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1.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 39(3): 291-298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810347

RESUMO

Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Kidodent, Probiotics, and Carica papaya Leaf extract mouthwashes in reducing Streptococcus mutans count in 8-12 years' old school children. Methodology: Sixty children of age group of 8-12 years were nominated and grouped as Group A (Kidodent mouthwash), Group B (probiotics mouthwash) Group C (C. papaya leaf extract mouthwash), and Group D (distilled water placebo). Probiotics sachets (Prebact) of about 1 g were diluted in 10 ml of water and given as mouthwash. C. papaya leaf extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction using ethanol as a solvent. Participants were asked to rinse with mouthwashes for 30 s once daily for up to 15 days. Saliva samples were collected and inoculated using Salivarius Mitis and Agar Agar Type I at 38°C for 24 h and incubated, later colony-forming units per milliliter were determined by serial dilution and calculated using colony counter manually. Statistical Analysis: Data were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and t-test using the SPSS V.20 software. Results: Probiotics and C. papaya leaf extract mouthwashes were equally effective as Kidodent in reducing S. mutans count in saliva. Conclusion: Probiotics and C. papaya leaf extract mouthwashes manifested potential efficacy in reduction of S. mutans.


Assuntos
Carica , Probióticos , Antibacterianos , Criança , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saliva , Streptococcus mutans
2.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 295-303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598401

RESUMO

Drug-herb interaction may lead to therapeutic failure or toxicities. This study investigates the effect of methanol extract of Carica papaya (papaya) on anti-malarial efficacy of artesunate and on hepato-renal toxicities in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Five groups comprising of twenty-five mice were used for the study. Group 1 mice were non-infected and served as normal control while groups 2-5 were all parasitized. Group 2 mice were without treatment and served as parasitemia control. Group 3 mice were treated with 400 mg/kg of the extract alone while group 4 mice received 5 mg/kg of artesunate. The last group received a combination of 400 mg/kg of the extract and 5 mg/kg of artesunate. The treatment lasted five consecutive days during which daily packed cell volume and parasitemia levels were evaluated. At the end of the treatment period, mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected to determine some haematological parameters, liver and kidney function parameters and levels of oxidative stress. Co-administration of Carica papaya and artesunate significantly (P˂0.01) reduced daily parasitemia load and significantly (P˂0.01) mitigated drastic reduction in packed cell volume, red blood cells and haemoglobin levels. The combination significantly (P˂0.01) attenuated oxidative stress and does not adversely affect white blood cells and differential white blood cells count as well as hepato-renal markers. Short-term co-administration of Carica papaya and artesunate in Plasmodium berghei infected mice is a positive drug-herb combination. This should be clinically explored for the purpose of malaria treatment in humans.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Carica , Animais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artesunato , Camundongos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium berghei
3.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(6): 1323-1335, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609588

RESUMO

Sex form is one of the most important characteristics in papaya cultivation in which hermaphrodite is the preferable form. Self-pollination of H*-TSS No.7, an inbred line derived from a rare X chromosome mutant SR*, produced all-hermaphrodite progeny. The recessive lethal allele controlling the all-hermaphrodite phenomenon was proposed to be the recessive Germination suppressor (gs) locus. This study employed next-generation sequencing technology and genome comparison to identify the candidate Gs gene. One specific gene, monodehydroascorbate reductase 4 (MDAR4) harboring a unique polymorphic 3 bp deletion in H*-TSS No.7 was identified. The function of MDAR4 is known to be involved in the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging pathway and is associated with seed germination. Furthermore, MDAR4 showed higher expression in the imbibed seeds than that in the dry seeds indicating its potential role in the seed germination. Perhaps this is the very first report providing the evidences that MDAR4 is the candidate of Gs locus in H*-TSS No.7. In addition, Gs allele-specific markers were developed which would be facilitated for breeding all-hermaphrodite lines.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Organismos Hermafroditas/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Germinação/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Polinização/genética , Polinização/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Deleção de Sequência/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637470

