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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248814, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339390

RESUMO

Abstract The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


Resumo O cariótipo e o padrão constitutivo de heterocromatina das amostras de cegonha-branca Ciconia ciconia obtidas no lago Manzala, Dimiaat, Egito, foram descritos. As células somáticas de amostras de Ciconia ciconia possuem número diploide 2n = 68 cromossomos. Dos 68 cromossomos, 11 pares incluindo cromossomos sexuais eram macrocromossomos e os pares restantes eram microcromossomos. Dos 11 pares de macrocromossomos, os nos 1, 2, 4 e 5 eram submetacêntricos, e os pares nos 6, 7 e 8 foram descritos como metacêntricos. Além disso, o par de autossomos no 3 era subtelocêntrico, enquanto o par de autossomos no 9 era acrocêntrico. Além disso, o cromossomo sexual Z representa o quarto em tamanho e foi classificado como submetacêntrico, enquanto o cromossomo W apareceu como de tamanho médio e acrocêntrico. Além disso, o padrão de bandamento C (heterocromatina constitutiva) revelou variação em seus tamanhos e ocorrência entre macrocromossomos. Pares nos 7 e 8 dos autossomos exibiram distribuição incomum de heterocromatina, onde apareceram como totalmente heterocromáticos. Isso pode estar relacionado à origem dos cromossomos sexuais Z e W. No entanto, não há evidências suficientes para ilustrar o aparecimento de autossomos totalmente heterocromáticos. Portanto, não há literatura citogenética disponível que descreva o bandamento C e o cariótipo de Ciconia ciconia, portanto os resultados aqui apresentados são importantes e podem auxiliar no estudo citogenético e no padrão evolutivo de Ciconiiformes.


Assuntos
Animais , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Aves , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMO

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cariotipagem
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278560

RESUMO

Abstract Allium sativum L. is an herb of the Alliaceae family with a specific taste and aroma and medicinal and nutraceutical properties that are widely marketed in several countries. Brazil is one of the largest importers of garlic in the world, despite of its production is restricted and limited to internal consumption. Thus, explore the genetic diversity of commercial garlic conserved at germplasm banks is essential to generate additional genetic information about its economically important crop. A suitable tool for this purpose is the cytogenetic characterisation of these accessions. This study aimed to characterise the cytogenetic diversity among seven accessions of garlic from a Germplasm Bank in Brazil. The karyotypes were obtained by conventional staining and with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes. All accessions analysed showed chromosome number 2n = 16, karyotype formula 6M+2SM, symmetrical karyotypes, reticulate interphase nuclei, and chromosomes with uniform chromatin condensation from prophase to metaphase. The fluorochromes staining showed differences in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along the chromosomes and between accessions studied. Based on the distribution pattern of these small polymorphisms, it was possible to separate the seven accessions into three groups. It was also possible to differentiate some of the accessions individually. One of the results obtained showed a heteromorphic distension of the nucleolar organiser region observed on the chromosome pairs 6 or 7 with peculiar characteristics. It was suggested for example, that the heteromorphic block of heterochromatin (CMA+++/DAPI-) on chromosome 6 of the "Branco Mineiro Piauí" accession can be used as a marker to identify this genotype or may be associated with some character of economic interest.


Resumo Allium sativum L. é uma erva da família Alliaceae com sabor e aroma específicos e propriedades medicinais e nutracêuticas amplamente comercializada em diversos países. O Brasil é um dos maiores importadores de alho do mundo, apesar da sua produção ser restrita e limitada ao consumo interno. Assim, explorar a diversidade genética do alho comercial conservado em bancos de germoplasma é essencial para fornecer informações genéticas adicionais acerca dessa cultura economicamente importante. Uma ferramenta adequada para esse fim é a caracterização citogenética desses acessos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a diversidade citogenética entre sete acessos de alho de um Banco de Germoplasma no Brasil. Os cariótipos foram obtidos por coloração convencional e com os fluorocromos de cromomicina A3 (CMA) e 4,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol (DAPI). Todos os acessos analisados ​​apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 16, fórmula cariotípica 6M + 2SM, cariótipos simétricos, núcleos reticulados em intérfase e cromossomos com condensação uniforme da cromatina da prófase para a metáfase. A coloração com fluorocromos mostrou diferenças na quantidade e distribuição de heterocromatina ao longo dos cromossomos e entre os acessos estudados. Com base no padrão de distribuição desses pequenos polimorfismos, foi possível separar os sete acessos em três grupos. Também foi possível diferenciar individualmente alguns dos acessos. Um dos resultados obtidos mostrou distensão heteromórfica da região organizadora nucleolar observada nos pares dos cromossomos 6 ou 7 com características peculiares. Foi sugerido, por exemplo, que o bloco heteromórfico de heterocromatina (CMA +++ / DAPI-) no cromossomo 6 do acesso "Branco Mineiro Piauí" pode ser usado como um marcador para identificar esse genótipo ou pode estar associado a algum caráter de interesse econômico.


