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1.
Food Chem ; 430: 137036, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37536066

RESUMO

Peptides in fresh and aged beef strip loin (M. longissimus lumborum) and tenderloin (M. psoas major) were quantified to investigate the relationship between proteolysis-induced peptides and beef quality characteristics. A total of 409 and 450 peptides were quantified from strip loin and tenderloin, respectively, and found to be significantly correlated to beef quality characteristics. Changes in redness and yellowness were significantly correlated to the peptides derived from G3P, ENOB, and KCRM in both muscles during 14 days of storage. The peptides produced from MYG, ENOB, HBA, PGK1, and TPIS were strongly associated with improved tenderness, while those derived from major myofibrillar proteins, such as MYH1, MYH2, ACTS, and DESM, were associated with changes in tenderloin color. These results improve our understanding of the association between peptides and changes in meat quality during cold storage, indicating that proteolysis-induced peptides can be indicators of the quality characteristics of fresh and aged meat.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos
2.
Food Chem ; 430: 137002, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37524609

RESUMO

Microbial contamination is a crucial problem that is difficult to solve for the meat industry. Therefore, this study explored the antibacterial efficacy of phenyllactic acid (PLA) against Pseudomonas lundensis (PL) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (BT) solely and in combination (PL + BT). It also provided insights into its synergistic preservation effect during inoculation in chilled (4 °C) fresh pork loins under air (AP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PLA was 10 mg/mL. Growth kinetics, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, and cell viability investigations showed that PLA treatment exhibited reduced bacterial growth, aided morphological alterations, and leakage in cell membrane integrity in vitro. Nonetheless, PLA and MAP (70 %N2/30 %CO2) showed an excellent synergistic antibacterial ability against spoilage indicators(total glucose, pH, TVB-N, and TBARS), bacterial counts than AP, without impairing organoleptic acceptability. These results demonstrate the broad antibacterial efficacy of PLA as a biopreservative for the meat industry.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Brochothrix , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Atmosfera , Poliésteres/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
3.
Food Chem ; 430: 137003, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37562265

RESUMO

The effects of ultrasonic curing with various frequencies on sodium chloride (NaCl) mass transfer in pork muscle and its potential mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that ultrasound curing dramatically increased the NaCl content in pork compared to static curing, especially curing at 26.8 kHz. The binarized images of NaCl penetration in pork visually confirmed that ultrasound enhanced the efficiency of mass transfer. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that the distribution of NaCl in pork tissue cured by ultrasound was the densest compared to the static curing. According to impedance analysis and microstructure observation, the structure of cell membranes was damaged to different extents during ultrasound treatments. The potential mechanisms of low-frequency ultrasound accelerated curing are mainly attributed to the action of acoustic cavitation and the sponge effect. Overall, the low-frequency ultrasound is a promising revolutionary technology in the food industry that can speed up the curing process of meat.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Ultrassom , Impedância Elétrica
4.
Food Chem ; 431: 137100, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37572482

RESUMO

For the first time, the formation and retention effects of key aroma compounds in ready-to-eat pork roasted using circulating non-fried roast (CNR), microwave heat (MWH), superheated steam (SHS) and traditional burning charcoal (BCC) were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that 20 out of 50 odorants were key aroma compounds. The 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, and LPC 18:2-SN1 were potential biomarkers that distinguished roasted pork. Phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), played a crucial role on the generation of key aroma compounds in roasted pork. Moreover, triglyceride (TG) that included TG (16:0_18:1_18:1), TG (16:0_18:0_18:0), and TG (16:0_18:0_18:1) were responsible for the retention of key odorants. This study further found that appropriate heat transfer conditions (thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity), and water activity contributed to the formation and retention of key odorants in roasted pork. The CNR method could be a promising alternative to the traditional BCC method in roasted pork.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Suínos , Odorantes/análise , Temperatura Alta , Lipidômica , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
5.
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125128, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37639873

