Sêmen
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 151: 138-148, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914451

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is the most common cause of economic loss in swine industry. Nowadays, bacteriophages have been proven as good candidates for controlling bacterial infections. In this study, 6 phages were isolated and selected based on their high efficacy against 11 stains of E. coli isolated from diarrheal pigs. Six groups of weaned piglets were assigned (control, bacterial control (BC), two phage control (PC) and two phage treatment (PT) groups). Two titers (2 × 109 PFU/animal and 2 × 1010 PFU/animal) of phage cocktails consisting of these phages were tested in the PC and PT groups via oral gavage at 24, 48, and 72 h against an E. coli cocktail (2 × 109 CFU/animal) that was given to the piglets at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h of the trial. A significant reduction of fecal E. coli counts was observed in both PT groups from day 1 to 7 following the final phage dosage when compared to those of the BC group. Microbiomes in feces obtained 24 h after the final phage administration revealed phage therapy with both dosages could restore the gut's bacterial composition. Moreover, the given phage cocktails resulted in a significantly higher average daily gain of piglets during the first few weeks in both PC groups and the PT group receiving a higher phage dosage. These findings suggest that bacteriophages might be a potential alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of pathogens. In addition, they could also be utilized to improve pig growth performance.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Microbiota , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/veterinária , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/terapia
10.
J Food Prot ; 85(11): 1506-1514, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894663

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial activity of a commercial Lippia citriodora extract (LCE) at 2,500 µg mL-1 (maximum sensory acceptable level) and vanillin (MIC and 2 MIC) alone and in combination were analyzed in four strains of Escherichia coli (two nonverotoxigenic and two verotoxigenic) in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton medium and in Piel de Sapo melon juice (MJ) stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 7 days. The bacterial counts of the four strains together in untreated samples were higher (≈4 log CFU/mL) in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton medium than in stored MJ. LCE showed higher antimicrobial activity in MJ than in standard culture broth, but vanillin showed a higher effect in broth. The verotoxigenic strain E. coli O146:H stx2 was the most sensitive to LCE in refrigerated MJ. Combinations of vanillin (at MIC and 2 MIC) with LCE were very effective in reducing E. coli counts either in broth or in refrigerated MJ to undetectable levels. Bactericidal effects were observed for the combinations in all strains in broth and in MJ. Also, these combinations showed an antimicrobial synergistic effect after day 3 of storage in MJ in three of the bacterial strains tested. These results indicate that the combination of LCE (at maximum sensory acceptable levels) and vanillin (at low concentrations) could be considered as a promising natural antimicrobial agent to inhibit verotoxigenic E. coli growth in refrigerated MJ and improve its quality.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica , Lippia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Carga Bacteriana
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 287, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased bacterial presence in the tongue coating and thereby, the saliva, may be a risk factor for postoperative complications such as surgical site infection or postoperative pneumonia after cancer surgery. However, no method for cleaning tongue coating has been established experimentally. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of brushing with 3% hydrogen peroxide on suppression of the number of bacteria in tongue coating. METHODS: Sixteen patients with gastric cancer or colorectal cancer undergoing surgery were randomly allocated to control and intervention groups. In the control group, the tongue was brushed for 30 s with a water-moistened toothbrush, while in the intervention group, the tongue was brushed for 30 s with a toothbrush moistened with 3% hydrogen peroxide. Bacterial counts on tongue coating were measured before and 30 s after cleaning the tongue coating using the Rapid Oral Bacteria Quantification System. RESULTS: In the control group, the number of bacteria on the tongue did not decrease significantly after tongue cleaning on the day before surgery, but did on the day after surgery. In contrast, in the intervention group, the number of bacteria on the tongue decreased significantly after tongue cleaning both on the day before and the day after surgery. Furthermore, when comparing the control and intervention groups, the intervention group had a greater reduction effect. CONCLUSIONS: Tongue brushing with 3% hydrogen peroxide is a useful method to reduce the number of bacteria on the tongue in patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery. Trial registration jRCTs071200020 (July 3, 2020).