Assuntos
Alho , Brasil , Heterocromatina/genética , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
4.
Cytopathology ; 33(2): 249-252, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599627

RESUMO

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is described as a patient's clinical (phenotypical) presentation as a female with male karyotyping. Classically, patients are normal looking females with complaints of primary amenorrhea. The gonads may be found as extra-genital swellings; rarely, the testes may undergo malignant transformation. Thus, gonadectomy is indicated in these patients on attaining puberty. A rare and interesting case of clinically unsuspected AIS in a young female who presented with primary amenorrhea and inguinal swelling is reported. The initial diagnosis was suggested on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the inguinal swelling that showed the presence of Sertoli cells. Further family history revealed two similar siblings; karyotyping and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of AIS in the patient. This case highlights the importance of FNAC in early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to confirm the diagnosis and help in appropriate management.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Irmãos , Testículo/patologia
5.
Zootaxa ; 5183(1): 104-112, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095454

RESUMO

In this paper, I summarise work at Macquarie University on aphid diversity in Australia, chromosome numbers, and chromosome behaviour during spermatogenesis and during sex determination in the aphid embryo. Much of this was inspired by Dr Roger Blackman, and some was done in direct collaboration with him. During the 1990s, the Macquarie group developed molecular techniques to investigate aphid population genetics and major questions such as the evolution of sex. These experiments built on the earlier work on aphid karyotypic races and the cytology of egg maturation and spermatogenesis. "From little things, big things grow".1 1 Title of song by Paul Kelly and Kev Carmody, first recorded in 1991.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Cromossomos , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Biologia Molecular
6.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(4): 729-735, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in the pediatric age group is most commonly related to X chromosome abnormalities such as Turner syndrome. Autosomal chromosome microdeletions in ovarian failure are relatively rare. The present study identified new autosomal deletions in three girls with POI. CASE: We present three adolescent girls aged 14-15 years who had not attained menarche. Upon physical examination, there was a lack of breast tissue and no prominent secondary sexual characteristics. Clinical evaluation, hormonal tests, abdominal ultrasonography, and chromosome karyotyping were performed. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) was also performed to detect DNA copy number changes. Luteinizing hormone level was significantly increased, while follicular stimulating hormone level was > 25 IU/L with low estradiol levels. Autosomal deletions were detected in all three cases by CMA. The first patient had 0.454 Mb deletion on 15q25.2, the second patient had 1.337 Mb deletion on 19p13.3, and the third patient had 0.163 Mb deletion on 16p11.2. CONCLUSIONS: POI is rare in children and is most commonly associated with X chromosome abnormalities. However, normal karyotype does not exclude the presence of chromosomal abnormality. CMA should be considered in cases with POI to detect microdeletions in autosomal chromosomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Síndrome de Turner , Adolescente , Criança , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Síndrome de Turner/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Turner/genética
7.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(5): 800-805, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present our study about the significance of karyotyping and azoospermia factor(AZF) analysis in patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 141 Taiwanese patients with nonobstructive azoospermia and 45 Taiwanese patients with oligozoospermia at MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from 2010 to 2021 to determine the significance of karyotyping and azoospermia factor analysis. The karyotyping was analyzed using the Giemsa banding method. The AZF microdeletions were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction using primers specifically flanking the AZF subregions. RESULTS: We found that 7.80% of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia had AZF microdeletions and 19.86% of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia had chromosomal anomalies or polymorphic variations. Furthermore, 4.44% of patients with oligozoospermia had AZF microdeletions, and 4.44% of patients with oligozoospermia had chromosomal anomalies or polymorphic variations. CONCLUSION: In this study, 25.53% of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia and 8.88% of patients with oligozoospermia had abnormal findings. The significance of karyotyping and azoospermia factor analysis is more critical in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia than patients with oligozoospermia. Both karyotyping and AZF analysis could prevent delayed treatment for male infertility through accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The number of our patients with AZFc microdeletion was also higher than that of patients with AZFa or AZFb. The spermatogenic potential may gradually decline in patients with AZFc microdeletion. The earlier is the diagnosis, the earlier will be the retrieval of testicular spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Azoospermia , Oligospermia , Azoospermia/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Oligospermia/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(5): 873-875, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present detection of mosaicism for 46,X,i(Y) (q10) in the blood lymphocytes in a phenotypically normal male neonate with prenatally detected 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis and cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X [8]/46,XY [15]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr (Y) × 0-1 with 25.493-Mb mosaic deletion of chromosome Yp11.31-q11.23. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. The fetus had normal male external genitalia on fetal ultrasound. Following genetic counseling, the pregnancy was carried to 38 weeks of gestation, and a phenotypically normal male baby was delivered without any abnormalities of the male external genitalia. The cord blood had a karyotypes of 46,X,i(Y) (q10)[8]/45,X[3]/46,XY [29], and placenta had a karyotypes of 45,X [25]/46,X,i(Y) (q10)[7]/46,XY [8]. When follow-up at age two months, the neonate was normal in development. The peripheral blood had a karyotypes of 46,X,i(Y) (q10)[8]/45,X[5]/46,XY [27]. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells showed normal X and Y signals in 101/101 cells. CONCLUSION: Fetuses with 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis can be associated with mosaicism for 46,X,i(Y) (q10) in the blood lymphocytes, cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues and a favorable outcome.