RESUMO

Papaya ringspot virus biotype-P is a detrimental pathogen of economically important papaya and cucurbits worldwide. The mutation prone feature of this virus perhaps accounts for its geographical dissemination. In this study, investigations of the atypical PRSV-P strain was conducted based on phylogenetic, recombination and genetic differentiation analyses considering of it's likely spread across India and Bangladesh. Full length genomic sequences of 38 PRSV isolates and 35 CP gene sequences were subjected to recombination analysis. A total of 61 recombination events were detected in aligned complete PRSV genome sequences. 3 events were detected in complete genome of PRSV strain PK whereas one was in its CP gene sequence. The PRSV-PK appeared to be recombinant of a major parent from Bangladesh. However, the genetic differentiation based on full length genomic sequences revealed less frequent gene flow between virus PRSV-PK and the population from America, India, Colombia, other Asian Countries and Australia. Whereas, frequent gene flow exists between Pakistan and Bangladesh virus populations. These results provided evidence correlating geographical position and genetic distances. We speculate that the genetic variations and evolutionary dynamics of this virus may challenge the resistance developed in papaya against PRSV and give rise to virus lineage because of its atypical emergence where geographic spread is already occurring.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Carica/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Potyvirus/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Viral , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Estatística como Assunto
5.
Am J Dent ; 34(5): 273-276, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689451

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of Carica papaya mouthrinse as an inhibitor of Streptococcus mutans. METHODS: This was a double blind (subject and evaluator) randomized controlled trial in 40 subjects distributed in two groups: Carica papaya mouthrinse intervention (n= 20) or chlorhexidine (n= 20). The antibacterial effect was determined by counting colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) of S. mutans in saliva sample cultures; taken both before mouthrinse, immediately after 10 minutes mouthrinsing, and 8 days after mouthrinsing. The data was statistically analyzed with Student's t-test (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: The difference before and immediately after (10 minutes) use of Carica papaya mouthrinse was of 764 CFUs. After 8 days use the difference was 212 CFUs. For the control group (0.12% chlorhexidine) the difference before and immediately after use (10 minutes) was 683 CFUs. After 8 days use the difference was 455 CFU. When comparing between groups applying t-test, no statistical differences were found in the (CFU/ml) of S. mutans before and after 10 minutes mouthrinse (P= 0.8060), 10 minutes and 8 days after mouthrinsing (P= 0.7104) before and 8 days after mouthrinsing (P= 0.4419). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Carica papaya could be an alternative mouthrinse for the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.


Assuntos
Carica , Streptococcus mutans , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Saliva
6.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571988

RESUMO

Papaya is a fleshy fruit that undergoes fast ethylene-induced modifications. The fruit becomes edible, but the fast pulp softening is the main factor that limits the post-harvest period. Papaya fast pulp softening occurs due to cell wall disassembling coordinated by ethylene triggering that massively expresses pectinases. In this work, RNA-seq analysis of ethylene-treated and non-treated papayas enabled a wide transcriptome overview that indicated the role of ethylene during ripening at the gene expression level. Several families of transcription factors (AP2/ERF, NAC, and MADS-box) were differentially expressed. ACO, ACS, and SAM-Mtase genes were upregulated, indicating a high rate of ethylene biosynthesis after ethylene treatment. The correlation among gene expression and physiological data demonstrated ethylene treatment can indeed simulate ripening, and regulation of changes in fruit color, aroma, and flavor could be attributed to the coordinated expression of several related genes. Especially about pulp firmness, the identification of 157 expressed genes related to cell wall metabolism demonstrated that pulp softening is accomplished by a coordinated action of several different cell wall-related enzymes. The mechanism is different from other commercially important fruits, such as strawberry, tomato, kiwifruit, and apple. The observed behavior of this new transcriptomic data confirms ethylene triggering is the main event that elicits fast pulp softening in papayas.


