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1.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677632

RESUMO

Sepsis is a serious health concern globally, which necessitates understanding the root cause of infection for the prevention of proliferation inside the host's body. Phytochemicals present in plants exhibit antibacterial and anti-proliferative properties stipulated for sepsis treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the potential role of Carica papaya leaf extract for sepsis treatment in silico and in vitro. We selected two phytochemical compounds, carpaine and quercetin, and docked them with bacterial proteins, heat shock protein (PDB ID: 4PO2), surfactant protein D (PDB ID: 1PW9), and lactobacillus bacterial protein (PDB ID: 4MKS) against imipenem and cyclophosphamide. Quercetin showed the strongest interaction with 1PW9 and 4MKS proteins. The leaves were extracted using ethanol, methanol, and water through Soxhlet extraction. Total flavonoid content, DPPH assay, HPTLC, and FTIR were performed. In vitro cytotoxicity of ethanol extract was screened via MTT assay on the J774 cell line. Ethanol extract (EE) possessed the maximum number of phytocomponents, the highest amount of flavonoid content, and the maximum antioxidant activity compared to other extracts. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of N-H, O-H, C-H, C=O, C=C, and C-Cl functional groups in ethanol extract. Cell viability was highest (100%) at 25 µg/mL of EE. The present study demonstrated that the papaya leaves possessed antibacterial and cytotoxic activity against sepsis infection.


Assuntos
Carica , Sepse , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Bactérias , Carica/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Quercetina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Flavonoides , Etanol , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 35, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642722

RESUMO

Exogenous GAs have an indeterminate effect on root development. Our current study used female papaya to reveal how the roots and rhizosphere respond to the exogenous application of GA3 by investigating the transcriptome profile in roots, metabolic profile and microbial community in both roots and rhizosphere of GA3-treated and control female papaya. The results demonstrated that exogenous GA3 treatment enhanced female papaya lateral root development, which gave plants physical advantages of water and nutrient uptake. In addition, it was likely that GA3 spraying in papaya shoot apices increased the level of auxin, which was transported to roots by CpPIN1, where auxin upregulated CpLBD16 and repressed CpBP to promote the lateral root initiation and development. In papaya roots, corresponding transporters (CpTMT3, CpNRT1:2, CpPHT1;4, CpINT2, CpCOPT2, CpABCB11, CpNIP4;1) were upregulated and excretion transporters were downregulated such as CpNAXT1 for water and nutrients uptake with exogenous GA3 application. Moreover, in GA3-treated papaya roots, CpALS3 and CpMYB62 were downregulated, indicating a stronger abiotic resistance to aluminum toxic and phosphate starvation. On the other hand, BRs and JAs, which involve in defense responses, were enriched in the roots and rhizosphere of GA3-treated papayas. The upregulation of the two hormones might result in the reduction of pathogens in roots and rhizosphere such as Colletotrichum and Verticillium. GA3-treated female papaya increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria species including Mycobacterium, Mitsuaria, and Actinophytocola, but decreased that of the genera Candidatus and Bryobacter for that it required less nitrate. Overall, the roots and rhizosphere of female papaya positively respond to exogenous application of GA3 to promote development and stress tolerance. Treatment of female papaya with GA3 might result in the promotion of lateral root formation and development by upregulating CpLBD16 and downregulating CpBP. GA3-treated papaya roots exhibited feedback control of brassinolide and jasmonate signaling in root development and defense. These findings revealed complex response to a growth hormone treatment in papaya roots and rhizosphere and will lead to investigations on the impact of other plant hormones on belowground development in papaya.


Assuntos
Carica , Microbiota , Rizosfera , Verduras , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276987, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383542

