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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 159: 105000, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662434

RESUMO

Coastal transitional waters are exposed to many anthropogenic threats. This study aims to assess the trace metals' pollution status of transitional waters by evaluating its biological effects in the clam Venerupis decussata. Among the studied sites along the Tunisian littoral, South Tunis and Boughrara were the most impacted, since clams from these two lagoons presented significant differences in: (i) trace metal contents, (ii) in-cell hydrogen peroxide, (iii) enzymatic and non-enzymatic defenses, (iv) damage to lipids and proteins, and (v) protein post-translational modifications. These changes related to evident histopathological traits. PCA showed a clear separation between the digestive gland and gills tissues and illustrated an impact gradient in Tunisian coastal lagoons. Water temperature was revealed as an added natural stressor that, when concurring with high pollution, may jeopardize an ecosystem's health and contribute to the accumulation of hazardous metals in organisms.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Metais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139913, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540660

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are known organic pollutants with adverse health effects on humans and the ecosystem. This paper synthesises literature about the status of the pollutants and their precursors, identifies knowledge gaps and discusses future perspectives on the study of PFASs in Africa. Limited data on PFASs prevalence in Africa is available because there is limited capacity to monitor PFASs in African laboratories. The levels of PFASs in Africa are higher in samples from urban and industrialized areas compared to rural areas. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the dominant PFASs in human samples from Africa. Levels of PFOS and PFOA in these samples are lower than or comparable to those from industrialized countries. PFOA and PFOS levels in drinking water in Africa are, in some cases, higher than the EPA drinking water guidelines suggesting potential risk to humans. The levels of PFASs in birds' eggs from South Africa are higher, while those in other environmental media from Africa are lower or comparable to those from industrialized countries. Diet influences the pollutant levels in fish, while size and sex affect their accumulation in crocodiles. No bioaccumulation of PFASs in aquatic systems in Africa could be confirmed due to small sample sizes. Reported sources of PFASs in Africa include municipal landfills, inefficient wastewater treatment plants, consumer products containing PFASs, industrial wastewater and urban runoff. Relevant stakeholders need to take serious action to identify and deal with the salient sources of PFASs on the African continent.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Caprilatos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , África do Sul , Águas Residuárias
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105481, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380301

RESUMO

Modern nano-engineered pesticides have great promise for agriculture due to their extended, low dose release profiles that are intended to increase effectiveness but reduce environmental harm. Whether nanopesticides, including copper (Cu) formulations, cause reduced levels of toxicity to non-target aquatic organisms is unclear but important to assess. Predicting how aquatic species respond to incidental exposure to Cu-based nanopesticides is challenging because of the expected very low concentrations in the environment, and the two forms of exposure that may occur, namely to Cu ions and Cu nanoparticles. We conducted Cu speciation, tissue uptake, and 7-day toxicity laboratory experiments to test how a model estuarine organism, the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus, responded to two popular Cu-based nanopesticides, CuPRO and Kocide, and conventional CuCl2. Exposure concentrations ranged from 0 to 2.5 ppm, which were similar to those found in estuarine water located downstream of agricultural fields. Cu dissolution rates were much slower for the nanopesticides than the ionic formula, and Cu body burden in amphipods increased approximately linearly with the nominal exposure concentration. Amphipod survival declined in a normal dose-response manner with no difference among Cu formulations. Growth and movement rates after 7 days revealed no difference among exposure levels when analyzed with conventional statistical methods. By contrast, analysis of respiration rates, inferred from biomass measurements, with a bioenergetic toxicodynamic model indicated potential for population-level effects of exposure to very low-levels of the two nanopesticides, as well as the control contaminant CuCl2. Our results indicate that toxicity assessment of environmental trace pollutant concentrations may go undetected with traditional ecotoxicological tests. We present a process integrating toxicity test results and toxicodynamic modeling that can improve our capacity to detect and predict environmental impacts of very low levels of nanomaterials released into the environment.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Estuários , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Anfípodes/química , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cobre/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Nanopartículas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126535, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234627