Assuntos
Carica/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Carica/enzimologia , Carica/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Etilenos/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/enzimologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495203

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the jambolan (Syzigium cumini L.) peel and leaves extract added in pectin based edible coating onto color changes, mass loss and ß-carotene retention of minimally processed papaya during storage at 5 ±2 °C for 9 days. Leaves and peels were crushed in water in solid:liquid ratio, 1:1.5 and 1:2.0 and filtrered to obtain vegetable extracts. After, aqueous solutions were prepared adding 2% of pectin and 5% of extract. The mass loss increasing in all treatments evaluated in this work, being that in the final of 9 days of storage, control and P2 (peel 2%) treatment presented the highest loss, 6.23 and 10.12% respectively. The L1.5 (leaf 1.5%) treatment was the one presented the lowest percentage of mass loss (3.8%). The values of () of the control samples reduced significantly during the storage period, reaching 21% of reduction after 9 days. Coating with vegetable extract from jambolan peel and leaf reduced the loss of ß-carotene in minimally processed papaya during the storage, being that the treatment P1.5 provided the highest retention value of the compound. The results demonstrated that the studied coating set with extracts (peel and leaves) of jambolan, was efficient to preserve the color, the mass loss and the ß-carotene content of the minimally processed papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Filmes Comestíveis , Pectinas , Extratos Vegetais , Verduras , beta Caroteno/análise
8.
Environ Entomol ; 50(5): 1016-1027, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382647

RESUMO

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) production suffers from a multitude of abiotic and biotic constraints, among those are insect pests, diseases, and environmental conditions. One of the seriously damaging pests of papaya is invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus, which can inflict heavy yield loss if not contained. Little information on papaya mealybug species has been documented due to challenges in identification approaches to species level. The current approach is based on the morphological features which are restricted to the mealybug life cycle leading to unclear identification. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where a wide diversity of mealybug species exists, it is essential to have a correct identification of these insect species due to the specificity of control measures. Molecular identification could be the best way to identify the mealybug at the species level. Presently, farmers rely heavily on chemical pesticides as their only available option for papaya mealybug control. The overuse of pesticides due to insect waxy covering has led to the development of pesticide resistance and the negative impact on the local ecosystem. Alternatively, the use of plant essential oils (EOs) with adjuvant is suggested as the safe solution to papaya mealybug control as they contain a rich source of natural chemicals that dissolve the insect wax layer, causing the cell membrane to rupture eventually leading to death. This review provides current research knowledge about the papaya mealybug identification approaches and plant EOs from Sweet orange, garlic, castor, and adjuvant (isopropyl alcohol, and paraffin) as sustainable papaya mealybug management.


Assuntos
Carica , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Ecossistema , Óleos Vegetais , Plantas
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(41): 58232-58240, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109525

RESUMO

Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia. Secondary complications of diabetes are serious risk factors that might lead to cardiovascular diseases. This study evaluated the effects of methanolic extract of Carica papaya fruit and seed in ameliorating the abnormal structural changes in myocardium and functional impairment induced by diabetes in albino rats. The experimental animals were divided into control (C), induced type II diabetes (D), protected seed extract (PSE), protected fruit extract (PFE), treated seed extract (TSE), and treated fruit extract (TFE). The myocardium of diabetic group exhibited disorganized myocardial fibers. Regard both normal, seed and fruit extract groups, which are of almost similar normal pattern of regular oriented muscle fibers. The diabetic group exhibited increased myocardial lipid peroxidation coincides with depletion of superoxide dismutase and increase of the levels of creatine kinase, troponin-1, nuclear factor Kappa B, caspase 3, tumor necrosis factor-α, and activity of lactic dehydrogenase. The diabetic group showed intense dark brown immune reaction against α-smooth muscle actin and P53. Experimental diabetic group protected with either seed and fruit extract exhibited marked amelioration of the assessed parameters. In conclusion, both seed and fruit extract of Carica papaya are of potential medical importance through managing high glucose level and keep myocardium against diabetes-induced cell death.


