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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8919-8925, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334658

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) performs important functions in plant growth and development, including fruit ripening. As a complex biological process, fruit ripening involves the histone acetylation modification of ripening-associated genes. Histone deacetylase genes (HDACs) have been well studied in Arabidopsis and rice, but the biological functions of HDACs in papaya are poorly understood. In the present work, three CpHDACs, belonging to the RPD3/HDA1 subfamily, were identified from papaya and named as CpHDA1, CpHDA2, and CpHDA3. CpHDA1 and CpHDA2 were induced by propylene, while CpHDA3 was propylene-repressed. Moreover, CpHDA3 protein could physically interact with CpERF9 and enhance the transcriptional repression activities of CpERF9 to downstream genes CpPME1, CpPME2 and CpPG5. Histone acetylation levels of CpPME1 and CpPG5 were increased during fruit ripening. Taken together, these results suggested that CpERF9 recruits CpHDA3 to form a histone deacetylase repressor complex to mediate pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase genes expression during papaya fruit ripening and softening.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Carica/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Carica/genética , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 309, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethylene promotes fruit ripening whereas 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a non-toxic antagonist of ethylene, delays fruit ripening via the inhibition of ethylene receptor. However, unsuitable 1-MCP treatment can cause fruit ripening disorders. RESULTS: In this study, we show that short-term 1-MCP treatment (400 nL•L- 1, 2 h) significantly delays papaya fruit ripening with normal ripening characteristics. However, long-term 1-MCP treatment (400 nL•L- 1, 16 h) causes a "rubbery" texture of fruit. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed that a total of 5529 genes were differently expressed during fruit ripening compared to freshly harvested fruits. Comprehensive functional enrichment analysis showed that the metabolic pathways of carbon metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, biosynthesis of amino acids, and starch and sucrose metabolism are involved in fruit ripening. 1-MCP treatment significantly affected fruit transcript levels. A total of 3595 and 5998 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between short-term 1-MCP, long-term 1-MCP treatment and the control, respectively. DEGs are mostly enriched in the similar pathway involved in fruit ripening. A large number of DEGs were also identified between long-term and short-term 1-MCP treatment, with most of the DEGs being enriched in carbon metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and biosynthesis of amino acids. The 1-MCP treatments accelerated the lignin accumulation and delayed cellulose degradation during fruit ripening. Considering the rubbery phenotype, we inferred that the cell wall metabolism and hormone signal pathways are closely related to papaya fruit ripening disorder. The RNA-Seq output was confirmed using RT-qPCR by 28 selected genes that were involved in cell wall metabolism and hormone signal pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that long-term 1-MCP treatment severely inhibited ethylene signaling and the cell wall metabolism pathways, which may result in the failure of cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Our results reveal multiple ripening-associated events during papaya fruit ripening and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying 1-MCP treatment on fruit ripening and the regulatory networks.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Etilenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 238, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a popular climacteric fruit, undergoing various physico-chemical changes during ripening. Although papaya is widely cultivated and consumed, few studies on the changes in metabolism during its ripening process at the proteasome level have been performed. Using a newly developed TMT-LCMS analysis, proteomes of papaya fruit at different ripening stages were investigated. RESULTS: In total, 3220 proteins were identified, of which 2818 proteins were quantified. The differential accumulated proteins (DAPs) exhibited various biological functions and diverse subcellular localizations. The KEGG enrichment analysis showed that various metabolic pathways were significantly altered, particularly in flavonoid and fatty acid metabolisms. The up-regulation of several flavonoid biosynthesis-related proteins may provide more raw materials for pigment biosynthesis, accelerating the color variation of papaya fruit. Variations in the fatty acid metabolism- and cell wall degradation-related proteins were investigated during the ripening process. Furthermore, the contents of several important fatty acids were determined, and increased unsaturated fatty acids may be associated with papaya fruit volatile formation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may give an intrinsic explanation of the variations in metabolism during the ripening process of papaya fruit.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica
4.
J Plant Res ; 132(2): 181-195, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649676