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a known neurotoxicant and its relation with cognition has been well studied in children. However, evidence linking Cd and cognitive function among older individuals is limited. To evaluate the association between Cd exposure and cognitive function in older age, we conducted a cross-sectional study involving 375 older men aged 60-74 years (mean age: 66.0 years) in Guangxi, China. Urinary Cd concentrations were measured. Cognitive function was assessed by the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and cognitive impairment was identified using education-specific cutoff points of MMSE scores. General linear regression and logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the associations of urinary Cd concentrations with MMSE scores and the risk of cognitive impairment, respectively. The median urinary Cd concentration of all participants was 1.58 µg/g creatinine. Urinary Cd levels were inversely associated with MMSE scores [ß = -0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.28 to -0.23 for a 2-fold increase in urinary Cd]. A 2-fold increase in urinary Cd was associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.86]. When urinary Cd levels were analyzed as quartiles, higher urinary Cd levels were also significantly associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment in a dose-response manner (adjusted OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.33 to 5.38 for the highest vs. lowest quartile; p for trend = 0.002). Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to Cd may have adverse consequences for older men's cognitive function, but these results need further confirmation.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Idoso , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Criança , China , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231376

RESUMO

Food safety crises involving persistent organic pollutants [POPs, e.g. dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides] lead to systematic slaughter of livestock to prevent their entry into the food chain. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies to depurate livestock moderately contaminated with POPs in order to reduce such economic and social damages. This study aimed to test a POPs depuration strategy based on undernutrition (37% of energy requirements) combined with mineral oil (10% in total dry matter intake) in nine non-lactating ewes contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and PCBs 126 and 153. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the depuration process, POPs kinetics and body lipids dynamics were followed concomitantly over 57-day of depuration in POPs storage (adipose tissue, AT), central distribution (blood) and excretion (faeces) compartments. Faecal POPs concentrations in underfed and mineral oil supplemented ewes increased by 2.0 to 2.6-fold, but not proportionally to lipids concentration which increased by 6-fold, compared to the control ewes. Nonetheless, after 57 days of depuration in undernutrition and mineral oil supplementation, AT POPs concentrations were 1.5 to 1.6-fold higher while serum concentrations remained unchanged compared to the control ewes. This was concomitant with a decrease by 2.7-fold of the AT estimated lipids weight along the depuration period. This reduction of the volume of the storage compartment combined with the increase of POPs faecal excretion in underfed and mineral oil supplemented ewes led to a reduction by 1.5-fold of the PCB 126 AT burden, while no changes were observed for TCDD and PCB 153 burdens (vs. no change for PCB 126 and increases for TCDD and PCB 153 AT burdens in control ewes). The original approach of this study combining the fine description at once of POPs kinetic and of body lipids dynamic improved our understanding of POPs fate in the ruminant.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dioxinas/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Desnutrição/patologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Peso Corporal , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Cinética , Lipídeos/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Ovinos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231383