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that can easily cause outbreaks of food-borne diseases. In this work, a signal-enhanced three-dimensional paper-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptsensor for the rapid and sensitive determination of S. aureus was developed. Specifically, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were electrodeposited on a paper-based working electrode to provide binding sites for a sulfhydryl-functionalized aptamer. Subsequently, S. aureus was captured with high specificity by a carboxyl-functionalized aptamer modified with amino-functionalized AgBiS2 nanoflowers (NH2-AgBiS2 NFs), which functionalized as PEC probes that generated strong photocurrent under irradiation with 980-nm light. By exploiting the "aptamer-target-aptamer" PEC sensing platform, the rapid and ultrasensitive detection of S. aureus was achieved. The sensor had a wide linear range of 20 to 2 × 107 CFU/mL and low limit of detection of 4 CFU/mL. Further, the applicability of the as-prepared aptsensor was successfully certified for the analysis of pork samples artificially contaminated with S. aureus.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Suínos , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus , Ouro , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Oligonucleotídeos
6.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 52(4): 561-578, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37679068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protein efficiency ratio(PER) of genetically modified pork powder with fat-1 gene(GM group), and thus evaluate whether the nutritional evaluation value of fat-1 gene pork powder has changed. METHODS: Sixty weaned SD rats(60-80 g) were randomly divided into casein group, parental control group and GM group according to sex and weight, 20 rats in each group, half of each sex. The rats in the three groups were fed with corresponding formulated feed containing 10% protein for 28 days. The body weight and food intake of each group were recorded weekly. Blood was collected at the end of the experiment to determine hematology and blood biochemical indexes. The food utilization rate, organ/body weigh indexes, PER and corrected PER were calculated. RESULTS: The weight of rats in all groups increased steadily during the experimental period. Statistically significant differences were found in some hematology and blood biochemical indexes and organ/body weigh indexes. No biologically significant changes were found. The food utilization rate of GM group was higher than that of casein group(P<0.05), which was equivalent to that in the parental control group. The PER of both genetically modified pork powder with fat-1 gene and parental white pork powder were higher than that of casein(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The PER of genetically modified pork powder with fat-1 gene was equal to that of its parental white pork powder.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Caseínas , Pós
7.
Food Res Int ; 172: 113110, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689877

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to explore the antibacterial action modes and virulence-inhibitory effects of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AITC against vegetative cells of Cp 13124 was 0.1 µL/mL, and the time-kill kinetics analysis revealed that AITC could significantly suppress the growth of Cp 13124. According to the results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy, and UV absorbance substance detection, the cell membrane of Cp 13124 was damaged upon AITC treatment, causing a loss of integrity and the release of intracellular substances. Meanwhile, the fluorescence quenching experiment indicated the interaction of AIT-C with membrane proteins, which caused changes in the conformation of membrane proteins. Measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that AITC could induce apoptosis through oxidative stress. The formation of Cp 13124 biofilms was inhibited by AITC using the crystalline violet method, which was possibly related to the inhibition of sliding motility. Finally, low concentrations of AITC could be used as an antibacterial agent to inhibit the outgrowth of Cp 13124 in cooked pork, suggesting that AITC is a promising candidate for novel preservatives in the meat business.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Clostridium perfringens , Virulência , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana
8.
Food Res Int ; 172: 113106, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37689874

RESUMO

This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the evolution and formation of aroma and taste-active compounds of pork belly in representative traditional pork cuisines during pan-heating. The results revealed that as the temperature increased to 110 ℃, the unsaturation of fatty acids decreased from 60.25 % to 58.71 %, while the content of free radicals and secondary oxidation products increased. At the later heating stages, the addition of spices and increased heating temperature (150 â„ƒ) led to continuous increments in the contents (from 958.20 µg/kg to 1511.88 µg/kg) and diversity of volatile compounds in pork belly, imparting the unique aroma. Additionally, the accumulation of low-molecular-weight peptides, free amino acids, and nucleotides not only provided the substrate for thermal reactions and their synergistic effects, but also contributed to the desired taste quality. These findings offered insights into the flavor formation mechanisms of traditional pork cuisines and provided direction for further research.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Calefação , Paladar , Ácidos Graxos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37535014

RESUMO

Lateral flow devices (LFDs) are straightforward scientific tools that have made substantial advances in recent years. They have been used in many fields including the meat industry to detect disease markers, determine meat freshness or meat species determination. They are, therefore, significant in the research of meat adulteration by mixed animal species, because food component authenticity is a serious concern encompassing health, economic, legal, and religious issues. Pork adulteration is one of the most crucial issues in the global meat industry. In this review, we discuss the various types of LFDs and recent research on the development of LFDs as an authenticity tool for detecting pig additives in meat-based products, and how regulatory authorities could adopt LFDs for their workflows. Despite the benefits of rapidity, simplicity, low cost, high sensitivity, and specificity, researchers face challenges when using LFD as a final confirmation test. Future directions are suggested for globalising the use of LFD as a halal authentication method.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise
10.
Nutrients ; 15(15)2023 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37571259

