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1.
Mutat Res ; 863-864: 503311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678247

RESUMO

In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the consumption of processed meat as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and red meat as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) based on sufficient data from animal models and epidemiological studies. However, research characterising the mechanisms underlying this carcinogenic process in humans are limited, particularly with respect to measures of direct DNA damage. The current review sought to evaluate and summarize the recent literature, published since 2000, regarding the associations of meat consumption and three biomarkers of genotoxicity in humans: DNA strand breaks (measured using the comet assay), DNA adducts, and micronucleus formation. After screening 230 potential articles, 35 were included, and then were classified as experimental or observational in design, the latter of which were further categorized according to their dietary assessment approach. Among the 30 observational studies, 4 of which used two different assays, 3 of 5 comet assay studies, 13 of 20 DNA adduct studies, and 7 of 9 micronucleus studies reported a positive association between meat consumption and DNA damage. Among the 5 experimental studies, 1 of 1 using the comet assay, 3 of 3 measuring DNA adducts and 0 of 1 measuring micronuclei reported significant positive associations with meat consumption. Nevertheless, common limitations among the selected publications included small sample size, and poor methodological reporting of both exposure and outcome measures. Moreover, the vast majority of studies only measured DNA damage in one biological sample using a single assay and we cannot exclude the possibility of publication bias. Ultimately, our review of the literature, published since 2000, revealed a preponderance of studies that support mechanisms of genotoxicity in playing an important role in the meat-cancer association.


Assuntos
Adutos de DNA , Dano ao DNA , Preferências Alimentares , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Ensaio Cometa , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos
2.
Food Chem ; 351: 129345, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647691

RESUMO

Increasing pesticide contamination in foods of animal origin has made the wide-scope multi-residue analysis of pesticides an international concern. In this study, a sensitive and reliable multi-residue pesticide analysis method for beef was developed with the use of 129 pesticides to demonstrate the full scope of the method. The pesticides were extracted and purified using a modified QuEChERS technique and analysed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An orthogonal array design was employed for optimisation of the method, significantly scientising and simplifying the process. Method validation revealed satisfactory sensitivity with limits of quantification values ranging from 0.003 to 11.37 µg∙kg-1. Matrix effects ranged from 83.85% to 120.66%. Recovery at three spiking levels (20, 50, and 100 µg∙kg-1) were 70.51-128.12% and the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 20%, indicating good accuracy and precision.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Limite de Detecção
3.
Food Chem ; 352: 129329, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684719

RESUMO

A simple, novel, rapid, and non-destructive spectroscopic method that employs the deep spectral network for beef-freshness classification was developed. The deep-learning-based model classified beef freshness by learning myoglobin information and reflectance spectra over different freshness states. The reflectance spectra (480-920 nm) were measured from 78 beef samples for 17 days, and the datasets were sorted into three freshness classes based on their pH values. Myoglobin information showed statistically significant differences depending on the freshness; consequently, it was utilized as a crucial parameter for classification. The model exhibited improved performance when the reflectance spectra were combined with the myoglobin information. The accuracy of the proposed model improved to 91.9%, whereas that of the single-spectra model was 83.6%. Further, a high value for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.958) was recorded. This study provides a basis for future studies on the investigation of myoglobin information associated with meat freshness.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Mioglobina/química , Carne Vermelha/classificação , Análise Espectral , Animais , Bovinos , Mioglobina/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 350: 129265, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610837

RESUMO

This study was to explore effects of hot air assisted or not assisted radio frequency (RF, 27.12 MHz, 1.4 kW) heating with different electrode gaps (100 mm, 120 mm, and 140 mm) on the water-holding capacity (WHC) of myofibrillar protein (MP) gel and to understand the underlying mechanism through chemical forces, water distribution, and structure. The results showed that the MP gels heated by RF (100 mm) had the highest WHC and uniform gel network structure. As for RF with 100 mm electrode gap, the increased ionic and hydrogen bonds might be conducive to the WHC compared to water bath heating, which was verified by Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results that the free water converted into the immobilized water. Raman spectroscopy results revealed that RF (100 mm) induced the self-assembly of ß-sheet to α-helix, which conduced to the stable and ordered gel network structure.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/química , Ondas de Rádio , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/efeitos da radiação , Água/química , Animais , Géis , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Suínos
5.
Animal ; 15(2): 100099, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573964