RESUMO

Tephritid fruit flies, such as the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, are major horticultural pests worldwide and pose invasion risks due primarily to international trade. Determining movement parameters for fruit flies is critical to effective surveillance and control strategies, from setting quarantine boundaries after incursions to development of agent-based models for management. While mark-release-recapture, flight mills, and visual observations have been used to study tephritid movement, none of these techniques give a full picture of fruit fly movement in nature. Tracking tagged flies offers an alternative method which has the potential to observe individual fly movements in the field, mirroring studies conducted by ecologists on larger animals. In this study, harmonic radar (HR) tags were fabricated using superelastic nitinol wire which is light (tags weighed less than 1 mg), flexible, and does not tangle. Flight tests with wild melon flies showed no obvious adverse effects of HR tag attachment. Subsequent experiments successfully tracked HR tagged flies in large field cages, a papaya field, and open parkland. Unexpectedly, a majority of tagged flies showed strong flight directional biases with these biases varying between flies, similar to what has been observed in the migratory butterfly Pieris brassicae. In field cage experiments, 30 of the 36 flies observed (83%) showed directionally biased flights while similar biases were observed in roughly half the flies tracked in a papaya field. Turning angles from both cage and field experiments were non-random and indicate a strong bias toward continued "forward" movement. At least some of the observed direction bias can be explained by wind direction with a correlation observed between collective melon fly flight directions in field cage, papaya field, and open field experiments. However, individual mean flight directions coincided with the observed wind direction for only 9 out of the 25 flies in the cage experiment and half of the flies in the papaya field, suggesting wind is unlikely to be the only factor affecting flight direction. Individual flight distances (meters per flight) differed between the field cage, papaya field, and open field experiments with longer mean step-distances observed in the open field. Data on flight directionality and step-distances determined in this study might assist in the development of more effective control and better parametrize models of pest tephritid fruit fly movement.


Assuntos
Carica , Cucurbitaceae , Tephritidae , Animais , Radar , Hawaii , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Verduras , Controle de Insetos/métodos
4.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364302

RESUMO

The papaya industry is mainly impacted by viral diseases, especially papaya ringspot disease (PRSD) caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). So far, research on the interaction between Chitosan, Lentinan and Ningnanmycin on PRSD has not been reported. This research studied the controlled and interactive effect of three biological agents, namely, Chitosan (C), Lentinan (L) and Ningnanmycin (N), on PRSV in papaya, individually and collectively. The changes in disease index, controlled effect, Peroxidase (POD), Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), growth and development of plants were observed at the seedling stage, in pots, and at the fruiting stage, in the field. The appearance and nutrient contents of fruits were measured during the fruit stage. The disease index of PRSV, at seedling and fruiting stages, was significantly lower for chitosan, lentinan and ningnanmycin and their interactive effect, compared to a control check treatment. The activity of the defense enzymes could be improved by the three kinds of biological agents and their interactive effect, especially lentinan and ningnanmycin. The chlorophyll content, plant height, stem diameter and fruit quality rose significantly under chitosan, lentinan and ningnanmycin treatments. The interaction of LN could inhibit PRSV disease at the seedling and fruiting stages of papaya, and promote the growth of plants and the quality of fruit at the fruit stage. Hence, this study provides the theoretical foundation for the biological control of papaya ringspot disease.


Assuntos
Carica , Quitosana , Lentinano , Quitosana/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos , Doenças das Plantas , Alérgenos , Verduras
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276365, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327284

RESUMO

People of all ages and genders utilize herbal medicine to treat varieties of problems all around the world. The accumulation of Cd and Cr in therapeutic herbs (Adansonia digitata, Psidium guajava, and Carica papaya) can lead to a variety of health complications. These leaf extracts are used to treat varieties of ailments, including cancer, in the northern Nigerian states of Borno, Jigawa, and Kano. The researchers employed high-resolution continuous source atomic absorption spectrometry. The statistical parameters such as mean, range, minimum and maximum were computed along with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess activity concentrations of Major Chemical Carcinogens (MCCs) in the herb extracts from the three states. The result demonstrated substantial statistical variation in the concentration of Chromium between groups with C. papaya (F = 190.683, p = 0.000), P. guajava (F = 5.698, p = 0.006), A. digitata (F = 243.154, p = 0.000). The post hoc test revealed that the C. papaya and A. digitata observed concentrations were statistically significant across the three states (p = 0.000). It was observed that there is no statistically significant difference between concentrations of the extracts between Kano and Borno states for P. guajava (p = 0.686). For Cd, the one-way ANOVA showed significant statistically variation in the concentration between groups with C. papaya (F = 77.393, p = 0.000), P. guajava (F = 4.496, p = 0.017), A. digitata (F = 69.042, p = 0.000). The post hoc test with multiple comparisons revealed that the activity concentration of all extracts was statistically significant across the three states (p<0.05). The target risk quotient (THQ) for Cd was more than unity in A. digitata and C. papaya, except for P. guajava from Borno State. The probable cancer risk was observed for consumption of plant extracts as a result of Cr and Cd.