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Higiene Bucal , Bactérias , Carga Bacteriana , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Língua/microbiologia , Escovação Dentária
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 926994, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35837473

RESUMO

The molecular and cellular pathogenesis of leptospirosis remains poorly understood. Based on comparative bacterial genomics data, we recently identified the hypothetical PF07598 gene family as encoding secreted exotoxins (VM proteins) that mediate cytotoxicity in vitro. To address whether VM proteins mediate in vivo leptospirosis pathogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that VM protein immunization of mice would protect against lethal challenge infection and reduce bacterial load in key target organs. C3H/HeJ mice were immunized with recombinant E. coli-produced, endotoxin-free, leptospiral VM proteins (derived from L. interrogans serovar Lai) in combination with the human-compatible adjuvant, glucopyranoside lipid A/squalene oil-in-water. Mice receiving full length recombinant VM proteins were protected from lethal challenge infection by L. interrogans serovar Canicola and had a 3-4 log10 reduction in bacterial load in the liver and kidney. These experiments show that immunization with recombinant VM proteins prevents leptospirosis clinical pathogenesis and leads to markedly reduced key target organ infection in this animal model. These data support the role of leptospiral VM proteins as virulence factors and suggest the possibility that a VM protein-based, serovar-independent, pan-leptospirosis vaccine may be feasible.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Vacinação , Virulência
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805211

RESUMO

Perioperative oral management is performed to prevent postoperative complications, but its indication and management method are unclear. This study aimed to investigate salivary bacterial counts pre-and postoperatively, and factors related to increased bacterial count postoperatively. We included 121 patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia and perioperative oral management. The bacterial count in saliva was determined preoperatively, and first and seventh days postoperatively using the dielectrophoresis and impedance measurement methods. The relationships between salivary bacterial count and various variables were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. The salivary bacterial count increased significantly on the first day postoperatively but decreased on the seventh day. Multivariate analysis showed that age (p = 0.004, standardized coefficient ß = 0.283) and xerostomia (p = 0.034, standardized coefficient ß = 0.192) were significantly correlated with increased salivary bacterial count preoperatively. Salivary bacterial count on the day after surgery was significantly increased in patients with a large number of bacterial counts on the day before surgery after preoperative oral care (p = 0.007, standardized coefficient ß = 0.241) and postoperative fasting (p = 0.001, standardized coefficient ß = -0.329). Establishing good oral hygiene before surgery and decreasing salivary bacterial count are necessary in patients with a high risk of postoperative surgical site infection or pneumonia, especially in older adults or postoperative fasting.


Assuntos
Saliva , Xerostomia , Idoso , Bactérias , Carga Bacteriana , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Saliva/microbiologia
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 150: 72-78, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809415

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a group of pathogen that can cause various diseases in both humans and animals, such as watery diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and uremia syndrome. Due to the serious situation of antibiotic resistance, phage therapy is considered to have a great potential in combating bacterial diseases. In this study, three phages (NJ-10, NJ-20, and NJ-38) with strong abilities to lyse virulent STEC strain CVCC193 cells in vitro were isolated. Subsequently, the therapeutic effects of the three phages were investigated in mice infected with CVCC193 cells. The results showed that the survival rates of mice injected with the phages at 3 h after challenge with CVCC193 cells were 40%-50%, while the survival rates of mice injected with the phages at 24 h before challenge were 80%-100%, indicating that pre-treatment with phages had better therapeutic effects than post-treatment. Pathological changes, bacterial loads in different organs, and serum levels of inflammatory factors of the infected mice were also detected. The results showed that the mice injected with the phages at 3 h after or 24 h before challenge with CVCC193 cells had significantly decreased organ lesions, bacterial loads, and serum levels of inflammatory factors as compared to infected mice without phage treatment. These results suggested that phages NJ-10, NJ-20, and NJ-38 can potentially protect against STEC infections.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Doenças dos Roedores , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Humanos , Camundongos
15.
Wounds ; 34(8): 201-208, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834826