RESUMO

Ethanol extract of mango seeds (EEMS) are composed of several polyphenolic compounds with considerable in vitro antioxidant activity that can be used in pig feed and may contribute positively to meat quality characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EEMS as a source of antioxidants in growing-finishing pig diets on meat quality, lipid stability, sulfhydryl groups non-proteinaceous (SG-NP), total phenolic compounds, total antioxidant potential and total antioxidant activity of meat after 1 and 7 days of refrigeration storage. Thirty-two (60-day-old) barrows, weighing 20.20 ±â€¯1.34 kg, were used in a randomized block design consisting of eight animals with four treatment regimens. Treatments consisted of: Control = no dietary antioxidant; butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) = diet with 200 ppm BHT; EEMS200 = diet with 200 ppm EEMS; EEMS400 = diet with 400 ppm EEMS. At 145 days of age and average weight of 95.47 ±â€¯6.19 kg, the animals were slaughtered and loin samples were collected and frozen before for qualitative analysis and evaluation of the effect of subsequent storage for 1 or 7 days at 8 °C on lipid stability, SG-NP, phenolic compounds, total antioxidant capacity and total antioxidant activity Meat from animals fed EEMS400 diet showed lower cooking loss (P < 0.0001) and higher non-protein sulfhydryl groups, phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity at both 1 and 7 days of storage (P < 0.0001) compared to the other treatments. Greater antioxidant capacity was observed at 1 day storage in the meat of animals that consumed EEMS regardless of concentration when compared to the control group (P < 0.01). The dietary inclusion of EEMS to pig diets is more effective at 400 ppm in improving meat quality after cooking and antioxidant parameters of pork.


Assuntos
Mangifera , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta/veterinária , Etanol , Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suínos
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190903, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533801

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to determine the fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed with different levels of safflower seed (0%, 7.5%, and 15%) and, also, to compare the characteristics of the meat patties prepared from this lamb meat (LMP) with beef meat patties (BMP). The safflower seed-supplemented diet did not change the contents of polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids, except for C22:1. All meat patty formulations were considered safe for consumption. The values of cooking yield, shrinkage, water absorption index, luminosity (L*), and redness (a*) were similar for the LMP and BMP tested. While the safflower seed-supplemented diet did not alter the moisture, ash, and protein levels of LMP, the lipid content was lower than that in BMP. The incorporation of 15% safflower seed into lamb feed contributed to promoting better sensory attributes of the meat patties. Most of the physicochemical properties evaluated were similar among LMP and BMP. However, to improve the sensory properties of the product, dietary supplementation with 15% safflower seed is recommended.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius , Carne Vermelha , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos , Carne/análise , Sementes , Ovinos
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 63-68, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the red meat intake of pregnant women in Chengdu area and explore the effect of red meat intake in the first and second trimesters on gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). METHODS: From February to July 2017, a prospective study was conducted among healthy singleton pregnant women within 8-14 weeks of gestation in a prenatal clinic of maternal-and-child medical institution in Chengdu City through purposive sampling. Data on maternal demographic characteristics was collected through questionnaire in early pregnancy. 3-day 24 hour dietary recall was used to collect dietary intake information in the first and second trimesters. The 75 g oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT)was conducted at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation, and GDM was diagnosed according to the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pregnancy Diabetes in China(2014). Multivariate unconditional Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between tertiles of red meat intake and the risk of GDM in the first and second trimesters. RESULTS: A total of 985 valid samples were followed up. The mean intake of total meat and red meat in middle pregnancy(102. 9 g/d and 74. 6 g/d) was higher than that in early pregnancy(70. 7 g/d and 52. 0 g/d). The difference was statistically significant(P<0. 05). Red meat accounted for 73. 6% and 72. 5% of total meat intake in early and middle pregnancy, respectively. After adjusting the confounding factors, multivariate unconditional Logistic regression analysis showed the risk of GDM was 1. 499 times(95%CI 1. 028-2. 185) in the highest red meat intake(>86 g/d)women compared with the lowest red meat intake(<44 g/d) women in the second trimester. No association was found between red meat intake in the first trimester and the occurrence of GDM(OR=1. 029, 95%CI 0. 716-1. 481). CONCLUSION: Pregnant women in Chengdu area have excessive intake of red meat in the second trimester. Higher intake of red meat in the second trimester(>86 g/d) may increase the risk of gestational diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Carne Vermelha , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624102