RESUMO

Papaya is one of the most nutritional fruits, rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other antioxidants. Previous studies showed phytonutrient improvement without affecting quality in tomato fruit and rapeseed through the suppression of DE-ETIOLATED-1 (DET1), a negative regulator in photomorphogenesis. This study is conducted to study the effects of DET1 gene suppression in papaya embryogenic callus. Immature zygotic embryos were transformed with constitutive expression of a hairpin DET1 construct (hpDET1). PCR screening of transformed calli and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) verified that DET1 gene downregulation in two of the positive transformants. High-throughput cDNA 3' ends sequencing on DET1-suppressed and control calli for transcriptomic analysis of global gene expression identified a total of 452 significant (FDR < 0.05) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) upon DET1 suppression. The 123 upregulated DEGs were mainly involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and stress responses, compared to 329 downregulated DEGs involved in developmental processes, lipid metabolism, and response to various stimuli. This is the first study to demonstrate transcriptome-wide relationship between light-regulated pathway and secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways in papaya. This further supports that the manipulation of regulatory gene involved in light-regulated pathway is possible for phytonutrient improvement of tropical fruit crops.


Assuntos
Carica/metabolismo , Carica/embriologia , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA de Plantas , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sementes/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Plant Sci ; 272: 99-106, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807610

RESUMO

Papaya is trioecious and an excellent system for studying sex determination and differentiation in plants. An ortholog of HUA1, CpHUA1, a gene controlling stamen and carpel development in Arabidopsis, was cloned and characterized in papaya. CpHUA1 consists of 12 exons with full genomic length of 19,313 bp in male AU9 and 19,312 bp in hermaphrodite SunUp, whereas the Arabidopsis HUA1 consists of 12 exons with full genomic length of 4300 bp. All the 324 SNPs between male and hermaphrodite varieties are in the 11th intron, which spans 8.5 kb. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that CpHUA1 expression is highly elevated in carpels, suggesting that CpHUA1 may be involved in sex differentiation gene network. Southern blot analysis revealed a distinct restriction pattern in male AU9 compared to hermaphrodite Kapoho and SunUp, despite high DNA sequence identity and sharing of all but two EcoR I restriction sites in genomic CpHUA1 sequences of AU9 and SunUp. The methylation of cytosine at one restriction site in male but not in other two sex types may result in distinct restriction pattern of EcoR I in southern blot result. Bisulfite sequencing showed differential methylation of CpHUA1 among sex types, particularly the enrichment of sex-specific methylation in 9th and 11th intron. The methylation difference in cold stress induced male to hermaphrodite mutant mostly observed in the CHH context of CpHUA1, but no methylation difference detected in CHH context in other sex types, which may indicate the role of methylation in CHH context of CpHUA1 in temperature-related stress response and sex reversal.


Assuntos
Carica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Carica/genética , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metilação de DNA , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/fisiologia
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 115: 152-156, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654863

RESUMO

Papaya is a fruit mainly grown in tropical and subtropical regions. The structural changes of polysaccharides are highly involved in the organoleptic property change of papaya. However, it remains unclear how the structure characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharides are changed during postharvest ripening. It is interesting to work on this topic. In this work, the dominant water-soluble polysaccharide in papaya was purified. It was identified to be α-(1→4)-D-galacturonan by NMR. It remained stable during postharvest ripening. ß-(1→4)-D-galactan was only detected in fully green papaya. Once the postharvest ripening initiated, this polysaccharide was rapidly degraded. There were no significant differences in the structure changes of water-soluble polysaccharides for the naturally ripening papaya and ethylene-treated papaya. These results extended the understanding about the relationship between polysaccharide structure and papaya ripening during postharvest storage.