RESUMO

Food safety crises involving persistent organic pollutants (POPs) lead to systematic slaughter of livestock to prevent contaminants from entering the food chain. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies to depurate livestock moderately contaminated with POPs to reduce economic and social damage. This study aimed to test undernutrition (37% of energy requirements) combined with mineral oil (10% in total dry matter intake) in nine non-lactating ewes contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 126 and 153 as a strategy to enhance the depuration of POPs through faecal excretion. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of the depuration process, lipophilic POPs and lipid fluxes were co-monitored in various body and excretion compartments. Body compartments (adipose tissues, muscle, liver and blood) and the total empty body were analyzed for lipids and POPs concentrations and burdens at slaughter, as well as excretion compartments (faeces and wool) collected during the depuration period. Decreases in empty body total and lipid weights were 6-fold higher in underfed and supplemented ewes compared to control ewes. In addition, over the depuration period undernutrition and supplementation treatment increased faecal TCDD, PCBs 126 and 153 excretions by 1.4- to 2.1-fold but tended to decrease wool PCB 153 excretion by 1.4-fold. This induced 2- to 3-fold higher decreases in the empty body POPs burdens for underfed and supplemented ewes. Nonetheless, when expressed relative to the calculated initial empty body burdens, burdens at slaughter decreased only slightly from 97%, 103% and 98% for control ewes to 92%, 97% and 94% for underfed and supplemented ones, for TCDD, PCBs 126 and 153, respectively. Fine descriptions at once of POPs kinetic (companion paper 1) and mass balance (companion paper 2), and of body lipid dynamics were very useful in improving our understanding of the fate of POPs in the ruminants.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dioxinas/análise , Fígado/química , Desnutrição/patologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Peso Corporal , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fezes/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Ovinos , Lã/química , Lã/metabolismo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 137968, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217403

RESUMO

Biokinetic models estimating cobalt (Co) tissue burden can help assess the potential for systemic effects. Such models, however, have not been used to estimate remote tissue concentrations associated with inhalation exposure to Co-containing dust in general environments, work spaces, or animal toxicity tests. We have therefore updated a Co biokinetic model previously developed for oral dosing to include the inhalation pathway by incorporating the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Human Respiratory Tract Model. Further, data from animal studies allowed for characterization of testes Co tissue concentration supplementing previous predictions for the liver, heart and blood. Reasonable agreement (within a factor of two) was found between modeled and measured blood, liver, testes and tissue concentrations when animal doses were modeled using human equivalent concentrations to account for species differences in regional lung deposition. We applied the updated model to occupational inhalation exposure scenarios, and found that upper-bound plausible human systemic body burden associated with Co ingestion is much higher than the burden associated with Co inhalation. Chronic ingestion of Co at a previously proposed oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.03 mg/kg-day resulted in predicted tissue levels of 22-54 µg/L (blood), 0.05-0.1 µg/g (heart), 0.01-0.02 µg/g (testes), and 0.2-0.5 µg/g (liver), which were at least 5-fold more than the systemic burden associated with various Co inhalation occupational exposure limits (OELs) of 0.1 mg/m3 or less (for 8 h/d and 5 d/w). Overall, our analysis indicated that Co-metal or dust induced systemic health effects, including myocardial damage, are unlikely for the inhalation pathway when personal exposures levels are below concentrations associated with local respiratory effects such as pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Proteção Radiológica , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cobalto , Poeira , Humanos
8.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(4): 554-576, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216600

RESUMO

No detailed information on in vivo biokinetics of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) following chronic low-dose inhalation is available. The CeO2 burden for lung, lung-associated lymph nodes, and major non-pulmonary organs, blood, and feces, was determined in a chronic whole-body inhalation study in female Wistar rats undertaken according to OECD TG453 (6 h per day for 5 days per week for a 104 weeks with the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/m3, animals were sacrificed after 3, 12, 24 months). Different spectroscopy methods (ICP-MS, ion-beam-microscopy) were used for the quantification of organ burden and for visualization of NP distribution patterns in tissues. After 24 months of exposure, the highest CeO2 lung burden (4.41 mg per lung) was associated with the highest aerosol concentration and was proportionally lower for the other groups in a dose-dependent manner. Imaging techniques confirmed the presence of CeO2 agglomerates of different size categories within lung tissue with a non-homogenous distribution. For the highest exposure group, after 24 months in total 1.2% of the dose retained in the lung was found in the organs and tissues analyzed in this study, excluding lymph nodes and skeleton. The CeO2 burden per tissue decreased from lungs > lymph nodes > hard bone > liver > bone marrow. For two dosage groups, the liver organ burden showed a low accumulation rate. Here, the liver can be regarded as depot, whereas kidneys, the skeleton, and bone marrow seem to be dumps due to steadily increasing NP burden over time.