RESUMO

The mutation T3811 → G3811 (TG3811) discovered in the myostatin gene of the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed is suspected of contributing to the outstanding muscularity of this breed. An experiment was designed to estimate the effect of this mutation in an F2 and back-cross Blonde d'Aquitaine × Holstein population. By genotyping all known mutations in the myostatin gene, it was ensured that the TG3811 mutation was indeed the only known mutation segregating in this population. Fifty-six calves (43 F2, 13 back-cross) were intensively fattened and slaughtered at 24.0 ± 1.4 wk of age. The effects of the mutation were estimated by comparing the calves with the [T/T] (n = 18), [T/G] (n = 30), and [G/G] (n = 8) genotypes. Highly significant substitution effects (P < 0.001), above + 1.2 phenotypic SD, were shown on carcass yield and muscularity scores. Birth weight (P < 0.001) was positively affected by the mutation (+0.8 SD) but not growth rate (P = 0.97), while carcass length (P = 0.03), and fatness (P ≤ 0.03) were negatively affected (-0.5 to -0.7 SD). The characteristics of the Triceps brachii muscle were affected by the mutation (P < 0.001), with lower ICDH activity (oxidative) and a higher proportion of myosin type 2X muscle fibers (fast twitch). The effects of the TG3811 mutation were similar to those of other known myostatin mutations, although the Blonde d'Aquitaine animals, which are predominantly [G/G] homozygous, do not exhibit extreme double muscling.


Assuntos
Miostatina , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Genótipo , Mutação , Miostatina/genética , Fenótipo
10.
J Anim Sci ; 99(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587146

RESUMO

We evaluated the economic and environmental impacts of strategies that incorporated selection for pig feed efficiency and dietary optimization based on a single or multiple objectives tailored to meet the population nutritional requirements, with the goal to optimize sustainable farm feed efficiency. The economic and environmental features of the strategy were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) and bio-economic models. An individual trait-based LCA model was applied to evaluate global warming potential, terrestrial acidification potential, freshwater eutrophication potential (EP), and land occupation of the combined genetics and nutrition optimization to produce 1 kg of live pig weighing 120 kg at the farm gate. A parametric individual trait-based bio-economic model was developed and applied to determine the cost breakdown, revenue, and profit to be gained from a 120-kg live pig at the farm gate. Data from two genetic lines with contrasted levels of feed efficiency were used to apply the combined genetics and nutrition optimization: accounting for the average nutritional requirements for each line, the individual pig responses to diets formulated for least cost, least environmental impacts, or minimum combination of costs and environmental impacts objectives were predicted with INRAPorc. Significant differences in the environmental impacts (P < 0.0001) and profit (P < 0.05) between lines predicted with the same reference diet showed that selection for feed efficiency (residual feed intake) in pigs improves pig production sustainability. When pig responses were simulated with their line-optimized diets, except for EP, all the line environmental impacts were lower (P < 0.05) than with the reference diet. The high correlations of feed conversion ratio with the environmental impacts (> 0.82) and the profit (< -0.88) in both lines underlined the importance of feed efficiency as a lever for the sustainability of pig production systems. Implementing combined genetics and nutrition optimization, the inherent profit and environmental differences between the genetic lines were predicted to be reduced from 23.4% with the reference diet to 7.6% with the diet optimized jointly for economic and environmental objectives (joint diet). Consequently, for increased pig sustainability, diet optimization for sustainability objectives should be applied to cover the specific nutritional requirements arising in the herd from the pigs genetic level.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Meio Ambiente , Suínos/genética
11.
Nature ; 589(7843): 554-561, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505037