Assuntos
Amniocentese , Mosaicismo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Linfócitos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
9.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(5): 903-905, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Swyer syndrome, or 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis, is a disorder of human sexual development which present with female external genitalia, lack of female reproductive organs, and a 46, XY karyotype. Many genes that participate in human sexual development have been implicated in the pathogenesis of 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis. CASE REPORT: A 18-year-old phenotypically female was presented with primary amenorrhea. Surveillance revealed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, a normal male 46, XY karyotype and absent of functional gonad, which was confirmed by pathological examination of the streak gonad. Whole exome sequencing showed germline mutations of a novel missense variant, c.570G > C, p.Lys190Asn, in exon 2 of MAP3K1 gene. CONCLUSION: Given evolutionary conservation of lysine residue at position 190, the amino acid substitution may interfere with interaction between MAP3K1 and RHOA, and contributes to complete gonadal dysgenesis in the context of 46,XY.


Assuntos
Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY , Disgenesia Gonadal , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1 , Síndrome de Turner , Adolescente , Feminino , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY/genética , Humanos , Cariotipagem , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011385

RESUMO

Taxonomy in Bufonidae witnessed notable transformations. Bufotes viridis and Epidalea calamita, previously included in genus Bufo, were relocated in other genera, while the genus Bufo was restricted to members of the earlier Bufo bufo group. On the other hand, Bufo bufo sensu lato now includes four species: Bufo bufo, Bufo spinosus, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufo eichwaldi. In this study, we examined three species of three Bufonidae genera (B. spinosus, B. viridis and E. calamita) by conventional (C-banding and Ag-NOR staining) and molecular (in situ hybridization with probes for telomeric repeats and rDNA loci, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)) cytogenetic methods. C-banding patterns are reported for the first time for B. spinosus and E. calamita populations from Iberian Peninsula and for B. viridis from Greece, and reveal several differences with the reported C-banded karyotypes described for other European populations of these species. Silver staining shows size heteromorphisms of the signals at the Nucleolar Organizing Region (NOR). By contrast, FISH with ribosomal probes only reveal size heteromorphism of rDNA sequences in E. calamita, suggesting that the differences observed after silver staining in B. spinosus and B. viridis should be attributed to differences in chromosomal condensation and/or gene activity rather than to differences in the copy number for ribosomal genes. Regarding telomeric repeats, E. calamita is the only species with interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS) located on centromeric regions, probably originated by accumulation of telomeric sequences in the centromeric heterochromatin. Finally, we analyzed the composition and distribution of repetitive sequences by genome in situ hybridization. These experiments reveal the accumulation of repetitive sequences in centromeric regions of the three species, although these sequences are not conserved when species from different genera are compared.