Assuntos
Carica/química , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/química , Água/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solubilidade
7.
Nutr Neurosci ; 21(3): 176-184, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27841081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in astrocyte plays important roles in brain homeostasis. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of FPP on activation of Nrf2 and release of Nrf2-regulated neuroprotective antioxidants and detoxifying molecules. METHODS: Primary cultured astrocytes from rat embryos were treated with FPP for 6 or 24 hours. The expression levels of nuclear Nrf2 and cytoplasmic Nrf2-regulated molecules were determined by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Glutathione levels were measured in cells and medium. Dopaminergic neurons were exposed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) with/without pre-treatment with FPP astrocytes. Mice were treated orally with FPP for 2 weeks. RESULTS: FPP increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in striatal astrocytes, induced up-regulation of NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S transferase and hemeoxygenase-1, and increased glutathione level and the percentage of metallothionein-expressing astrocytes. Moreover, FPP suppressed 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss in not only neuron-astrocyte mixed culture, but also neuron-rich cultures pre-treated with glial conditioned medium. Two-week oral treatment of mice with FPP resulted in Nrf2 activation and increase in glutathione level in striatum. DISCUSSION: The results indicated that FPP enhances the anti-oxidative capacity through activation of Nrf2 in astrocytes, suggesting it may provide neuroprotection in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Carica/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/agonistas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astrócitos/citologia , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Cultivadas , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Feto/citologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/agonistas , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Córtex Visual/citologia , Córtex Visual/metabolismo
8.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 671, 2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since papaya is a typical climacteric fruit, exogenous ethylene (ETH) applications can induce premature and quicker ripening, while 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) slows down the ripening processes. Differential gene expression in ETH or 1-MCP-treated papaya fruits accounts for the ripening processes. To isolate the key ripening-related genes and better understand fruit ripening mechanisms, transcriptomes of ETH or 1-MCP-treated, and non-treated (Control Group, CG) papaya fruits were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq2500. RESULTS: A total of 18,648 (1-MCP), 19,093 (CG), and 15,321 (ETH) genes were detected, with the genes detected in the ETH-treatment being the least. This suggests that ETH may inhibit the expression of some genes. Based on the differential gene expression (DGE) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment, 53 fruit ripening-related genes were selected: 20 cell wall-related genes, 18 chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism-related genes, four proteinases and their inhibitors, six plant hormone signal transduction pathway genes, four transcription factors, and one senescence-associated gene. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses confirmed the results of RNA-seq and verified that the expression pattern of six genes is consistent with the fruit senescence process. Based on the expression profiling of genes in carbohydrate metabolic process, chlorophyll metabolism pathway, and carotenoid metabolism pathway, the mechanism of pulp softening and coloration of papaya was deduced and discussed. We illustrate that papaya fruit softening is a complex process with significant cell wall hydrolases, such as pectinases, cellulases, and hemicellulases involved in the process. Exogenous ethylene accelerates the coloration of papaya changing from green to yellow. This is likely due to the inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis and the α-branch of carotenoid metabolism. Chy-b may play an important role in the yellow color of papaya fruit. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the differential gene expression in ETH/1-MCP-treated papaya using RNA-seq is a sound approach to isolate ripening-related genes. The results of this study can improve our understanding of papaya fruit ripening molecular mechanism and reveal candidate fruit ripening-related genes for further research.


Assuntos
Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carica/genética , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Etilenos/farmacologia , Genes de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Carica/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 351, 2017 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-related genes and are involved in several plant developmental and growth processes. However, how Aux/IAA genes function in the fruit development and ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, a comprehensive identification and a distinctive expression analysis of 18 C. papaya Aux/IAA (CpIAA) genes were performed using newly updated papaya reference genome data. The Aux/IAA gene family in papaya is slightly smaller than that in Arabidopsis, but all of the phylogenetic subfamilies are represented. Most of the CpIAA genes are responsive to various phytohormones and expressed in a tissues-specific manner. To understand the putative biological functions of the CpIAA genes involved in fruit development and ripening, quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression profiling of CpIAA genes at different stages. Furthermore, an IAA treatment significantly delayed the ripening process in papaya fruit at the early stages. The expression changes of CpIAA genes in ACC and 1-MCP treatments suggested a crosstalk between auxin and ethylene during the fruit ripening process of papaya. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided comprehensive information on the Aux/IAA family in papaya, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The involvement of CpIAA gene expression changes in fruit development and ripening gives us an opportunity to understand the roles of auxin signaling in the maturation of papaya reproductive organs.