RESUMO

Historically, human uses of land have transformed and fragmented ecosystems1,2, degraded biodiversity3,4, disrupted carbon and nitrogen cycles5,6 and added prodigious quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere7,8. However, in contrast to fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, trends and drivers of GHG emissions from land management and land-use change (together referred to as 'land-use emissions') have not been as comprehensively and systematically assessed. Here we present country-, process-, GHG- and product-specific inventories of global land-use emissions from 1961 to 2017, we decompose key demographic, economic and technical drivers of emissions and we assess the uncertainties and the sensitivity of results to different accounting assumptions. Despite steady increases in population (+144 per cent) and agricultural production per capita (+58 per cent), as well as smaller increases in emissions per land area used (+8 per cent), decreases in land required per unit of agricultural production (-70 per cent) kept global annual land-use emissions relatively constant at about 11 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent until 2001. After 2001, driven by rising emissions per land area, emissions increased by 2.4 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent per decade to 14.6 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent in 2017 (about 25 per cent of total anthropogenic GHG emissions). Although emissions intensity decreased in all regions, large differences across regions persist over time. The three highest-emitting regions (Latin America, Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa) dominate global emissions growth from 1961 to 2017, driven by rapid and extensive growth of agricultural production and related land-use change. In addition, disproportionate emissions are related to certain products: beef and a few other red meats supply only 1 per cent of calories worldwide, but account for 25 per cent of all land-use emissions. Even where land-use change emissions are negligible or negative, total per capita CO2-equivalent land-use emissions remain near 0.5 tonnes per capita, suggesting the current frontier of mitigation efforts. Our results are consistent with existing knowledge-for example, on the role of population and economic growth and dietary choice-but provide additional insight into regional and sectoral trends.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Combustíveis Fósseis , Atividades Humanas , Internacionalidade , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribução , Grão Comestível/provisão & distribução , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , América Latina , Esterco , Oryza , Carne Vermelha/provisão & distribução , Solo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Madeira
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480838

RESUMO

During a project focusing on the diversity of meat microbiota associated with beef ripening, a Pseudomonas strain was isolated exhibiting high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (>99 %) to Pseudomonas carnis DSM 107652T, P. lactis DSM 29167T, P. paralactis DSM 29164T and P. azotoformans DSM 18862T. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete rpoB gene sequences of the isolate V5/DAB/2/5T indicated a separate branch with about 99.0 % nucleotide identities to the closest relatives P. carnis DSM 107652T, P. lactis DSM 29167T and P. paralactis DSM 29164T, while average nucleotide identities (ANIb) calculated from the draft genomes were 94.8, 94.2 and 90.2 %, respectively. Pairwise genome-to-genome distance calculations (GGDC) resulted in values of 67.7, 63.5 and 45.7 %, respectively, lying below the actual species demarcation line as well. A second isolate, UBT403, was detected some years later by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight MS of the microbiota of minced beef. The fatty acid profile of V5/DAB/2/5T consisted of C16 : 0, summed feature C 16 : 1 ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, C18 : 1 ω7c, C17 : 0 cyclo, C12 : 0, C12 : 0 3-OH, C10 : 0 3-OH and C12 : 0 2-OH. The major cellular lipids were aminopholipids, phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol; the major quinone was Q9 with a minor proportion of Q8. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterizations, the isolates can be considered as representing a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas paracarnis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is V5/DAB/2/5T (=DSM 111363T=LMG 31846T); a second strain is UBT403 (=DSM 111362=LMG 31847).