Assuntos
Cério/farmacocinética , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/metabolismo , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Aerossóis , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cério/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fezes/química , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Propriedades de Superfície , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Radiology ; 295(2): 418-427, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181730

RESUMO

Background Comprehensive assessments of the frequency and associated doses from radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures are rarely conducted. The use of these procedures and the population-based radiation dose increased remarkably from 1980 to 2006. Purpose To determine the change in per capita radiation exposure in the United States from 2006 to 2016. Materials and Methods The U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements conducted a retrospective assessment for 2016 and compared the results to previously published data for the year 2006. Effective dose values for procedures were obtained from the literature, and frequency data were obtained from commercial, governmental, and professional society data. Results In the United States in 2006, an estimated 377 million diagnostic and interventional radiologic examinations were performed. This value remained essentially the same for 2016 even though the U.S. population had increased by about 24 million people. The number of CT scans performed increased from 67 million to 84 million, but the number of other procedures (eg, diagnostic fluoroscopy) and nuclear medicine procedures decreased from 17 million to 13.5 million. The number of dental radiographic and dental CT examinations performed was estimated to be about 320 million in 2016. Using the tissue-weighting factors from Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the U.S. annual individual (per capita) effective dose from diagnostic and interventional medical procedures was estimated to have been 2.9 mSv in 2006 and 2.3 mSv in 2016, with the collective doses being 885 000 and 755 000 person-sievert, respectively. Conclusion The trend from 1980 to 2006 of increasing dose from medical radiation has reversed. Estimated 2016 total collective effective dose and radiation dose per capita dose are lower than in 2006. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Einstein in this issue.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Medicina Nuclear/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Doses de Radiação , Radiografia Intervencionista , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110339, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143103

RESUMO

Serum and breast milk are both important biological samples to evaluate body burden of dioxin-like compounds which include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We collected maternal serum at early pregnancy, and breast milk at 3-8 weeks after delivery from 55 mothers living in Beijing, China, and measured 29 dioxin-like compounds in these samples. The sampling intervals in this study were extended up to 10 months to analyze differences of contents between serum and breast milk under long sampling intervals. The results showed that mean TEq level of PCDD/Fs in serum (9.8 pg TEq g-1 lipid) was 1.7 times higher than that in milk (4.5 pg TEq g-1 lipid), while the TEq concentrations of dl-PCBs in serum (1.2 pg TEq g-1 lipid) was significantly lower than that in milk (2.0 pg TEq g-1 lipid). There were only two congeners, OCDD (r = 0.32) and PCB105 (r = 0.33), the correlations of which between serum and milk were significant. The differences in distributions of congeners in serum and milk might be influenced by number of chlorine substituents and structures of congeners. In addition, maternal age and BMI were positively and negatively correlated with mass concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in milk and serum respectively. These results suggest that, compared with serum, it is limited to use breast milk to assess long-term exposure for the wider population.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Pequim , Benzofuranos/análise , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Cloretos/análise , Cloro/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Gravidez
11.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126004, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041062

RESUMO

The body burdens of eight trace metals: Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Se, Hg, and As, were measured in live mussels (LMs) Mytilus galloprovincialis at 14 coastal sites in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia in winter and summer between 2017 and 2018. The spatial and temporal variations of body burdens were evaluated. The results revealed significantly higher body burdens of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Hg in summer at the sites where the city centre and industries are located. Elevated levels of most trace metals including 3 toxic, non-essential metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) were detected in LMs from the site of Geelong. The body burdens of Zn, Cr, Se, and As appeared higher at the sites from the Bellarine Peninsula and the mouth of Port Phillip Bay. Besides, the "Artificial Mussels" (AMs) were deployed at the same sites in summer for 28 d and retrieved when the LMs were collected. The accumulations of the eight metals were compared between AMs and LMs summer results. It indicated significant correlations for Pb, Cu, and Cr, lower correlations in Zn and Hg, and irregular correlations for Se and As. The AM results of Cd were below the detection limit of the analytical method. This study demonstrates that AMs are excellent replacement of LMs for the biomonitoring of multiple kinds of trace metals.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mytilus/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Mercúrio , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/análise , Vitória , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Environ Res ; 183: 109148, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004829