RESUMO

While prior prospective iso-caloric substitution studies show a robust association between higher intake of animal protein and risk of mortality, associations observed for mortality risk in relation to major food sources of animal protein have been generally more diverse. We used the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort to examine if confounding, notably, by smoking, adiposity, or alcohol intake, could cause inconsistencies in estimated mortality hazard ratios (HR) related to intake levels of different types of meat and dairy products. Higher intakes of red or processed meats, and lower intakes of milk or cheese, were observed among current heavy smokers, participants with obesity, or heavy alcohol drinkers. Adjusting for age, sex, and total energy intake, risk models showed increased all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer-related mortality with higher red or processed meat intakes (HR ranging from 1.25 [95% confidence interval = 1.15-1.36] to 1.76 [1.46-2.12] comparing highest to lowest tertiles), but reduced risks for poultry, milk, or cheese (HR ranging from 0.55 [0.43-0.72] to 0.88 [0.81-0.95]). Adjusting further for smoking history, adiposity indices, alcohol consumption, and physical activity levels, the statistical significance of all these observed was erased, except for the association of processed meat intake with cardiovascular mortality (HR = 1.36 [CI = 1.13-1.64]) and cheese intake with cancer mortality (HR = 0.86 [0.76-0.98]), which, however, were substantially attenuated. These findings suggest heavy confounding and provide little support for the hypothesis that animal protein, as a nutrient, is a major determinant of mortality risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Fatores de Risco , Causas de Morte , Estudos Prospectivos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Obesidade , Leite/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos
11.
Nutrients ; 15(15)2023 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37571311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases have become a major threat to public health, with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer being the top two causes of death each year. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to evaluate the balanced association between the effect of red and processed meat intake on the risk of death and the effect of physical activity on the risk of mortality, where the risk of death includes all causes, CVDs, and cancers. METHODS: We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, for prospective studies reporting risk estimates for the association between the intake of red and processed meat, walking, and muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) and the risk of mortality from all causes, CVDs, and cancer. We extracted fully adjusted effect estimates from original studies and performed a summary analysis using the fixed and random-effect models. RESULTS: A conventional meta-analysis showed that red meat and processed meat were positively associated with the risk of mortality, and daily steps and MSA were negatively associated with the risk of death. Further analysis of the dose-response relationship showed that a risk reduction (20%) from 39.5 min/week of MSA or 4100 steps/d was equivalent to an increased risk of all-cause mortality from a daily intake of 103.4 g/d of red meat or 50 g/d of processed meat. The risk was further decreased as the number of steps per day increased, but the risk reversed when the MSA exceeded the threshold (39.5 min/week). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to physical activity is an effective way to reduce the risk of mortality due to meat intake. However, the total intake of red meat and processed meat should be controlled, especially the latter. Walking is recommended as the main daily physical activity of choice, while MSAs are preferred when time is limited, but it should be noted that longer MSAs do not provide additional benefits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Produtos da Carne , Neoplasias , Carne Vermelha , Humanos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Exercício Físico , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(33): 12417-12430, 2023 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37578298

RESUMO

d-Aspartate is critical in maintaining hormone secretion and reproductive development in mammals. This study investigated the mechanism of different d-aspartate levels (0, 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5% d-aspartate) in low-protein diets on growth performance and meat quality by mediating the gut microbiota alteration in pigs. We found that adding 0.005% d-aspartate to a low-protein diet could dramatically improve the growth performance during the weaned and growing periods. Dietary d-aspartate with different levels markedly increased the back fat, and 0.5% d-aspartate significantly increased the redness in 24 h and reduced the shear force of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. Moreover, d-aspartate treatments decreased the mRNA expression of MyHC II a and MyHC IIx in the LD muscle. The protein expression of MyH1, MyH7, TFAM, FOXO1, CAR, UCP2, and p-AMPK was upregulated by 0.005% d-aspartate. Additionally, the abundance of Alistipes, Akkermansia, and the [Eubacterium]_coprostanoligenes_group in the intestinal chyme of pigs was significantly decreased by d-aspartate treatments at the genus level, which was also accompanied by a significant decrease in acetate content. These differential microorganisms were significantly correlated with meat quality characteristics. These results indicated that d-aspartate in low-protein diets could improve the growth performance and meat quality in pigs by regulating energy and lipid metabolism via the alteration of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Ácido D-Aspártico , Ácido Aspártico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Mamíferos
13.
Food Chem ; 429: 136980, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37527600