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Bovinos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Food Chem ; 348: 129087, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516997

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to evaluate the functional efficacy of plant extracts as a source of pancreatic lipase inhibitor and antioxidant in goat meat nuggets to address the fat paradox issue of red meat. The PPLIA, antioxidant potential, and resistance against fat digestion were in the order ofPhyllanthus emblica > Eucalyptus globulus > Tinospora cordifolia.PPL inhibition activities of water and ethanolic extracts fromPhyllanthus emblicausing DNPB and Triolein as substrate were 63.76, 67.94 and 56.17 and 64.36 percent respectively whereas, TPC, DPPH RSA, FRPA were 40.82 and 59.52 (mgGAE/g), 54.89 and 59.84 (percent), 1.26 and 1.61 (OD) respectively. The average diameter of fat globules in digest was maximum (8.91 µm) withPhyllanthus emblicafruits extracts whereas; TBARs (0.347 mg MDA/Kg) and FFA (4.47 µg/g) values were lowest. This study showed that extracts from plants can act as a promising natural alternative in the development of healthy meat products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Eucalyptus/química , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Phyllanthus emblica/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Tinospora/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cabras , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109053, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461000

RESUMO

Sixty vacuum-packed beef samples retailed in Germany were investigated for the occurrence of cold-tolerant Clostridium spp. After a storage period at 4 °C for eight weeks, meat juice from all samples was processed for culturing, DNA extraction and SYBR green qPCR for Clostridium species. After that, a previously developed multiplex qPCR, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and MALDI-TOF MS were applied in order to identify Clostridium spp. found in samples. Subsequently, 23 samples were found positive for C. frigoriphilum (n = 19), C. estertheticum (n = 2), C. tagluense (n = 1) and C. lacusfryxellense/C. frigoris (n = 1). By using a new multiplex qPCR and a new RFLP method developed in this study, a further 15 meat juice samples were revealed to be contaminated with C. algidicarnis. With some samples being co-contaminated with two different species, 53% (n = 32) of all investigated vacuum-packed beef samples were found to be positive for cold-tolerant clostridia. This is the first report of detection and identification of C. algidicarnis in meat samples in Germany and Central Europe.


Assuntos
Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Embalagem de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vácuo
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109033, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401188

RESUMO

An increasing number of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in industrialized countries have been foodborne and linked to the consumption of undercooked pork products. To date, data on the prevalence of HEV in pork products sold in the United States is limited and no standard processing method exists for the detection of HEV in foods. In order to develop a processing method for the detection of HEV in pork products, ground pork and pork liver were selected for method development. Murine norovirus (MNV) was used as a process control. A filtration step prior to RNA detection was shown to reduce the level of PCR inhibitors in ground pork and an additional ultracentrifugation process was successful in removing PCR inhibitors in pork liver. MNV RNA was detected in ground pork and liver samples inoculated with 4.7 log10 PFU/g and 3.0 log10 PFU/g, respectively. Using the developed method for viral RNA detection in ground pork and pork liver, 20 packages of ground pork (six 1 g sub-samples per package) and 14 pork livers (four 1 g sub-samples per liver) were screened for the presence of HEV RNA. Fifteen out of 119 (12.6%) ground pork samples tested positive for HEV RNA and 13 out of 20 packages (65%) contained at least one positive sample. Twenty-five of 56 (45%) of pork liver samples were positive for HEV RNA and 6 of 14 livers (43%) had all sub-samples test positive for HEV RNA. Overall, the results indicate ground pork and pig liver as a potential source of HEV.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco/virologia , Carne Vermelha/virologia , Animais , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Fígado/virologia , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445458