RESUMO

Exposure assessment traditionally relies on biomarkers that measure chemical concentrations in individual biological media (i.e., blood, urine, etc.). However, chemicals distribute unevenly among different biological media; thus, each medium provides incomplete information about body burden. We propose that machine learning and statistical approaches can create integrated exposure estimates from multiple biomarker matrices that better represent the overall body burden, which we term multi-media biomarkers (MMBs). We measured lead (Pb) in blood, urine, hair and nails from 251 Italian adolescents aged 11-14 years from the Public Health Impact of Metals Exposure (PHIME) cohort. We derived aggregated MMBs from the four biomarkers and then tested their association with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) IQ scores. We used three approaches to derive the Pb MMB: one supervised learning technique, weighted quantile sum regression (WQS), and two unsupervised learning techniques, independent component analysis (ICA) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Overall, the Pb MMB derived using WQS was most consistently associated with IQ scores and was the only method to be statistically significant for Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Total IQ. A one standard deviation increase in the WQS MMB was associated with lower Verbal IQ (ß [95% CI] = -2.2 points [-3.7, -0.6]), Performance IQ (-1.9 points [-3.5, -0.4]) and Total IQ (-2.1 points [-3.8, -0.5]). Blood Pb was negatively associated with only Verbal IQ, with a one standard deviation increase in blood Pb being associated with a -1.7 point (95% CI: [-3.3, -0.1]) decrease in Verbal IQ. Increases of one standard deviation in the ICA MMB were associated with lower Verbal IQ (-1.7 points [-3.3, -0.1]) and lower Total IQ (-1.7 points [-3.3, -0.1]). Similarly, an increase of one standard deviation in the NMF MMB was associated with lower Verbal IQ (-1.8 points [-3.4, -0.2]) and lower Total IQ (-1.8 points [-3.4, -0.2]). Weights highlighting the contributions of each medium to the MMB revealed that blood Pb was the largest contributor to most MMBs, although the weights varied from more than 80% for the ICA and NMF MMBs to between 30% and 54% for the WQS-derived MMBs. Our results suggest that MMBs better reflect the total body burden of a chemical that may be acting on target organs than individual biomarkers. Estimating MMBs improved our ability to estimate the full impact of Pb on IQ. Compared with individual Pb biomarkers, including blood, a Pb MMB derived using WQS was more strongly associated with IQ scores. MMBs may increase statistical power when the choice of exposure medium is unclear or when the sample size is small. Future work will need to validate these methods in other cohorts and for other chemicals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Chumbo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Itália , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Escalas de Wechsler
13.
Environ Res ; 183: 109224, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a developmental toxicant that is released into the environment during industrial processes. Previous animal studies suggest that Cd may impact the onset of puberty. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether Cd exposure, measured as urinary Cd concentration, was associated with ages at menarche and pubertal development. METHODS: A cohort of 211 girls, ages 10-13 years at baseline, was followed for up to two years. Girls completed an interview and self-assessment of Tanner stages of breast development and pubic hair growth. They were followed monthly until menarche. Urinary Cd concentrations were measured in overnight urine specimens. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between urinary Cd and age at menarche and cumulative logit regression was used to evaluate the associations between urinary Cd and breast development and pubic hair growth. RESULTS: The baseline geometric mean creatinine-adjusted Cd concentration was 0.22 µg/g creatinine (geometric standard deviation = 1.6) and decreased with increasing age (p-trend = 0.04). Cd levels were higher among Asian than White girls or girls of other/mixed race/ethnicity (p = 0.04). In multivariable analyses, girls with urinary Cd ≥ 0.4 µg/L were less likely to have attained menarche than girls with urinary Cd < 0.2 µg/L (hazard ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.78). Urinary Cd was negatively associated with pubic hair growth (p-trend = 0.01) but not with breast development (p-trend = 0.72) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a higher Cd body burden may delay some aspects of pubertal development among girls.