Assuntos
Carica , Neoplasias , Psidium , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cádmio , Psidium/química , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442395

RESUMO

Carpaine, a major alkaloid of Carica papaya leaves, is widely studied for its anti-thrombocytopenic activity. The objective of present work was to isolate carpaine from dried leaves of Carica papaya. Isolation of carpaine was carried out by solvent extraction techniques followed by column chromatography by gradient elution using dichloromethane: methanol (80:20, v/v) as eluent. Dihydroxy derivative of carpaine was also identified for the first time from leaves of Carica papaya. Structures of carpaine and dihydroxy derivative of carpaine were confirmed by LC-MS/MS followed by IR studies. Fast HPLC method was developed using Sunniest C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm) as stationary phase and water (pH 8.5): acetonitrile (60: 40, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Carpaine was eluted with mean retention time of 6.017 min. The developed HPLC method was used to estimate carpaine in extract and marketed formulations containing Carica papaya leaves.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Carica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Padrões de Referência
7.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432508

RESUMO

Due to the rise in the number of people suffering from diet-related noncommunicable diseases, major scientific studies have recently been focused on the development of functional foods that are rich sources of resistant starch and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. The nutritional composition, in vitro starch digestibility, and antioxidant properties of composite flour derived from wheat and mature, unripe pawpaw fruit flour are all discussed in this study. The proximate composition, functional and pasting properties, in vitro starch digestibility, antioxidant activities and storage stability of the composite flours were determined. When compared to 100% wheat flour, the crude fiber, ash, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, and bulk density of the composite flours increased by 40.5-63.3%, 209.7-318%, 2-109%, 3-66%, and 28-162%, respectively. Increased addition of mature, unripe pawpaw fruit flour to wheat flour resulted in a rise in the composite flour's TPC, ABTS, and ORAC values. Comparing the composite flour made with 50% mature, unripe pawpaw fruit flour to 100% wheat flour, the resistant starch and slowly digested starch rose by 2836% and 1321%, respectively. Additionally, compared to 100% wheat flour, the composite flours also demonstrated decreased fat acidity. It can be argued that the composite flour is a good source of resistant starch and bioactive ingredients that can be used in a variety of functional food products.


Assuntos
Asimina , Carica , Humanos , Farinha/análise , Triticum , Amido , Frutas , Antioxidantes , Amido Resistente , Verduras
8.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235831

RESUMO

Despite rigorous endeavors, existing attempts to handle type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are still a long way off, as a substantial number of patients do not meet therapeutic targets. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is discerned as a forerunner in the pathogenesis of T2DM and can be detected years before its progress. Studies have revealed the antidiabetic properties of Carica papaya (C. papaya), but its molecular mechanism on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/Akt signaling mechanisms is not yet known. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of C. papaya on IRS1 and Akt in high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats and also to analyze the bioactive compounds of C. papaya against IRS-1 and Akt via in silico analysis. Ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. papaya (600 mg/kg of body weight) was given daily for 45 days postinduction of T2DM up to the end of the study. Gluconeogenic enzymes, glycolytic enzymes, gene expression, and immunohistochemical analysis of IRS-1 and Akt in skeletal muscle were evaluated. C. papaya treatment regulated the levels of gluconeogenic and glycolytic enzymes and the levels of IRS-1 and Akt in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic animals. In silico studies showed that trans-ferulic acid had the greatest hit rate against the protein targets IRS-1 and Akt. C. papaya restored the normoglycemic effect in diabetic skeletal muscle by accelerating the expression of IRS-1 and Akt.


Assuntos
Carica , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Carica/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Estreptozocina
9.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that different parts of Carica papaya Linn have nutritional properties that mean it can be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of various pathologies. METHODS: The fatty acid composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn was evaluated by gas chromatography, and an acute toxicity test was performed. For the experiment, Swiss mice were fed a balanced or high-fat diet and supplemented with saline, soybean oil, olive oil, or papaya seed oil. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests were performed. After euthanasia, adiposity, glycemia, total cholesterol and fractions, insulin, resistin, leptin, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 and the histology of the liver, pancreas, and adipose tissue were evaluated. RESULTS: Papaya seed oil showed predominance of monounsaturated fatty acids in its composition. No changes were observed in the acute toxicity test. Had lower food intake in grams, and caloric intake and in the area of adipocytes without minimizing weight gain or adiposity and impacting the liver or pancreas. Reductions in total and non-HDL-c, LDL-c, and VLDL-c were also observed. The treatment had a hypoglycemic and protective effect on insulin resistance. Supplementation also resulted in higher leptin and lower insulin and cytokine resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Under these experimental conditions, papaya seed oil led to higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and had hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic, and hypoglycemic effects.