Assuntos
Bufonidae , Telômero , Animais , Bufonidae/genética , Análise Citogenética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Cariotipagem
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(15): 5496-5502, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the use of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology to detect chromosomes in chorionic villus samples of missed abortion embryos and investigate its utility in the genetic diagnosis of missed abortion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HTS was used to assess chorionic villus samples obtained from 169 patients with missed abortions from August 2020 to March 2022, at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University. The test results were statistically analyzed. To investigate the impact of advanced age on the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities, the patients were divided into two groups: elderly (≥35 years) and nonelderly pregnant women (<35 years). RESULTS: (1) Among the samples of 169 patients, 100 (59.17%) cases of chromosomal abnormalities were detected. Among these 100, 90 (90%) had chromosomal numerical abnormalities and 10 (10%) had chromosomal structural abnormalities. (2) Chromosomal numerical abnormality was abnormalities mainly included aneuploidy (92.22%, 83/90), with trisomy (62.22%, 56/90) and monosomy (22.22%, 20/90) accounting for the majority. The top three numerical abnormalities included 18 cases of Turner syndrome (monosomy X; 20%, 18/90), 10 cases of trisomy 16 (11.11%, 10/90), and 10 cases of trisomy 22 (11.11%, 10/90). (3) Villous chromosomal abnormalities were found in 48 (70.59%) elderly pregnant women, and 52 (51.48%) nonelderly pregnant women, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: (1) Chromosomal abnormality is an important cause of missed abortion, it majorly includes chromosomal numerical abnormality, of which most cases are of aneuploidy. (2) Advanced age may increase the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities. (3) Villus chromosome detection using HTS has a positive value and can be used for analyzing and determining the causes of missed abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Retido , Transtornos Cromossômicos , Aborto Retido/diagnóstico , Aborto Retido/genética , Idoso , Aneuploidia , China/epidemiologia , Vilosidades Coriônicas , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Mosaicismo , Gravidez
12.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(8): 122, 2022 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995769