Assuntos
Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio , Menarca , Puberdade , Adolescente , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Maturidade Sexual
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023299

RESUMO

The effect of age and gender in risk estimates related to long-term residence in areas contaminated by nuclear power plant fallout was evaluated by applying the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) concept to an existing exposure model that was previously used for cumulative effective dose estimates. In this study, we investigated the influence of age distribution on the number of cancer cases by applying five different age distributions from nuclear power-producing countries (India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States), and Egypt because of intentions to develop nuclear power. The model was also used to estimate the effective dose and gender-specific LAR as a function of time after fallout for the offspring of the population living in 137Cs fallout areas. The principal findings of this study are that the LAR of cancer incidence (excluding non-fatal skin cancers) over 70 y is about 4.5 times higher for newborn females (5.4% per MBq m-2 of initial 137Cs ground deposition) than the corresponding values for 30 y old women (1.2% per MBq m-2 137Cs deposition). The cumulative LAR for newborn males is more than 3 times higher (3.2% versus 1.0% per MBq m-2 137Cs deposition). The model predicts a generally higher LAR for women until 50 y of age, after which the gender difference converges. Furthermore, the detriment for newborns in the fallout areas initially decreases rapidly (about threefold during the first decade) and then decreases gradually with an approximate half-time of 10-12 y after the first decade. The age distribution of the exposed cohort has a decisive impact on the average risk estimates, and in our model, these are up to about 65% higher in countries with high birth rates compared to low birth rates. This trend implies larger average lifetime attributable risks in countries with a highly proportional younger population. In conclusion, the large dispersion (up to a factor of 4 between newborns and 30 y olds) in the lifetime detriment per unit ground deposition of 137Cs over gender and age in connection with accidental nuclear releases justifies the effort in developing risk models that account for the higher radiation sensitivity in younger populations.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Centrais Nucleares/estatística & dados numéricos , Cinza Radioativa/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113311, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813705

RESUMO

Recently, the widespread use of antibiotic has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with their microbiological effect. In the present study, we investigated 990 elderly individuals (age ≥ 60 years) from the Cohort of Elderly Health and Environment Controllable Factors in West Anhui, China. A total of 45 representative antibiotics and two antibiotic metabolites were monitored in urine samples through liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that 34 antibiotics were detected in 93.0% of all urine samples and the detection frequencies of each antibiotic varied between 0.2% and 35.5%. The overall detection frequencies of seven human antibiotics (HAs), 10 veterinary antibiotics (VAs), three antibiotics preferred as HAs (PHAs), and 14 preferred as VAs (PVAs) in urines were 27.4%, 62.9%, 30.9% and 72.7%, respectively. Notably, the samples with concentrations of six PVAs (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, danofloxacin, norfloxacin and lincomycin) above 5000 ng/mL accounted for 1.7% of all urine samples. Additionally, in 62.7% of urine samples, the total antibiotic concentration was in the range of the limits of detection to 20.0 ng/mL. Furthermore, the elderly individuals with the sum of estimated daily intakes of VAs and PVAs more than 1 µg/kg/day accounted for 15.2% of all participants, and a health risk related to change in gut microbiota under antibiotic stimulation was expected in 6.7% of the elderly individuals. Especially, ciprofloxacin was the foremost contributor to the health risk, and its hazard quotient value was more than one in 3.5% of all subjects. Taken together, the elderly Chinese people were extensively exposed to VAs, and some elderly individuals may have a health risk associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/urina , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Idoso , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Medição de Risco
16.
Environ Res ; 180: 108886, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708171