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wounds are increasing in number and complexity within the hospital inpatient system, and coordinated and dedicated wound care along with the use of emerging technologies can result in improved patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This prospective implementation study at 2 hospital inpatient sites examines the effect of bedside fluorescence imaging of wounds in the detection of elevated bacterial loads and its location in/around the wound on the inpatient wound population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical assessment and fluorescence imaging assessments were performed on 26 wounds in 21 patients. Treatment plans were recorded after the clinical assessment and again after fluorescence imaging, and any alterations made to the treatment plans after imaging were noted. RESULTS: Prior to fluorescence imaging, antimicrobial use in this patient population was common. An antimicrobial dressing, a topical antibiotic, or an oral antibiotic was prescribed in 23 wounds (88% of assessments), with antimicrobial dressings prescribed 73% of the time. Based on clinical assessment, more than half of the treated wounds were deemed negative for suspected infection. In 12 of 26 wounds, the fluorescence imaging information on bacterial presence had the potential to prompt a change in whether an antimicrobial dressing was prescribed. Five of these 12 wounds were fluorescence imaging-positive and an antimicrobial drug was not prescribed, whereas 7 of the 12 wounds were negative upon fluorescence imaging and clinical assessment but antimicrobial dressing was prescribed. Overall, fluorescence imaging detected 70% more wounds, with bacterial fluorescence indicating elevated bacterial loads, compared with clinical assessment alone, and use of imaging resulted in altered treatment plans in 35% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescence imaging can aid in antimicrobial stewardship goals by supporting evidence-based decision-making at the point of care. In addition, use of such imaging resulted in increased communication, enhanced efficiency, and improved continuity of care between wound care providers and hospital sites.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Carga Bacteriana , Comunicação , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Biomolecules ; 12(6)2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35740958

RESUMO

Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by microorganisms involving the supporting tissues of the teeth. Gene variants may influence both the composition of the biofilm in the oral cavity and the host response. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential correlations between the disease susceptibility, the presence and the quantity of periodontopathogenic oral bacterial composition and the VDR gene polymorphisms. Methods: Fifty (50) unrelated periodontal patients and forty-one (41) healthy controls were selected for genomic DNA extraction. DNA concentration was measured and analyzed. The periodontopathogenic bacterial species were identified and quantified using a Real Time PCR performed with species-specific primers and probes. Results: Genotype distribution showed a different distribution between the groups for BsmI rs1544410 genotypes (p = 0.0001) with a prevalence of the G(b) allele in periodontal patients (p = 0.0003). Statistical significance was also found for VDR TaqI rs731236 (p ≤ 0.00001) with a prevalence of the T(T) allele in periodontal patients (p ≤ 0.00001). The average bacterial copy count for the periodontitis group was significantly higher than that of control group. Dividing patients into two groups based on high or low bacterial load, FokI rs2228570 T allele (f) was statistically more represented in patients with high bacterial load. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest the involvement of the VDR gene BsmI and TaqI polymorphisms in periodontal disease, while FokI and BsmI may be involved in determining an increased presence of periodontopathogens.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Receptores de Calcitriol , Bactérias , Carga Bacteriana , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Periodontite/genética , Periodontite/microbiologia , Projetos Piloto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682086

RESUMO

Research has been conducted into the advantages of the systemic administration of antibiotics. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of systemic antibiotic administration in the treatment of peri-implantitis in terms of bleeding on probing (BoP) and probing pocket depth (PPD). Literature searches were performed across PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to identify randomized controlled trials and observational clinical studies. After peri-implantitis treatment, PPD was reduced by 0.1 mm (p = 0.58; IC 95% [-0.24, 0.47]), indicating a non-significant effect of antibiotic administration on PPD. The BoP odds ratio value was 1.15 (p = 0.5; IC 95% [0.75, 1.75]), indicating that the likelihood of bleeding is almost similar between the test and control groups. Secondary outcomes were found, such as reduced clinical attachment level, lower suppuration and recession, less bone loss, and a reduction in total bacterial counts. In the treatment of peri-implantitis, the systemic antibiotic application reduces neither PPD nor BoP. Therefore, the systemic administration of antibiotics, in the case of peri-implantitis, should be rethought in light of the present results, contributing to address the problem of increasing antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Peri-Implantite , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carga Bacteriana , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculina/uso terapêutico
18.
mSphere ; 7(4): e0017122, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727021