RESUMO

The prognosis of AML patients with adverse genetics, such as a complex, monosomal karyotype and TP53 lesions, is still dismal even with standard chemotherapy. DNA-hypomethylating agent monotherapy induces an encouraging response rate in these patients. When combined with decitabine (DAC), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resulted in an improved response rate and longer overall survival in a randomized phase II trial (DECIDER; NCT00867672). The molecular mechanisms governing this in vivo synergism are unclear. We now demonstrate cooperative antileukemic effects of DAC and ATRA on AML cell lines U937 and MOLM-13. By RNA-sequencing, derepression of >1200 commonly regulated transcripts following the dual treatment was observed. Overall chromatin accessibility (interrogated by ATAC-seq) and, in particular, at motifs of retinoic acid response elements were affected by both single-agent DAC and ATRA, and enhanced by the dual treatment. Cooperativity regarding transcriptional induction and chromatin remodeling was demonstrated by interrogating the HIC1, CYP26A1, GBP4, and LYZ genes, in vivo gene derepression by expression studies on peripheral blood blasts from AML patients receiving DAC + ATRA. The two drugs also cooperated in derepression of transposable elements, more effectively in U937 (mutated TP53) than MOLM-13 (intact TP53), resulting in a "viral mimicry" response. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in vitro and in vivo, the antileukemic and gene-derepressive epigenetic activity of DAC is enhanced by ATRA.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Decitabina/farmacologia , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico
14.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(9): 1161-1168, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities with an incidence of approximately one in 2,500 live births. Short stature and primary ovarian insufficiency are two most important characteristic findings of TS. Turner syndrome karyotypes include monosomy X, mosaic structure and X chromosome structural anomalies. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics vary among cases. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical variations observed in TS cases with the copy number variations (CNV) detected by microarray study. METHODS: Fifty-three patients diagnosed with TS, between the ages of 0-18 were included in the study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from 36 cases for microarray study. RESULTS: Karyotypes were as follows: thirty-three of cases were 45,X, 7 were 45,X/46,XX, 6 were 45,X/46,Xi(Xq), 2 were 46,Xi(Xq), 2 were 45,X/46,r(X), 1 was 45,X/46,Xi(Xp), 1 was 45,X/46,XY and 1 was 45,X/46,X+mar(idicY) karyotype. A significant correlation was found between karyotype groups and FSH values of the cases (p=0.034). In monosomy X and mosaic isochromosome Xq cases, the FSH value was found to be significantly higher than those with 45,X/46,XX mosaic karyotype. CNVs were found in 8 (22.2%) out of 36 cases whose microarray study was performed. Unexpected atypical findings were discussed in the light of the characteristics of CNVs. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the microarray method has a great contribution in explaining many unexpected findings in TS cases. Moreover, those CNV findings may contribute for the explanation of the underlying mechanisms of those anomalies.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Turner , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Síndrome de Turner/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Turner/genética
15.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 19(5): 576-583, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Aggressive angiomyxomas are mostly found in the pelvic and perineal region and are prone to recur after surgery. Cytogenetic information is available on only nine such tumors. Herein, we report the cytogenetic anomaly and its molecular consequence in another aggressive angiomyxoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An aggressive angiomyxoma found in a 33-year-old woman was examined using cytogenetic, RNA sequencing, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Sanger sequencing techniques. RESULTS: The karyotype of short-term cultured tumor cells was 46,XX,del(12) (q14q23)[9]/46,XX[2]. RNA sequencing detected fusion of the high mobility group AT-hook 2 gene (HMGA2) with the chromosome 12 open reading frame 42 gene (C12orf42). RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of an HMGA2::C12orf42 fusion transcript. CONCLUSION: The present case carrying del(12)(q14q23) and an HMGA2::C12orf42 chimeric transcript strengthens the notion that involvement of HMGA2 and its misexpression are pathogenetically important in the development of aggressive angiomyxomas.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 12 , Mixoma , Adulto , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Mixoma/genética , Mixoma/patologia , Mixoma/cirurgia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Translocação Genética
16.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 31(4): 174-180, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial deletions of the 11q region are infrequent. Nonrecurrent chromosomal rearrangements are observed with high variability in size and precise breakpoints of the deleted area. Moreover heterogeneous clinical findings are observed in those harboring 11q interstitial deletions. Main clinical features associated with these deletions include mild dysmorphic findings intellectual disability and moderate developmental or speech delay . METHOD: Conventional high-resolution karyotyping along with microarray studies were performed for the index patient who was found to be a carrier of a de novo interstitial deletion in the long arm of chromosome 11 which is located between the 11q14 and 11q22 band regions. We also investigated the homologous chromosome with next-generation sequencing technology to search for unmasked recessive variants in genes on the nondeleted contralateral allele. RESULTS: Cytogenetic analysis revealed a de novo interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 11 46 XY del(11) (q14q22). Microarray analysis confirmed the deletion of 11.2 Mb in length mapping from 11q14.3 to 11q22.2 [arr (GRCh37) 11q14.3q22.1(90549863_101833022)x1 dn]. Whole-exome sequencing did not detect any other genetic variant (single nucleotide variant ) on the nondeleted allele. CONCLUSION: This study gave us the opportunity for an attempt to define the smallest region of overlap for frequently observed clinical findings by reviewing the literature.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Nanismo , Deficiência Intelectual , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deleção Cromossômica , Nanismo/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino
17.
BMC Med Genomics ; 15(1): 170, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cause of infertility remains unclear in a significant proportion of reproductive-age couples who fail to conceive naturally. Chromosomal aberrations have been identified as one of the main genetic causes of male and female infertility. Structural chromosomal aberrations may disrupt the functioning of various genes, some of which may be important for fertility. The present study aims to identify candidate genes and putative functional interaction networks involved in male and female infertility using cytogenetic data from cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of infertile patients. METHODS: Karyotypic analyses was done in 201 infertile patients (100 males and 101 females) and 201 age and gender matched healthy controls (100 males and 101 females) after 72 h peripheral lymphocyte culturing and GTG banding, followed by bioinformatic analysis using Cytoscape v3.8.2 and Metascape. RESULTS: Several chromosomal regions with a significantly higher frequency of structural aberrations were identified in the infertile males (5q2, 10q2, and 17q2) and females (6q2, 16q2, and Xq2). Segregation of the patients based on type of infertility (primary v/s secondary infertility) led to the identification of chromosomal regions with a significantly higher frequency of structural aberrations exclusively within the infertile males (5q2, 17q2) and females (16q2) with primary infertility. Cytoscape identified two networks specific to these regions: a male specific network with 99 genes and a female specific network with 109 genes. The top enriched GO terms within the male and female infertility networks were "skeletal system morphogenesis" and "mRNA transport" respectively. PSME3, PSMD3, and CDC27 were the top 3 hub genes identified within the male infertility network. Similarly, UPF3B, IRF8, and PSMB1 were the top 3 hub genes identified with the female infertility network. Among the hub genes identified in the male- and female-specific networks, PSMB1, PSMD3, and PSME3 are functional components of the proteasome complex. These hub genes have a limited number of reports related to their respective roles in maintenance of fertility in mice model and humans and require validation in further studies. CONCLUSION: The candidate genes predicted in the present study can serve as targets for future research on infertility.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina , Infertilidade Masculina , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
18.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 30(4): 1129-1133, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate an improved culturing method for karyotyping analysis, and increase the detection rate of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), so as to provide more powerful information for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis stratification, and individualized treatment of MM patients. METHODS: Eighty newly-diagnosed MM patients were enrolled and divided into two groups. In observation group, IL-6 (10 ng/ml) and GM-CSF (30 ng/ml) were supplemented in the culture medium, while no stimulating factor was added in control group. The samples from both groups were cultured for 72 hours under the same conditions, and their karyotypes were analyzed by G-banding. The detection rate of the cytogenetic abnormalities, as well as the corresponding characteristics were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The detection rate of the chromosome aberrations was greatly increased in the observation group compared with the control group, the overall detection rate was 72.5% and 22.5%, respectively, as well as 80.0% and 19.2% in the subgroup of ≤60 years old, 68.0% and 28.6% in the subgroup of > 60 years old, which showed significant statistical differences (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The modification of the culturing method with the addition of IL-6 (10 ng/ml) and GM-CSF (30 ng/ml) dual stimulating factors followed by incubation for 72 hours can effectively increase the detection rate of abnormal karyotypes in MM patients.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos , Mieloma Múltiplo , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética
19.
Clin Genet ; 102(4): 262-287, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802600