RESUMO

Due to their long life-span and top trophic position, odontocetes can accumulate high concentrations of mercury (Hg) in their tissues. This study measured the concentration of total Hg (THg) in the blubber and skin of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that stranded along the Florida (FL) panhandle and Louisiana (LA) coasts and investigated the relationship between total Hg (THg) concentration and sex, body length, age, stranding location, diet/trophic position (δ13C and δ15N, respectively), and foraging habitat (δ34S). Additionally, we compared models using body length and age as explanatory variables to determine which was a better predictor of THg concentration. In both tissues, sex was not an influential predictor of THg concentration and there was a positive relationship between body length/age and THg concentration (p < 0.001). Florida dolphins had greater mean blubber and skin THg concentrations compared to LA dolphins (p < 0.001). There was a modest improvement in model fit when age was used in place of body length. δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S differed between stranding locations and together with age were significant predictors of THg concentrations (R2 = 0.52, P < 0.001). Florida dolphins were δ13C enriched compared to LA dolphins (p < 0.001) and THg concentrations were positively correlated with δ13C (R2 = 0.22, p < 0.001). Our results demonstrate spatial variability in THg concentrations from stranded bottlenose dolphins from the northern Gulf of Mexico; however, future research is required to understand how fine-scale population structuring of dolphins within FL and LA impacts THg concentrations, particularly among inshore (bay, sound, and estuary) stocks and between inshore and offshore stocks, as variations in biotic and abiotic conditions can influence both stable isotope ratios and THg concentrations.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Golfo do México , Louisiana , Mercúrio/análise , Pele/química
17.
Environ Res ; 180: 108797, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761335

RESUMO

Lead adversely impacts the health of humans, animals, and the natural environment. Higher lead burdens in warm weather occur in humans, domesticated and wild animals; land and water species; urban and rural, developed and pristine environments. The array of evidence suggests that lead seasonality is multifactorial within the natural world, including humans. Seasonally higher temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and anthropogenic pollution result in lower pH (acidification) in air, water and soil. Environmental acidification increases lead's bioavailability and mobility thus intensifying human, animal and plant exposures. In addition, lead seasonality in the biosphere is influenced by higher growth rates, slightly increased exposures, and more Vitamin D metabolism. Methodologically, we applied a One Health perspective to EPA's Integrated Science Assessments of Lead to review the published literature, supplemented with subsequent and related publications to assess data on the seasonality of lead exposure across species and through the earth's systems. Our integrated assessment suggests that: 1) 'Seasonality' is a multifactorial, terrestrial phenomenon affecting the natural world; human activities have exacerbated natural cyclicities that impact lead exposures across species. 2) To be sustainable, human lead remediation strategies must consider the total environment. 3) Global warming and climate change events may increase lead exposures and toxicity to all species throughout the natural environment.


Assuntos
Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Mudança Climática , Chumbo , Estações do Ano , Animais , Poluição Ambiental , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109882, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698175

RESUMO

Microplastics attract widespread attention, including for their potential to transport toxic chemicals in the form of plasticisers and associated hydrophobic organic chemicals, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The aims of this study were to investigate how nylon (polyamide) microplastics may affect PBDE accumulation in snails, and the acute effects of nylon particles and PBDEs on survival, weight change and inherent microbiome diversity and community composition of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails were exposed for 96 h to BDEs-47, 99, 100 and 153 in the presence and absence of 1% w/w nylon microplastics in quartz sand sediment. No mortality was observed over the exposure period. Snails not exposed to microplastics lost significantly more weight compared to those exposed to microplastics. Increasing PBDE concentration in the sediment resulted in an increased PBDE body burden in the snails, however microplastics did not significantly influence total PBDE uptake. Based on individual congeners, uptake of BDE 47 by snails was significantly reduced in the presence of microplastics. The diversity and composition of the snail microbiome was not significantly altered by the presence of PBDEs nor by the microplastics, singly or combined. Significant effects on a few individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) occurred when comparing the highest PBDE concentration with the control treatment, but in the absence of microplastics only. Overall within these acute experiments, only subtle effects on weight loss and slight microbiome alterations occurred. These results therefore highlight that L. stagnalis are resilient to acute exposures to microplastics and PBDEs, and that microplastics are unlikely to influence HOC accumulation or the microbiome of this species over short timescales.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Lymnaea/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Lymnaea/metabolismo , Lymnaea/microbiologia , Nylons/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109900, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710868