Assuntos
Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carica/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genômica , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171357, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28231288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Carica/química , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Alinhamento de Sequência , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/análise
11.
Genome Biol ; 17(1): 244, 2016 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899139

RESUMO

A new study on sex chromosome evolution in papaya helps to illuminate sex chromosome biology, including deviations from expected trajectories.Please see related Research article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-016-1095-9.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Carica/genética , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166142, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27832144

RESUMO

The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%), tangerine (51%), guava (38%), lemon (30%), orange (29%), mango (24%) and avocado (20%). This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/parasitologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/métodos , Anacardium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anacardium/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carica/parasitologia , Citrus sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrus sinensis/parasitologia , Clima , Ecossistema , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mangifera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mangifera/parasitologia , Modelos Teóricos , Persea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Persea/parasitologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Psidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psidium/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Plant Cell Rep ; 35(11): 2341-2352, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27502602

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CpERF9 controls papaya fruit ripening through transcriptional repression of cell-wall-modifying genes CpPME1/2 and CpPG5 by directly binding to their promoters. Papaya fruit ripening is an intricate and highly coordinated developmental process which is controlled by the action of ethylene and expression of numerous ethylene-responsive genes. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) representing the last regulators of ethylene-signaling pathway determine the specificities of ethylene response. However, knowledge concerning the transcriptional controlling mechanism of ERF-mediated papaya fruit ripening is limited. In the present work, a gene-encoding AP2/ERF protein with two ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs, named CpERF9, was characterized from papaya fruit. CpERF9 was found to localize in nucleus, and possess transcriptional repression ability. CpERF9 expression steadily decreased during papaya fruit ripening, while several genes encoding pectin methylesterases (PMEs) and polygalacturonases (PGs), such as CpPME1/2 and CpPG5, were gradually increased, paralleling the decline of fruit firmness. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated a specific binding of CpERF9 to promoters of CpPME1/2 and CpPG5, via the GCC-box motif. Transient expression of CpERF9 in tobacco repressed CpPME1/2 and CpPG5 promoter activities, which was depended on two EAR motifs of CpERF9 protein. Taken together, these findings suggest that papaya CpERF9 may act as a transcriptional repressor of several cell-wall modifying genes, such as CpPME1/2 and CpPG5, via directly binding to their promoters.


Assuntos
Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carica/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Carica/citologia , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica/genética , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(27): 5454-63, 2016 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327494

RESUMO

Papaya fruits accumulate carotenoids during fruit ripening. Although many papaya carotenoid biosynthesis pathway genes have been identified, the transcriptional regulators of these genes have not been characterized. In this study, a NAC transcription factor, designated as CpNAC1, was characterized from papaya fruit. CpNAC1 was localized exclusively in nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. Expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes phytoene desaturases (CpPDSs) and CpNAC1 was increased during fruit ripening and by propylene treatment, which correlates well with the elevated carotenoid content in papaya. The gel mobility shift assays and transient expression analyses demonstrated that CpNAC1 directly binds to the NAC binding site (NACBS) motifs in CpPDS2/4 promoters and activates them. Collectively, these data suggest that CpNAC1 may act as a positive regulator of carotenoid biosynthesis during papaya fruit ripening possibly via transcriptional activation of CpPDSs such as CpPDS2/4.