RESUMO

Hemivertebra is a congenital vertebral malformation caused by unilateral failure of formation during embryogenesis that may be associated with additional abnormalities. A systematic review was conducted to investigate genetic etiologies of non-isolated hemivertebra identified in the fetal, neonatal, and infant periods using PubMed, Cochrane database, Ovid Medline, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception through May 2022 (PROSPERO ID CRD42021229576). The Human Phenotype Ontology database was accessed May 2022. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they addressed non-isolated hemivertebra or genetic causes of non-isolated hemivertebra identified in the fetal, neonatal, or infant periods. Cases diagnosed clinically without molecular confirmation were included. Systematic review identified 23 cases of non-isolated hemivertebra with karyotypic abnormalities, 2 cases due to microdeletions, 59 cases attributed to single gene disorders, 18 syndromic cases without known genetic etiology, and 14 cases without a known syndromic association. The Human Phenotype Ontology search identified 49 genes associated with hemivertebra. Non-isolated hemivertebra is associated with a diverse spectrum of cytogenetic abnormalities and single gene disorders. Genetic syndromes were notably common. Frequently affected organ systems include musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, central nervous system, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and facial dysmorphisms. When non-isolated hemivertebra is identified on prenatal ultrasound, the fetus must be assessed for associated anomalies and genetic counseling is recommended.


Assuntos
Feto , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas , Feminino , Feto/anormalidades , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
20.
J Bioinform Comput Biol ; 20(3): 2250011, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802463

RESUMO

Karyotype is a genetic test that is used for detection of chromosomal defects. In a karyotype test, an image is captured from chromosomes during the cell division. The captured images are then analyzed by cytogeneticists in order to detect possible chromosomal defects. In this paper, we have proposed an automated pipeline for analysis of karyotype images. There are three main steps for karyotype image analysis: image enhancement, image segmentation and chromosome classification. In this paper, we have proposed a novel chromosome segmentation algorithm to decompose overlapped chromosomes. We have also proposed a CNN-based classifier which outperforms all the existing classifiers. Our classifier is trained by a dataset of about 1,62,000 human chromosome images. We also introduced a novel post-processing algorithm which improves the classification results. The success rate of our segmentation algorithm is 95%. In addition, our experimental results show that the accuracy of our classifier for human chromosomes is 92.63% and our novel post-processing algorithm increases the classification results to 94%.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cromossomos Humanos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
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