Assuntos
Carica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Sementes
10.
Am J Bot ; 108(6): 1029-1041, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156700

RESUMO

PREMISE: One evolutionary path from hermaphroditism to dioecy is via a gynodioecious intermediate. The evolution of dioecy may also coincide with the formation of sex chromosomes that possess sex-determining loci that are physically linked in a region of suppressed recombination. Dioecious papaya (Carica papaya) has an XY chromosome system, where the presence of a Y chromosome determines maleness. However, in cultivation, papaya is gynodioecious, due to the conversion of the male Y chromosome to a hermaphroditic Yh chromosome during its domestication. METHODS: We investigated gene expression linked to the X, Y, and Yh chromosomes at different floral developmental stages to identify differentially expressed genes that may be involved in the sexual transition of males to hermaphrodites. RESULTS: We identified 309 sex-biased genes found on the sex chromosomes, most of which are found in the pseudoautosomal regions. Female (XX) expression in the sex-determining region was almost double that of X-linked expression in males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh ), which rules out dosage compensation for most sex-linked genes; although, an analysis of hemizygous X-linked loci found evidence of partial dosage compensation. Furthermore, we identified a candidate gene associated with sex determination and the transition to hermaphroditism, a homolog of the MADS-box protein SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a pattern of partial dosage compensation for hemizygous genes located in the papaya sex-determining region. Furthermore, we propose that loss-of-expression of the Y-linked SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE homolog facilitated the transition from males to hermaphrodites in papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Carica/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
11.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(7): 648-651, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ear surgery is a game changer in the field of otology. Training in endoscopic skills is essential for ENT residents, and is especially important during the coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown period. In such difficult times, ENT residents and surgeons can undergo hands-on training using a papaya petiole, even within their homes. OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic ear surgery training can be carried out using a papaya petiole, enabling the practice of grommet insertion, tympanomeatal flap elevation and foreign body removal from the external auditory canal. This model does not need any laboratory setup. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The hollow structure of the papaya petiole model is very similar to that of the external auditory canal, making training in endoscopic ear surgery easy. Use of the model helps a beginner to train in endoscopic handling and microsurgical instrumentation, and improves depth perception. In addition, it does not require high-end facilities to store equipment or undertake the training at any given point in time.


Assuntos
Carica , Meato Acústico Externo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otológicos/educação , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otológicos/instrumentação
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(7): 4033-4040, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041559

RESUMO

Pitaya fruit canker is an important disease in pitaya production. Facilitating resistance through the application of biological control principles is a promising alternative to traditional control strategies. This study evaluated the induced resistance of Penicillium rolfsii, numbered Y17 isolated from papaya leaves in pitaya fruit, and evaluated the activity of the defense enzymes, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the treated fruit. The results demonstrate that treatment with Y17 effectively induced resistance of pitaya fruit to canker disease caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, with an inhibition rate of 70.87%. In addition, Y17 notably improved the activities of peroxidase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase as well as the T-AOC of the treated samples. Y17 treatment reduced the MDA content in these fruits. Taken together, our results suggest that Y17 treatment could trigger pitaya fruit defense responses and effectively induce resistance to fruit canker disease.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Carica , Frutas , Interações Microbianas , Penicillium , Ascomicetos , Cactaceae/microbiologia , Carica/microbiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Penicillium/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores
13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 335, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural variations (SVs) are a type of mutations that have not been widely detected in plant genomes and studies in animals have shown their role in the process of domestication. An in-depth study of SVs will help us to further understand the impact of SVs on the phenotype and environmental adaptability during papaya domestication and provide genomic resources for the development of molecular markers. RESULTS: We detected a total of 8083 SVs, including 5260 deletions, 552 tandem duplications and 2271 insertions with deletion being the predominant, indicating the universality of deletion in the evolution of papaya genome. The distribution of these SVs is non-random in each chromosome. A total of 1794 genes overlaps with SV, of which 1350 genes are expressed in at least one tissue. The weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) of these expressed genes reveals co-expression relationship between SVs-genes and different tissues, and functional enrichment analysis shows their role in biological growth and environmental responses. We also identified some domesticated SVs genes related to environmental adaptability, sexual reproduction, and important agronomic traits during the domestication of papaya. Analysis of artificially selected copy number variant genes (CNV-genes) also revealed genes associated with plant growth and environmental stress. CONCLUSIONS: SVs played an indispensable role in the process of papaya domestication, especially in the reproduction traits of hermaphrodite plants. The detection of genome-wide SVs and CNV-genes between cultivated gynodioecious populations and wild dioecious populations provides a reference for further understanding of the evolution process from male to hermaphrodite in papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Animais , Carica/genética , Genoma de Planta , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Genômica , Masculino , Fenótipo
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114074, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831466