Assuntos
Carica/enzimologia , Carotenoides/biossíntese , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Carica/genética , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carica/metabolismo , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
J Econ Entomol ; 109(4): 1793-8, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346632

RESUMO

The banana-spotting bug, Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is native to Australia and a major polyphagous pest of many tropical and subtropical horticultural crops in the east and north of the country. Different plant structures (flowers, vegetative flush, and different sized fruit) of avocado, lime, and papaya crops and green bean pods (a known suitable host) were evaluated for their suitability as hosts for A. l. lutescens Neonate to imago survivorship, the time taken to complete neonate to imago development, preovipositional period, and fecundity were assessed for each crop. Of all the different phenological stages of the plants investigated, A. l. lutescens could complete development to imago on vegetative flush of papaya and lime, papaya flowers, and green bean pods but on no other structures tested. There was higher survivorship to the second instar when neonates fed on green bean pods or flowers or vegetative flush of avocado, lime, or papaya crops than when neonates fed on small, medium, or large fruit of these crops. Insects that developed to the imago on green bean pods were significantly heavier than insects that developed on papaya flowers or papaya vegetative flush. The mean preoviposition period was shorter, and adult females more fecund, if they completed immature development and then fed as adults on papaya vegetative flush or green beans rather than papaya flowers. The data indicate that avocado is not a suitable host for A. l. lutescens, suggesting that adult populations that cause significant pest damage to the fruit of this crop originate elsewhere.


Assuntos
Carica , Citrus , Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Persea , Animais , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilidade , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade , Persea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 96(9): 2963-8, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26374618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. RESULTS: Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. CONCLUSION: Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Carica/química , Fertilizantes , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Absorção Fisiológica , Aerossóis , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Cálcio/metabolismo , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carica/metabolismo , Carica/ultraestrutura , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/ultraestrutura , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Conservação de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Malásia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/agonistas , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 108(4): 1612-23, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26470301

RESUMO

Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in area-wide pest management bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are pests. Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration (Mallet ME [56%] > Mallet MR [31.2%] > Mallet MC [23.1%]). Captures of B. cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK (Mallet BR [20.1%] = Mallet MR [18.3%] = Mallet MC [15.9%]). Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers, compared with weathered wafers, were significantly different after week 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16-wk trial. Degradation of both ME and DDVP over time was predicted with a high level of confidence by nonlinear asymptotic exponential decay curves. Results provide supportive data to deploy solid ME and RK wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs, as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson traps. Wafers with ME and RK might be used in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and RK responding fruit flies and could potentially reduce cost of materials and labor by 50%.


Assuntos
Butanonas/farmacologia , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diclorvós/farmacologia , Eugenol/farmacologia , Hawaii , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15432, 2015 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26486606

RESUMO

Begomoviruses are transmitted by cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, often in a species-specific manner. Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) has been recorded to infect several crops including papaya, tomato and tobacco in China. To help assess the risks of spread of this virus, we compared the acquisition, retention and transmission of PaLCuCNV among four species of whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED), Asia 1 and Asia II 7. All four species of whiteflies are able to acquire, retain and transmit the virus, but with different levels of efficiency. Transmission tests using tomato as the host plant showed that MEAM1 transmitted PaLCuCNV with substantially higher efficiency than did MED, Asia 1 and Asia II 7. Furthermore, accumulation of PaLCuCNV in the whiteflies was positively associated with its efficiency of transmitting the virus. Altogether, these findings indicate that MEAM1 is the most efficient vector for PaLCuCNV in the four species of whiteflies, and suggest that risks of PaLCuCNV pandemics are high in regions where MEAM1 occurs.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/patogenicidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Animais , Begomovirus/isolamento & purificação , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carica/virologia , China , Hemípteros/virologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/virologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/virologia
19.
Genet Mol Res ; 13(4): 10367-81, 2014 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25501249

RESUMO

The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Ligação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Cruzamento , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo
20.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e105685, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25162506

RESUMO

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poligalacturonase/genética , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Carica/enzimologia , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Parede Celular/enzimologia , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Cinética , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
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