RESUMO

Copper is an essential element in many biological processes, but may exert toxic effects at levels surplus to metabolic requirements. Herein we assess the effect of copper on zebrafish behaviour using two assays, namely the novel tank diving test and a T-maze test with food reward. Novel tank diving tests were conducted on days 0, 4, and 10 of a 10 day Cu exposure (at concentrations of 0.77 µM (25% of the 240 h LC50) and 1.52 µM (50% of the 240 h LC50) to assess the alterations of behavioural responses in repeating novel tank diving assays and the effect of Cu on these patterns. Results demonstrate habituation to novelty, which is an indicator of spatial memory. Copper exposure had no effect on the latency of entry into the upper zones of the tank, nor on the total time spent therein, but did cause a greater number of freezing bouts in comparison to the control group. Additionally, Cu exposure had no effect on the habituation responses of zebrafish. Using the T-maze assay, we tested the effect of prior exposure to Cu for 10 days on subsequent behavioural trainings. The T-maze protocol was based on associative learning, where a visual stimulus (colour) was linked with a natural stimulus (food). Results of the control group showed that zebrafish are able to perform associative learning tasks. Moreover, Cu was found to negatively affect the associative learning capabilities. Specifically, while zebrafish in the control group achieved a significant number of correct choices (leading to food reward) throughout the T-maze training, such a trend was not observed for Cu exposed fish. Thus at the exposure concentrations and exposure times considered herein, Cu has no determinative impact on instinctual behavioural responses of zebrafish in repeated novel tank diving assays but does limit the associative learning capabilities.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cobre/metabolismo , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
20.
Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol ; 24: 93-108, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Ucraniano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: evaluation of main foodstuffs consumption levels of residents in particular settlements on radiological- ly contaminated territories of Kyiv, Rivne and Zhytomyr regions and determination of the proportion of local house- holds products to goods purchased in the trade network in the daily ration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research was conducted in 22 settlements of Kyiv, Rivne, Zhytomyr regions. For the study, the questionnaires were written for adults and children, which included 47 questions in 5 content blocks regarding the questionnaire data of the interviewed person; peculiarities of household management; levels of food consumption grown in local households and separately purchased in the trade network; levels of local wildlife products consumption; and the fifth - regarding the possession of information on radiation, received an individual dose of radiation from the «Chornobyl component¼, protective preventive measures. In total 539 people were inter- viewed, including 359 adults and 180 children aged 1 to 18 years. Information about children under 14 years of age was provided by their parents. Mathematical, statistical methods were used. RESULTS: According to the results of the survey, it can be stated that the main foodstuffs of residents of the sur- veyed settlements are milk and dairy products, potatoes and root crops of local cultivation, bread and bakery products purchased in the trade network. The analysis of the structure and dynamics of the diet of the popula- tion of the surveyed settlements showed a significant decrease in the consumption levels of basic food products, primarily purchased through the trade network, due to a decline in purchasing power of the population in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: The diet of the residents of the surveyed settlements consists mainly of products produced in private or local households. Fewer people use wildlife products - wildfowl, fish from local water bodies, fresh and canned wild berries, and fresh and dried mushrooms, but due to their significant 137Cs contamination, even small amounts of these products can result in a significant dose of radiation.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia , População Urbana
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