RESUMO

Edible beef tallow (BT) has been widely used in Sichuan hotpot due to its unique flavor and texture. However, BT should not be consumed in excess caused by its trans-fatty acids and cholesterol issues. In this study, a BT substitute was prepared after enzymatic interesterification in a pilot-scale packed-bed reactor using soybean oil and fully hydrogenated palm oil (4:3, w/w) as feedstock. The products were characterized against BT in terms of fatty acid/triacylglycerol compositions, solid fat content, polymorphism, and melting/crystallization behaviors to select the most promising BT substitute. The optimal flow rate was 120 mL/min. Changes in volatile compounds during stir-frying and simmering were also investigated for Sichuan hotpots made with these two oils. The volatile compounds of BT substitute were similar to that of natural BT. The findings will contribute to expanding the base oil categories of Sichuan hotpot oils.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Óleo de Soja/química , Triacetina/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cinética , Temperatura , Oxirredução , Esterificação , Projetos Piloto
14.
Molecules ; 28(16)2023 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37630352

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sous vide and pressure-cooker cooking of pork muscles (Longissimus lumborum) on the physicochemical and technological characteristics of pork. The study included an analysis of the basic composition, colour, texture, sensory evaluation, nutritional value (vitamin B1 content), and rheological properties of meat cooked at 60 °C for 6-18 h and, for comparison, in an autoclave at 121.1 °C. The heating conditions affected the weight loss, colour, thiamine content, texture, and rheological properties of the meat. As the heating time increased, the texture determinants of firmness and chewiness decreased, which resulted in softer meat. The differences in the rheological properties of the sous-vide- and autoclave-cooked meat resulted from the different organisation of the spatial matrix of proteins and changes in the structure of muscle fibres caused by the high temperature.


Assuntos
Leões , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Culinária , Excipientes , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas
15.
Nutrients ; 15(16)2023 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37630730

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal blood glucose levels in the body. The development of therapeutic strategies for restoring and maintaining blood glucose homeostasis is still in progress. Synthetic alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors can improve blood glucose control in diabetic patients by effectively reducing the risk of postprandial hyperglycemia. Peptides of natural origin are promising compounds that can serve as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Potential alpha-glucosidase-inhibiting peptides obtained from aqueous and saline extracts from dry-cured pork loins inoculated with probiotic LAB were evaluated using in vitro and in silico methods. To identify the peptide sequences, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used. For this purpose, in silico calculation methods were used, and the occurrence of bioactive fragments in the protein followed the ADMET approach. The most promising sequences were molecularly docked to test their interaction with the human alpha-glycosidase molecule (PDB ID: 5NN8). The docking studies proved that oligopeptides VATPPPPPPPK, DIPPPPM, TPPPPPPG, and TPPPPPPPK obtained by hydrolysis of proteins from ripening dry-cured pork loins showed the potential to bind to the human alpha-glucosidase molecule and may act effectively as a potential antidiabetic agent.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , alfa-Glucosidases , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia
16.
Meat Sci ; 205: 109305, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37562268