RESUMO

The electronic tongue (e-tongue) is an advanced sensor-based device capable of detecting low concentration differences in solutions. It could have unparalleled advantages for meat quality control, but the challenges of standardized meat extraction methods represent a backdrop that has led to its scanty application in the meat industry. This study aimed to determine the optimal dilution level of meat extract for e-tongue evaluations and also to develop three standardized meat extraction methods. For practicality, the developed methods were applied to detect low levels of meat adulteration using beef and pork mixtures and turkey and chicken mixtures as case studies. Dilution factor of 1% w/v of liquid meat extract was determined to be the optimum for discriminating 1% w/w, 3% w/w, 5% w/w, 10% w/w, and 20% w/w chicken in turkey and pork in beef with linear discriminant analysis accuracies (LDA) of 78.13% (recognition) and 64.73% (validation). Even higher LDA accuracies of 89.62% (recognition) and 68.77% (validation) were achieved for discriminating 1% w/w, 3% w/w, 5% w/w, 10% w/w, and 20% w/w of pork in beef. Partial least square models could predict both sets of meat mixtures with good accuracies. Extraction by cooking was the best method for discriminating meat mixtures and can be applied for meat quality evaluations with the e-tongue.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Galinhas , Culinária , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Estatísticos , Perus , Água/química
18.
Food Chem ; 347: 128999, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465687

RESUMO

The effect of in-bag dry- and wet-ageing on metabolite profiles of lamb legs was determined using Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS). Using orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with REIMS, 1705 metabolite ions were identified (Q2 = 0.86) in four muscles: m. semimembranosus, m. biceps femoris, m. vastus lateralis and m. rectus femoris. A total of 663 metabolites differed between ageing methods (P < 0.05) which mainly resulted from proteolysis and lipid metabolism. Dry-aged lamb had higher pH (P = 0.016) and lower moisture content (P = 0.034) than the wet-aged. Dry-ageing produced more (P < 0.05) smaller sized metabolites including dipeptides and free amino acids and lipid oxidation metabolites compared to wet-aged equivalents. Different muscles had distinct REIMS metabolic profiles. Outcomes of this study demonstrated that REIMS can be used for authentication between in-bag dry- and wet-aged lamb based on their metabolic fingerprints.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Proteólise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466518

RESUMO

Close economic ties encourage production and trade of meat between Canada, Mexico, and the US. Understanding the patterns of red and processed meat consumption in North America may inform policies designed to reduce meat consumption and bolster environmental and public health efforts across the continent. We used nationally-representative cross-sectional survey data to analyze consumption of unprocessed red meat; processed meat; and total red and processed meat. Generalized linear models were used to separately estimate probability of consumption and adjusted mean intake. Prevalence of total meat consumers was higher in the US (73.6, 95% CI: 72.3-74.8%) than in Canada (65.6, 63.9-67.2%) or Mexico (62.7, 58.1-67.2%). Men were more likely to consume unprocessed red, processed, and total meat, and had larger estimated intakes. In Mexico, high wealth individuals were more likely to consume all three categories of meat. In the US and Canada, those with high education were less likely to consume total and processed meat. Estimated mean intake of unprocessed red, processed, and total meat did not differ across sociodemographic strata. Overall consumption of red and processed meat remains high in North America. Policies to reduce meat consumption are appropriate for all three countries.


Assuntos
Dieta , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Carne Vermelha , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Food Chem ; 338: 127832, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818868

RESUMO

Food-borne carbon dots (CDs) may cause health risks due to their unique properties. However, previous efforts were mainly focused on the characterization of their physicochemical properties, their effects on cellular metabolism are not entirely revealed. Herein, the features and potential toxicity of CDs from lamb baked for 15, 30, and 45 min were evaluated, their cytotoxicity increased with the extension of baking time. Furthermore, the metabolic responses of PC12 cells after exposure to CDs from lamb baked for 45 min were investigated. The CDs perturbed purine metabolism, causing reactive oxygen species accumulation. Meanwhile, the CDs down-regulated glycolysis and TCA cycle, led to a significant decrease in ATP. Additionally, the CDs induced triglyceride accumulation, mainly through enhanced fatty acid biosynthesis. The adverse effects of CDs from baked lamb involved the perturbation of energy production, purine metabolism, and triglyceride biosynthesis, which provided additional information about the risks of CDs from food items.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Carbono/toxicidade , Culinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Purinas/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos/química , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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