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Carica papaya leaf juice/decoction has been in use in folk medicine in Srilanka, Malaysia and in few parts of India for enhancing the platelet counts in dengue. In Siddha medicine, a traditional form of medicine in India, papaya leaf juice has been used for increasing the platelet counts. Papaya leaf has been reported to enhance blood volume in ancient Ayurveda books in India. Carica papaya leaf is well known for its platelet enhancement activity. Although many preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the ability of papaya leaf juice for platelet enhancement, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study is aimed at identifying the key ingredients of papaya leaf extract and elucidate the mechanism (s) of action of the identified potent component in mitigating thrombocytopenia (Thp). MATERIALS AND METHODS: C. papaya leaf juice was subjected for sequential fractionation to identify the anti-thrombocytopenic phytochemicals. In vivo, stable thrombocytopenia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 70 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (Cyp). After induction, rats were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight papaya leaf juice and with identified fractions for 14 days. Serum thrombopoietin level was estimated using ELISA. CD110/cMpl, a receptor for thrombopoietin on platelets was measured by western blotting. RESULTS: Administration of cyclophosphamide for 6 days induced thrombocytopenia (210.4 ± 14.2 × 103 cells/µL) in rats. Treating thrombocytopenic rats with papaya leaf juice and butanol fraction for 14 days significantly increased the platelet count to 1073.50 ± 29.6 and 1189.80 ± 36.5 × 103 cells/µL, respectively. C.papaya extracts normalized the elevated bleeding and clotting time and decreased oxidative markers by increasing endogenous antioxidants. A marginal increase in the serum thrombopoietin (TPO) level was observed in Cyp treated group compared to normal and treatment groups. Low expression of CD110/cMpl receptor found in Cyp treated group was enhanced by C. papaya extracts (CPJ) and CPJ-BT. Furthermore, examination of the morphology of bone marrow megakaryocytes, histopathology of liver and kidneys revealed the ability of CPJ and fractions in mitigating Cyp-induced thrombocytopenia in rats. CONCLUSION: C. papaya leaf juice enhances the platelet count in chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia by increasing the expression of CD110 receptor on the megakaryocytes. Hence, activating CD110 receptor might be a viable strategy to increase the platelet production in individuals suffering from thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Carica/química , Megacariócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores de Trombopoetina/metabolismo , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Megacariócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Megacariócitos/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombopoetina/sangue
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(5): 577-587, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, a biologically active molecule, di-methyl flubendazole isolated from the extract of Carica papaya leaves confirmed by using GC-MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR analysis was applied to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs with plant sources an alternative therapeutic agent for synthetic compound used in cancer chemotherapy. METHODS: The AgNPs were characterized using UV, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM with EDX and TEM. The antibacterial effects of AgNPs were determined with agar well diffusion method. The MTT assay used to evaluate the inhibitory effect cell lines. The acridine orange and ethidium bromide and DAPI have used cell morphological effects. RESULTS: The AgNPs were mono-crystalline and their size ranged from 7 to 22 nm. AgNPs showed good antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Studies on the antiproliferative potential of bioinspired AgNPs in cancer cell lines revealed that the antiproliferative effect was much stronger in HepG2 than in MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Similarly, AgNPs exerted less cytotoxic activity in Vero cells (normal cells). AgNPs-treated cells showed necrosis, apoptotic morphology evidenced by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, cell decay, and necrosis. HepG2 cells treated with biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited a G0/G1 phase (52-53.37%) blockage. Compared to the control, AgNP-treated HepG2 cells showed elevated ®-actin levels; however, Bcl-2 was significantly down regulated in AgNP-treated cells, indicating the involvement of Bcl-2 in apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Overall, the fact that di-methyl flubendazole-based silver nanoparticles showed a novel and cost-effective natural antitumor and antibacterial agent.