Assuntos
Carica , Adiposidade , Animais , Carica/química , LDL-Colesterol , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Insulina , Interleucina-6/análise , Leptina , Camundongos , Obesidade , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Resistina , Sementes/química , Óleo de Soja/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 3): e20211098, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197361

RESUMO

Iron is essential to plant development. However, its excess can provoke an increase in reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in plants. The objective of this work was to verify the effects of high concentrations of iron on the oxidative stress of seeds and young plants of Cecropia hololeuca and Carica papaya. The species were submitted to concentrations of 0.045, 4 and 8mM of iron in the form of ferrous sulfate and FeEDTA. The experiments of germination and initial growth took place in a growth chamber, with temperature of 25ºC and 12h photoperiod. We performed the lipid peroxidation test by extraction and quantification of malonaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The application of iron did not cause a significant elevation in the contents of malonaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide in the germination of C. hololeuca and C. papaya. In the young plants, the hydrogen peroxide did not change in any of the treatments. However, it was possible to observe an expressive increase in malonaldehyde concentration in both species when exposed to FeEDTA 4 to 8mM. The results indicate a sensibility of C. hololeuca and C. papaya to high iron levels, amplifying the oxidative stress process that can harm their growth and initial development.


Assuntos
Carica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ferro/farmacologia , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293162

RESUMO

Dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) cause serious public health problems, with nearly 390 million people affected and 20,000 deaths per year in tropical and subtropical countries. Despite numerous attempts, no antiviral drug or vaccine is currently available to combat the manifestation. The challenge of discovering an efficient vaccine is enhanced by the surplus presence of efficient vectors and drug resistance from the virus. For centuries, papaya (Carica papaya) extracts have been traditionally used to treat DF, DHF, and DSS. In the present study, we systematically investigated seven compounds isolated from papaya leaf extract with regard to their potential as inhibitors for non-structural (NS) proteins, NS3 and NS5, which play a crucial role in viral RNA replication. The computational tools applied stretched across classical molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and SwissADME used to calculate binding affinities; binding free energies; Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME); and drug-likeness properties, thus, identifying Kaempferol, Chlorogenic acid, and Quercetin as potential candidates, with Kaempferol and Quercetin scoring best. Therefore, for the Kaempferol and Quercetin complexes, hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) geometry and frequency calculations were performed, followed by the local mode analysis developed in our group to quantify Kaempferol-NS and Quercetin-NS hydrogen bonding. Given the non-toxic nature and the wide availability of the Kaempferol and Quercetin papaya extract in almost all of the susceptible regions, and our results showing high NS3 and NS5 binding affinities and energies, strong hydrogen bonding with both NS3 and NS5, and excellent ADME properties, we suggest Kaempferol and Quercetin as a strong NS3 and NS5 inhibitor to be further investigated in vitro.


Assuntos
Carica , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Humanos , Carica/química , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Quempferóis/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Ácido Clorogênico/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química
12.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298852

RESUMO

An emerging virus isolated from papaya (Carica papaya) crops in northwestern (NW) Argentina was sequenced and characterized using next-generation sequencing. The resulting genome is 6667-nt long and encodes five open reading frames in an arrangement typical of other potexviruses. This virus appears to be a novel member within the genus Potexvirus. Blast analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and coat protein (CP) genes showed the highest amino acid sequence identity (67% and 71%, respectively) with pitaya virus X. Based on nucleotide sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, the name papaya virus X is proposed for this newly characterized potexvirus that was mechanically transmitted to papaya plants causing chlorotic patches and severe mosaic symptoms. Papaya virus X (PapVX) was found only in the NW region of Argentina. This prevalence could be associated with a recent emergence or adaptation of this virus to papaya in NW Argentina.


Assuntos
Carica , Potexvirus , Potexvirus/genética , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , Argentina , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA , Doenças das Plantas
13.
Hemoglobin ; 46(4): 260-264, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073153

RESUMO

Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) is the source of antioxidants that may help in reducing the complications associated with oxidative stress and may improve the quality of life in sickle cell disease patients. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of FPP on sickled red blood cells (RBCs) using oxidative stress markers and observed that FPP has the potential to reduce the oxidative stress. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and eosin 5' malaemide (E5'M) dye test showed that FPP protects red cell morphology against the oxidative stress. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) analysis of FPP suggests the presence of essential amino acids, vitamin D3, and its derivatives. Fermented papaya preparation can be of benefit either in reducing oxidative stress parameters or in preventing pathophysiological events in the sickle cell disease patients.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Carica , Humanos , Carica/química , Carica/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Fermentação , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 958741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159651

