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2.
J Occup Health ; 61(4): 269-277, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (CCVDs) and mental disorders, including suicide, are prevalent among overworked individuals in Japan. The 2014 legislation regarding the prevention of overwork-related deaths and disorders has accelerated the research in this field and ultimately the implementation of preventive actions. METHODS: To understand the current problematic situations, the Research Center for Overwork-Related Disorders of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan, conducted analyses of compensated claims for overwork-related CCVDs and mental disorders that were recognized from January 2010 to March 2015. RESULTS: The majority of CCVD cases were the men in their 50s. Transport and postal activities was the highest risk industry. Cerebrovascular cases were higher than cardiovascular ones. Long working hours was the principal factor for CCVDs. The mental disorder cases comprised approximately 70% men and affected younger age groups (peak in the third decade) with various industries at risk. In men, there was an almost equal number of F3 (Mood [affective] disorders) and F4 (Neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders) diagnoses according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. A larger number of women were diagnosed to have F4. The mental disorder cases were associated not only with long working hours, but also with injuries and disasters as well as interpersonal conflict at work. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple, simultaneous actions need to be made by employees, employers, researchers, and the authorities to achieve the goal of reducing the number of workers suffering from the overwork-related CCVDs and mental disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Sleep Health ; 4(5): 472-475, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the hours of service provisions in continental Latin America. DESIGN: Information on regulations of service hours was extracted from either the national transportation authorities or ministries of transportation (or the equivalent institution) from each country. SETTING: Seventeen sovereign countries in continental Latin America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). PARTICIPANTS: N/A INTERVENTION (IF ANY): N/A MEASUREMENT: Data on (a) limit on work hours, (b) mandatory daily time off (or rest), (c) overall schedule (mandatory weekly time off), and (d) daily breaks were extracted and summarized. RESULTS: Of the 17 countries surveyed, 9 countries have provisions limiting the daily amount of hours of service for professional drivers. Ten have provisions for mandatory daily rest, but only 5 have explicit provisions limiting the number of continuous working days, with mandatory uninterrupted time off >35 hours. Eight countries have provisions for mandatory breaks that limit the hours of continuous driving (ranging from 3 to 5:30 hours). CONCLUSION: Regulations that govern a population with 6 million injuries and over 100,000 deaths per year due to motor vehicle accidents leave important gaps. A minority, 6, of the countries regulated all 3 aspects; daily hours, breaks, and time off, and 3 regulate none of these. The regulations are less precise and restrictive than those in high-income countries, despite the doubled road injury mortality, and likely expose professional drivers and other road users to an increased risk of fatigue-related accidents.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , América Latina , Descanso , Fatores de Tempo
7.
9.
Zentralbl Chir ; 142(6): 575-580, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237222

RESUMO

Due to the marked increase in the numbers of women in medicine, professional and political discussions on equality among doctors are gaining increasing attention. One such issue is "operating during pregnancy". As a result of existing legislation and federal regulations, it has been virtually impossible for pregnant surgeons to continue their surgical work. After approval by the Federal Council or Bundesrat, the revised Maternity Protection Act will come into force on 01.01.2018. It will thereafter be easier for surgeons to operate during pregnancy. The focus will now be on the transformation of workplace practices, in which individual risk assessments of the participating surgeons will be carried out in order to achieve a risk-adapted operation, and thus to prevent premature and unwanted restrictions on the employment of pregnant female surgeons.


Assuntos
Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Médicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Gravidez , Política Pública , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Licença Parental/legislação & jurisprudência , Período Pós-Parto , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência
11.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 36(3): 123-134, 2017.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956868

RESUMO

. The new methods to define the staffing requirements for doctors, nurses and nurses aides: an example of their implementation in an Italian hospital. The Italian government, after the transposition of European Union legislation on working hours, made a declaration of commitment to increase the number of staff of the National Health Service (NHS). The method for assessing the staffing needs innovates the old one that dated back a few decades. AIM: To implement the method proposed by the Ministry of Health to an Italian hospital and assess its impact on staffing and costs. METHODS: The model was implemented on all the wards, multiplying the minutes of care expected in 2016, dividing the result by 60 to obtain the hours of care, and further dividing by the number of yearly hours of work of a nurse (1418). Same was done for nurses aides. The minutes of care were related to mean weight of the Diagnosis Related Groups of the ward and the results obtained compared to the actual staffing of nurses and nurses aides. The costs of the differences were calculated. RESULTS: The implementation of the model produced an excess of 23 nurses and a scarcity of 95 nurses aides compared to the actual staffing, with an increase of the costs of € 1.828.562,00. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained and the criticisms received so far show the need of major changes. The data from international studies that associate staffing and patients outcomes and the nurse/patient ratio are macro-indicators already available that may orient choices and investments on the health care professions.