Assuntos
Carica , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Mebendazol/análogos & derivados , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Prata/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Células Vero
16.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803330

RESUMO

The leaves of Carica papaya (CP) are rich in natural antioxidants. Carica papaya has traditionally been used to treat various ailments, including skin diseases. This study aims to decipher the antioxidant effects and phytochemical content of different CP leaf extracts (CPEs) obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and conventional extraction methods. The antioxidant activities of CPEs were evaluated by cell-free (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric-reduced antioxidative power (FRAP)) and cell-based (H2O2) assay. Both C. papaya leaf scCO2 extract with 5% ethanol (CPSCE) and C. papaya leaf scCO2 extract (CPSC) exhibited stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than conventional extracts. In the FRAP assay, two hydrophilic extracts (C. papaya leaf ethanol extract (CPEE) and C. papaya freeze-dried leaf juice (CPFD)) showed relatively stronger reducing power compared to lipophilic extracts. Cell-based assays showed that CPFD significantly protected skin fibroblasts from H2O2-induced oxidative stress in both pre-and post-treatment. CPEE protected skin fibroblasts from oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner while CPSCE significantly triggered the fibroblast recovery after treatment with H2O2. GC-MS analysis indicated that CPSCE had the highest α-tocopherol and squalene contents. By contrast, both CP hydrophilic extracts (CPEE and CPFD) had a higher total phenolic content (TPC) and rutin content than the lipophilic extracts. Overall, CPEs extracted using green and conventional extraction methods showed antioxidative potential in both cell-based and cell-free assays due to their lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively.


Assuntos
Carica/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo , Carica/metabolismo , Etanol , Liofilização , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
17.
Mar Drugs ; 19(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807362

RESUMO

Chitosan, the product of chitin deacetylation, is an excellent candidate for enzyme immobilization purposes. Here we demonstrate that papain, an endolytic cysteine protease (EC: 3.4.22.2) from Carica papaya latex immobilized on the matrixes of medium molecular (200 kDa) and high molecular (350 kDa) weight chitosans exhibits anti-biofilm activity and increases the antimicrobials efficiency against biofilm-embedded bacteria. Immobilization in glycine buffer (pH 9.0) allowed adsorption up to 30% of the total protein (mg g chitosan-1) and specific activity (U mg protein-1), leading to the preservation of more than 90% of the initial total activity (U mL-1). While optimal pH and temperature of the immobilized papain did not change, the immobilized enzyme exhibited elevated thermal stability and 6-7-fold longer half-life time in comparison with the soluble papain. While one-half of the total enzyme dissociates from both carriers in 24 h, this property could be used for wound-dressing materials design with dosed release of the enzyme to overcome the relatively high cytotoxicity of soluble papain. Our results indicate that both soluble and immobilized papain efficiently destroy biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. As a consequence, papain, both soluble and immobilized on medium molecular weight chitosan, is capable of potentiating the efficacy of antimicrobials against biofilm-embedded Staphylococci. Thus, papain immobilized on medium molecular weight chitosan appears a presumably beneficial agent for outer wound treatment for biofilms destruction, increasing antimicrobial treatment effectiveness.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Carica/enzimologia , Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos , Papaína/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Papaína/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6311, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737687