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases have a major impact on human and animal health worldwide. Despite the availability of effective anti-parasitic drugs, their excessive and uncontrolled use has promoted the emergence of drug resistance, severely affecting ecosystems and human health. Thus, developing environmentally friendly antiparasitic treatments is urgently needed. Carica papaya has shown promising effects against infectious diseases. C. papaya embryogenic calluses were genetically modified by our research team to insert immunogenic peptides with the goal of developing an oral anti-cysticercosis vaccine. Among these callus cell lines, one labeled as CF-23, which expresses the KETc7 immunogenic peptide, induced the highest protection levels against experimental cysticercosis. In the process of designing a natural antiparasitic product based on C. papaya that simultaneously induced immunity against cysticercosis, both transformed (SF-23) and untransformed (SF-WT) suspension cultures were produced and optimized. Our results showed a better duplication time (td) for SF-23 (6.9 days) than SF-WT (13.02 days); thus, the SF-23 line was selected for scale-up in a 2-L airlift bioreactor, reaching a td of 4.4 days. This is the first time that a transgenic line of C. papaya has been grown in an airlift bioreactor, highlighting its potential for scale-up cultivation in this type of reactor. Considering the previously reported nematocidal activity of C. papaya tissues, their activity against the nematode Haemonchus contortus of aqueous extracts of SF-WT and SF-23 was explored in this study, with promising results. The information herein reported will allow us to continue the cultivation of the transgenic cell suspension line of C. papaya under reproducible conditions, to develop a new anti-parasitic product.


Assuntos
Carica , Haemonchus , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Carica/genética , Linhagem Celular , Ecossistema , Haemonchus/genética , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15960, 2022 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36153393

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) were prepared by Caricaceae (Papaya) Shell extracts. The Nanoparticles were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrums, X-ray diffractions, and energy-dispersive X-rays spectroscopy analyses with a scanning electron microscope. An antifungal study was carried out for TiO2 NP in contradiction of S. sclerotiorums, R. necatrixs and Fusarium classes that verified a sophisticated inhibitions ratio for S. sclerotiorums (60.5%). Germs of pea were individually preserved with numerous concentrations of TiO2 NPs. An experience of TiO2 NPs (20%, 40%, 80% and 100%), as well as mechanisms that instigated momentous alterations in seed germinations, roots interval, shoot lengths, and antioxidant enzymes, were investigated. Associated with controls, the supreme seeds germinations, roots and plant growth were perceived with the treatments of TiO2 NPs. Super-oxide dis-mutase and catalase activities increased because of TiO2 NPs treatments. This advocates that TiO2 Nanoparticles may considerably change antioxidant metabolisms in seed germinations.


Assuntos
Carica , Caricaceae , Transferases Intramoleculares , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia
16.
Fungal Biol ; 126(10): 623-630, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116894

RESUMO

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is among the most important tropical fruits produced in Brazil and is grown in nearly every state. However, several diseases can affect papaya production. Anthracnose stands out among these diseases due to high postharvest yield losses. Previous studies identified Colletotrichum magna (invalid name) and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of papaya in Brazil, but species identification was inadequate due to reliance on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed space (nrITS) and glutamine synthetase (GS) sequences. Thus, the diversity of Colletotrichum spp. causing papaya anthracnose in Brazil may be underestimated. The present study aims to identify the Colletotrichum species associated with papaya anthracnose in Brazil based on broad geographical sampling and multilocus phylogenetic analysis, as well as to assess the prevalence and aggressiveness of the species found. Here, we report C. chrysophilum, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. karsti, C. okinawense, C. plurivorum, C. queenslandicum, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, Colletotrichum truncatum causing papaya anthracnose in Brazil. We are also synonymizing Colletotrichum corchorum-capsularis under C. truncatum. Colletotrichum okinawense was the most prevalent species in general and in most sampled locations, and with C. truncatum represents the most aggressive species.