Assuntos
Hospitais/normas , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Assistentes de Enfermagem/normas , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/normas , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/normas , Médicos/normas , Carga de Trabalho , União Europeia , Órgãos Governamentais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Itália , Assistentes de Enfermagem/economia , Assistentes de Enfermagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/economia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/legislação & jurisprudência , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/economia , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/legislação & jurisprudência , Médicos/economia , Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Carga de Trabalho/economia , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Carga de Trabalho/normas
12.
Arkh Patol ; 79(3): 53-56, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631717

RESUMO

The paper considers the development and current state of the regulation of work quota setting and remuneration in pathologists. Reasoning from the current staff standards for morbid anatomy departments (units), the authors present a method to calculate the load of pathologists. The essence of the proposed method is demonstrated using a specific example.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional/normas , Patologistas/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Patologia/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Carga de Trabalho/normas , Eficiência Organizacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Patologistas/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviço Hospitalar de Patologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Federação Russa , Recursos Humanos , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(0): 26, 2017 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380210

RESUMO

Traffic accidents and resulting injuries and deaths have become a global epidemic. In Brazil, most professional drivers, especially truck drivers, face irregular working hours and can be awake for more than 18 hours/day, which reduces their performance and alertness. In this article, we discuss the laws related to Brazilian professional drivers and their current amendments (No. 12,619/2012 and No. 13,103/2015) in relation to working hours at the wheel and rest breaks, which are vital for the quality of life of drivers and society in general. We note that the new law appears to be less efficient than the previous one as it causes insecurity and concern to the users of the transportation system, drivers, and employers. To restrict and reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries in traffic, appropriate legislation is essential, aiming at the safety of workers and users of highways. The law must also benefit the commercial aspect, strengthening the reduction in production and logistics losses. Additionally, traffic education programs are needed, as well as better supervision in relation to total working hours. RESUMO Acidentes de trânsito com consequentes lesões e mortes têm se tornado uma epidemia em nível mundial. No Brasil, a maioria dos motoristas profissionais, sobretudo motoristas de transporte de cargas, enfrenta jornada de trabalho irregular e permanece acordado por mais de 18 horas/dia, o que reduz seu desempenho e estado de alerta. Neste artigo, discutimos as leis dos motoristas profissionais brasileiros e suas alterações vigentes (nº 12.619/2012 e nº 13.103/2015) em relação às horas de trabalho ao volante e a pausas para descanso, imprescindíveis para a qualidade de vida dos motoristas e para a sociedade em geral. Observamos que a nova legislação se mostra menos eficiente que a anterior por causar insegurança e preocupação aos usuários do sistema de transporte, aos próprios motoristas e aos empregadores. Para restringir e reduzir acidentes, mortes e lesões no trânsito, é fundamental uma legislação adequada, que vise à segurança do trabalhador e dos usuários das rodovias. A legislação deve, também, beneficiar o aspecto comercial, que se fortalece pela redução das perdas de produção e logística. Adicionalmente, são necessários programas de educação no trânsito e melhor fiscalização em relação ao tempo total de jornada de trabalho.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Acidentes de Trânsito , Exposição Ocupacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Segurança , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Humanos
15.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 33(1): 1-11, abr. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-161034

RESUMO

This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB) on employee mental and physical health (SF-12) using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employeremployee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health (AU)


Este estudio analiza los efectos de la ruptura del contrato psicológico (PCB, según sus siglas en inglés) sobre la salud mental y física (SF-12) de los empleados, utilizando una muestra de 3.870 empleados obtenida de un estudio longitudinal que vincula empleador con empleado en distintas empresas alemanas. Los resultados de los modelos de regresión múltiple y de análisis de mediación indican que la PCB afecta tanto a la salud mental como a la física del empleado, pero es más amenazante para la salud mental. Además, la salud mental modera parcialmente los efectos del PCB en la salud física. Igualmente, los resultados del estudio muestran que la importancia relativa de las obligaciones no cumplidas por parte del empleado varía en función del contenido específico del contrato psicológico. En conclusión, los resultados del estudio avalan la idea de que el PCB funciona como un agente estresante psicosocial en el trabajo, lo que representa un gran riesgo para la salud del empleado (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Mental/normas , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Trabalhadores/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Análise Multivariada/métodos
17.
Zentralbl Chir ; 142(6): 583-589, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494771