RESUMO

Personal care and hygiene regimens may substantially alter the composition of the skin microbiota through direct and indirect mechanisms. An understanding of the timescales of commensal skin microbiota reestablishment following perturbation is required to inform consumer safety risk assessment, and support product development. In the current investigation, the microbiota of the volar and dorsal forearm of 10 volunteers was sampled immediately before and after wiping with 70% ethanol and at up to 24 h afterwards. Quantitative PCR and amplicon sequencing were used to measure microbial load and composition, and concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide psoriasin were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ethanol wiping significantly reduced the total bacterial abundance at 2 h post-wipe. Recovery was observed after 6 h for total bacterial populations and for Staphylococcus epidermidis depending on the site tested. Microbiome diversity recovered by 6 h after wiping. Psoriasin concentrations were highly variable between volunteers, ranging from 42 to 1,569 ng/mL, and dorsal concentrations were significantly higher than volar concentrations (P < 0.05). For most of the volunteers, the application of ethanol decreased psoriasin concentrations, particularly for the dorsal samples, but the overall effect was not significant. This work extends observations of skin microbiome stability and demonstrates resilience in a key antimicrobial peptide. IMPORTANCE An understanding of the timescales of commensal skin microbiota reestablishment following perturbation is required to inform consumer safety risk assessment and support product development. Following ethanol exposure, total bacterial populations and microbiome diversity recovered after 6 h. For most of the volunteers, the application of ethanol decreased psoriasin concentrations, but the overall effect was not significant. This work extends observations of skin microbiome stability and demonstrates resilience in a key antimicrobial peptide.


Assuntos
Etanol , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Carga Bacteriana , Etanol/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteína A7 Ligante de Cálcio S100 , Pele/microbiologia
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20200561, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703689

RESUMO

Regular exercise is beneficial to health. This study evaluated the effects of moderate and intense physical exercise modalities on intradermal infection by Staphylococcus aureus in a murine model. Mice that practiced moderate exercise had lower bacterial load on lymph nodes and less inflammatory infiltrate in dermis. They presented greater weight, however, less amount of epididymal fat: the weight was increased while they had fat diminished. A positive correlation was observed between lipid content and bacterial load in mice trained at moderate intensity. Animals that were under high intensity exercises presented superior bacterial load on the lymph nodes, increased neutrophil count and circulating lymphocytes, and had leukocyte recruitment to the dermis augmented, when compared to the ones in moderate exercise. These findings suggest that moderate physical activity modulates the immune response in dermal infection caused by S. aureus in a murine model.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Projetos Piloto
20.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(6): 704-720, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545848

RESUMO

Bartonella spp. and haemoplasmas are pathogens of veterinary and medical interest with ectoparasites mainly involved in their transmission. This study aimed at molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and haemoplasmas in cats (n = 93) and dogs (n = 96), and their related fleas (n = 189) from countries in East and Southeast Asia. Ctenocephalides felis was the dominant flea species infesting both cats (97.85%) and dogs (75%) followed by Ctenocephalides orientis in dogs (18.75%) and rarely in cats (5.2%). Bartonella spp. DNA was only detected in blood samples of flea-infested cats (21.51%) (p < .0001, OR = 27.70) with Bartonella henselae more frequently detected than Bartonella clarridgeiae in cat hosts (15.05%, 6.45%) and their associated fleas (17.24%, 13.79%). Out of three Bartonella-positive fleas from dogs, two Ct. orientis fleas carried Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella clarridgeiae, while the 3rd flea (Ct. felis) carried Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii. Felines represented a risk factor for Bartonella spp. infections, where fleas collected from cats (32.25%) presented an increased likelihood for Bartonella spp. occurrence (p < .0001, OR = 14.76) than those from dogs (3.13%). Moreover, when analysing infectious status, higher Bartonella spp. DNA loads were detected in fleas from bacteraemic cats compared to those from non-bacteraemic ones (p < .05). The haemoplasma occurrence was 16.13% (15/93) and 4.17% (4/96) in cat and dog blood samples from different countries (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand), with cats more at risk of infection (p < .01, OR = 5.96) than dogs. Unlike Bartonella spp., there was no evidence for flea involvement in the hemoplasmas' transmission cycle, thus supporting the hypothesis of non-vectorial transmission for these pathogens. In conclusion, client-owned cats and dogs living in East and Southeast Asia countries are exposed to vector-borne pathogens with fleas from cats playing a key role in Bartonella spp. transmission, thus posing a high risk of infection for humans sharing the same environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Doenças do Gato , Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão , Infestações por Pulgas , Mycoplasma , Sifonápteros , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Carga Bacteriana/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Humanos , Mycoplasma/genética , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
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