Assuntos
Carica , Colletotrichum , Brasil , Colletotrichum/genética , DNA Fúngico , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas
17.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(6): 468-475, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098181

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> In high plants, the 70 kDa heat stress proteins (Hsp70-s) have been regarded as one of the vital components of the cellular network of chaperones and folding catalysts that play important roles in numerous biological processes during growth and development. The Hsp70 families have been reported in many plant species, unfortunately, no information on this important protein family in papaya (<i>Carica papaya</i>). The objective of this study was to provide comprehensive information on the CpHsp70 family in papaya. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The <i>CpHsp70</i> genes in the papaya genome were identified by a basic local alignment search tool against the papaya genome database by using well-known <i>Arabidopsis</i> Hsp70-s. Sequences were then analyzed by various bioinformatics tools to investigate the characteristics of the CpHsp70 family. <b>Results:</b> A total of 12 members of the CpHsp70 family has been identified and characterized in papaya. By using various computational tools, these results revealed that all general characteristics of the CpHsp70 family, like physic-chemical parameters, gene structure, phylogenetic tree and subcellular localization were provided. The transcriptome atlas was applied to re-analyze the expression patterns of genes encoding the CpHsp70 family in major tissues/organs during the growth and development of papaya plants. <b>Conclusion:</b> Results from this work exhibited the characteristics and expression analysis of the <i>CpHsp70</i> genes of this important tropical fruit crop. Taken together, this study could provide a solid foundation of the CpHsp70 family, which will be helpful in the construction of stress tolerance in papaya plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Carica , Arabidopsis/genética , Carica/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Filogenia , Verduras/genética
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5162845, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968234

RESUMO

Forced air heat treatment could induce defenses to protect fruit from pathogen attacks and has been applied as an alternative to methyl bromide for phytosanitary treatment before exportation. However, few studies were reported on the regulation mechanism of antifungal effect and delayed physiological disorders of papaya by heat treatment. Therefore, we aim to explore the fruit's resistance to pathogens and the inhibition of physiological disorders by metabolomic profiling. In our study, papaya fruits were treated with 47.2°C for 30, 60, and 90 min by forced hot air treatment. The disease resistance against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, quality parameters, and metabolites of papaya fruits were measured during 10 days of storage after heat treatment by metabolomic profiling. Papaya fruits after 30 and 60 min heat treatment had higher firmness, a delayed degreening and yellowing (lower a value) process, and a higher lightness (L) and hue angle (h) during storage. Heat treatment also delayed ripening, inhibiting the growth of C. gloeosporioides and softening of papaya. Metabolites and enzymes inhibited ROS scavenging, depressed ABA-regulated respiratory, and activated phenylpropanoid metabolism. Our study provides a broad picture of fruit resistance to pathogens and the inhibition of physiological disorders by metabolomic profiling, which is induced by heat treatment.


Assuntos
Carica , Colletotrichum , Resistência à Doença , Verduras
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2527: 143-157, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951190

RESUMO

High mortality rates of in vitro plants during ex vitro acclimatization, due to low rooting, is one of the main problems of papaya tissue culture. This work was carried out with the objective to obtain 100% hermaphroditic in vitro plants of the papaya cultivar "Maradol Roja" by somatic embryogenesis, which have an adequate rooting system that allows them a higher survival percentage in the ex vitro acclimatization phase. In international scientific literature, there are several protocols; however, not all of them cover the different phases of somatic embryogenesis. This chapter describes a complete and optimized protocol from immature zygotic embryos in this cultivar. It also looks at the morpho-anatomical characterization of somatic embryos in the different stages of ontogenetic development, as well as high survival rates under ex vitro conditions of the plants obtained. It can be used for genetic improvement and propagation of this species.


Assuntos
Carica , Aclimatação , Carica/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Zigoto
20.
Phytomedicine ; 105: 154333, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many substances derived from nutritional or medicinal plants have been studied for their chemopreventive and antineoplastic properties. Among those studied, Ficus carica has shown to have a significant ability to inhibit tumor formation and development of cancer cells through modulating various signaling mechanisms and interaction including a large number of cell signaling molecules. PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to provide a critical and complete evaluation of F. carica's anticancer capacity in various malignancies, as well as related molecular targets. METHODS: Research was conducted electronically on scholarly scientific databases, including Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus. Published papers were analyzed and investigated using the keywords, Ficus carica, figs, cancer, malignancies and tumor based on established selection criteria. In this systematic review, 27 individual studies were considered. RESULTS: Treatment with F. carica alone or in combination with other medications was linked to anticancer activity with significant evidence. Furthermore, F. carica has been shown to use multitargeted pathways to prevent cancer initiation and development by modulating numerous dysregulated signaling cascades involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, autophagy inflammatory processes, metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that F. carica and its phytochemicals have the potential for cancer prevention and therapy. Nonetheless, additional mechanistic studies with pure compounds derived from F. carica and well-designed clinical trials are needed to advance our knowledge to clinical application.


Assuntos
Carica , Ficus , Neoplasias , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais
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