RESUMO

Background Between the conflicting requirements of clinic organisation, the European Working Time Directive, patient safety, an increasing lack of junior staff, and competitiveness, the development of ideal duty hour models is vital to ensure maximum quality of care within the legal requirements. To achieve this, it is useful to evaluate the actual effects of duty hour models on staff satisfaction. Materials and Methods After the traditional 24-hour duty shift was given up in a surgical maximum care centre in 2007, an 18-hour duty shift was implemented, followed by a 12-hour shift in 2008, to improve handovers and reduce loss of information. The effects on work organisation, quality of life and salary were analysed in an anonymous survey in 2008. The staff survey was repeated in 2014. Results With a response rate of 95% of questionnaires in 2008 and a 93% response rate in 2014, the 12-hour duty model received negative ratings due to its high duty frequency and subsequent social strain. Also the physical strain and chronic tiredness were rated as most severe in the 12-hour rota. The 18-hour duty shift was the model of choice amongst staff. The 24-hour duty model was rated as the best compromise between the requirements of work organisation and staff satisfaction, and therefore this duty model was adapted accordingly in 2015. Conclusion The essential basis of a surgical department is a duty hour model suited to the requirements of work organisation, the Working Time Directive and the needs of the surgical staff. A 12-hour duty model can be ideal for work organisation, but only if augmented with an adequate number of staff members, the implementation of this model is possible without the frequency of 12-hour shifts being too high associated with strain on surgical staff and a perceived deterioration of quality of life. A staff survey should be performed on a regular basis to assess the actual effects of duty hour models and enable further optimisation. The much criticised 24-hour duty model seems to be much better than its reputation, if augmented by additional staff members in the evening hours.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica/legislação & jurisprudência , Satisfação no Emprego , Centros Cirúrgicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Segurança do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
18.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 44(2): 177-183, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27817764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proposed implementation of work hour restrictions has presented a significant challenge of maintaining the quality of resident education and ensuring adequate hands-on experience that is essential for novice surgeons. To maintain the level of resident surgical competency, revision of the apprentice model of surgical education to include supplementary educational methods, such as laboratory and virtual reality (VR) simulations, have become frequent topics of discussion. We aimed to better understand the role of supplementary educational methods in Canadian neurosurgery residency training. METHODS: An online survey was sent to program directors of all 14 Canadian neurosurgical residency programs and active resident members of the Canadian Neurosurgical Society (N=85). We asked 16 questions focusing on topics of surgeon perception, current implementation and barriers to supplementary educational models. RESULTS: Of the 99 surveys sent, 8 out of 14 (57%) program directors and 37 out of 85 (44%) residents completed the survey. Of the 14 neurosurgery residency programs across Canada, 7 reported utilizing laboratory-based teaching within their educational plan, while only 3 programs reported using VR simulation as a supplementary teaching method. The biggest barriers to implementing supplementary educational methods were resident availability, lack of resources, and cost. CONCLUSIONS: Work-hour restrictions threaten to compromise the traditional apprentice model of surgical training. The potential value of supplementary educational methods for surgical education is evident, as reported by both program directors and residents across Canada. However, availability and utilization of laboratory and VR simulations are limited by numerous factors such as time constrains and lack of resources.


Assuntos
Currículo , Internato e Residência/normas , Neurocirurgia/educação , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Canadá , Humanos
20.
Tunis Med ; 95(10): 837-841, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873052

RESUMO

The punitive culture continues to prevail in health care organizations that rely primarily on functional systems hierarchies based on conformity. This type of culture is recognized as a major source of an unacceptable number of medical errors. The safety culture has emerged as an imperative to improve the quality and safety of patient care, but also as a shield against the judgments targeted towards the caregivers (doctor and / or nurse) involved in an undesirable event. The safety culture allows a broader view of the error by analyzing both system failures and staff incompetence. Therefore, it places caregivers in their workplace with mutual interactions and protects them from "second victim" status. It is imperative to have a reflection on the safety culture that constitutes a proof of transparency and openness towards society about the mistake that remains taboo. This attitude will avoid the risk of "judicialization of health".


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Doença Iatrogênica/prevenção & controle , Legislação Médica , Erros Médicos , Gestão da Segurança , Esgotamento Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica/epidemiologia , Legislação Médica/normas , Legislação Médica/tendências , Erros Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Família , Gestão da Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Gestão da Segurança/tendências , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Carga de Trabalho/normas
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