RESUMO

Males of the papaya fruit fly, Anastrepha curvicauda Gerstaecker (former Toxotrypana curvicauda), defend a papaya fruit from rivals and males release their sex pheromone to attract and mate with females and offer them an oviposition site. While some aspects of the biology of A. curvicauda are known, such as its reproductive biology, its sex pheromone, and host selection, there is currently no information on the species mate selection process. This paper describes the precopulatory mating behavior of A. curvicauda and elucidates how intrasexual selection affects the mate selection process. We studied the precopulatory mating behavior of dominant and subordinate males and ethograms were devised. The effect of hierarchy was studied in non-choice and choice experiments. Male's repertoire includes 15 behavioral elements, 12 precopulatory, one mating, and two postcopulatory (tandem and encounter). In non-choice experiments, dominant and subordinate males were accepted by females, but when females had the opportunity to choose among males, dominant males were significantly preferred over subordinate ones. The presence of a rival male modified the courting behavior of males and agonistic behavior among males was observed before and during mating.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Reprodução/genética , Atrativos Sexuais/genética , Tephritidae/genética , Comportamento Agonístico/fisiologia , Animais , Carica/parasitologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20190605, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787684

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the stigma morphoanatomy and receptivity in ten promising papaya accessions, to expand knowledge useful for genetic improvement of the culture. The morphoanatomy was analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the stigma receptivity was investigated by application of hydrogen peroxide and α-naphthyl-acetate with fast blue B salt, in pre-anthesis, anthesis and post-anthesis. The papaya accessions presented dry stigma surface, presence of one to six erect stigmatic lobes, with structures joined to the upper base of the style and covered with numerous elongated unicellular tubular papillae, distributed on both faces of the epidermis. The morphoanatomy had a similar pattern in all the accessions, differing only in the timing of floral development. The stigma receptivity in some accessions occurred even before floral opening, continuing with greater intensity in anthesis and post-anthesis. Pre-anthesis is the stage least propitious for controlled hybridizations due to the weak or absent stigmatic receptivity. The results obtained provide information on the floral stage that is most propitious for fertilization, as well as supporting future investigations of the botanical morphology of the species.


Assuntos
Carica , Flores , Verduras
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 180: 161-176, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676977

RESUMO

Bromelain, papain, and ficin are studied the most for meat tenderization, but have limited application due to their short lifetime. The aim of this work is to identify the adsorption mechanisms of these cysteine proteases on chitosan to improve the enzymes' stability. It is known that immobilization can lead to a significant loss of enzyme activity, which we observed during the sorption of bromelain (protease activity compared to soluble enzyme is 49% for medium and 64% for high molecular weight chitosan), papain (34 and 28% respectively) and ficin (69 and 70% respectively). Immobilization on the chitosan matrix leads to a partial destruction of protein helical structure (from 5 to 19%). Using computer modelling, we have shown that the sorption of cysteine proteases on chitosan is carried out by molecule regions located on the border of domains L and R, including active cites of the enzymes, which explains the decrease in their catalytic activity upon immobilization. The immobilization on chitosan does not shift the optimal range of pH (7.5) and temperature values (60 °C for bromelain and papain, 37-60 °C for ficin), but significantly increases the stability of biocatalysts (from 5.8 times for bromelain to 7.6 times for papain).


Assuntos
Bromelaínas/química , Bromelaínas/metabolismo , Quitosana/metabolismo , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Ficina/química , Ficina/metabolismo , Papaína/química , Papaína/metabolismo , Adsorção , Ananas/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Biotecnologia/métodos , Carica/enzimologia , Domínio Catalítico , Estabilidade Enzimática , Ficus/enzimologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Temperatura
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