RESUMO

The current study aimed to characterize homemade fermented pickle juice and evaluate its efficacy as a marinade on physicochemical, microbiological, textural properties, microstructure, and sensory attributes of the strip loins. Organic acids, phenolics, flavonoids, volatiles, total phenolic content (TPC), and in-vitro antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP) analyses were carried out. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the diameter of inhibition zones of the pickle juice were determined against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes. The strip loins were marinated with five different concentrations (10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) of pickle juice at 4 °C for 24 h. A total of 4 organic acids, 23 phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and 69 volatiles were identified in the pickle juice. The TPC, ABTS, and FRAP values of the pickle juice were found to be 184.24 ± 33.28 GAE/L, 44.48 ± 0.41 mg TEAC/L, and 2.79 ± 0.01 mM FE/L, respectively. The MIC and inhibition zones were recorded between 7.81 and 12.50% and 8.25-13.80 mm against pathogenic bacteria, respectively. The textural properties of the strip loins marinated with 100% pickle were improved compared to the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, this concentration decreased the number of pathogens in strip loins, ranging between 1.07 and 2.77 log10 CFU/g (P < 0.05). Regarding sensory attributes, the strip loins marinated with 50% and 100% pickle juice had higher scores compared to the non-marinated samples. The results of this study indicated that pickle juice can be evaluated as a marinade to improve the microbiological quality and textural properties of strip loins.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella enteritidis , Fenóis
17.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(10): 330, 2023 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37632548

RESUMO

Escherichia coli encounter variety of environmental and processing stresses during their growth, survival, and infection. Herein, the thermotolerance behavior and transcription of virulent genes responsible for the pathogenicity in isolated strains of pathogenic E. coli were evaluated. Among 176 E. coli isolates, 4 isolates (2.27%) were confirmed to be pathogenic E. coli, out of which 2 isolates were positive for EHEC and 2 were positive for EPEC based on their virulence factors. Thermotolerance was induced under thermal adaptation at higher temperature, regardless of the pathotypes. Cells grown and adapted at 42 °C, exhibited highest transcription of genes associated with adhesion (eae), hemolysis (hlyA), and shiga toxin production (stx1). However, expression of these genes was downregulated in cells adapted at lower temperature of 4 °C and 25 °C compared to control. Further, transcription of stx2 was upregulated by 70% and 17% at 4 °C and 25 °C, respectively, while the transcription level was reduced by 44% relative to control at 42 °C. The findings indicate that expression of virulent genes in pathogenic E. coli at elevated temperature do not be depend on thermotolerance of the strain harboring these genes.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Hemólise , Escherichia coli/genética , Aclimatação
18.
Animal ; 17(9): 100916, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37634326

RESUMO

Many producers reseed old pasture (OP) with the objective of improving lamb performance. Old pasture was reseeded with perennial ryegrass plus white clover (RGC), RGC plus chicory (CG), RGC plus tyfon (TG), chicory (C), or tyfon (T) to generate five treatments. In addition, a contiguous block of OP was included in the study for comparative purposes. Lambs (n = 286) were assigned to one of the five treatments plus the section of OP from just after weaning until slaughter. Grazing commenced 45 days after the desiccation of OP for reseeding. All lambs were managed by rotational grazing and drafted for slaughter at a specified target BW. No concentrate supplement was offered during the study. For the RGC, CG, TG, C and T treatments and the OP section, the average herbage NDF concentrations were 524, 473, 402, 352, 256 and 565 (SE 15.4) g/kg DM; total grazing days were 5 213, 4 005, 4 466, 2 262, 3 496 and 3 677 (SE 629.3); BW gain to slaughter was 211, 175, 205, 211, 199 and 203 (SE 9.5) g/day; days to slaughter were 91, 100, 84, 86, 78 and 88 (SE 4.8). Compared to RGC, the C, T, CG and TG treatments had lower herbage NDF concentrations (P < 0.05), and there was no difference (P > 0.05) for BW gain or days to slaughter. Chicory yielded significantly fewer (P < 0.05) grazing days, but tended to give a higher (P < 0.06) carcass weight than RGC. It is concluded that neither reseeding OP with RGC, including either C or T with RGC as a multispecies sward, nor growing pure stands of C or T increased (P < 0.05) lamb BW gain from weaning to slaughter or reduced days to slaughter.


Assuntos
Chicória , Lolium , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos , Animais , Carneiro Doméstico , Suplementos Nutricionais
19.
Meat Sci ; 205: 109292, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611462

RESUMO

The impact of different cooking methods, degree of doneness, cuts, and marbling scores on beef juiciness and tenderness have been examined. However, relationships between tenderness and juiciness, the two major components of beef texture, for descriptive and consumer sensory data with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and overall consumer liking have not been elucidated using US consumers recently. The objective was to use two data sets that measured consumer sensory and beef descriptive tenderness and juiciness attributes to understand relationships between consumer and trained descriptive tenderness and juiciness attributes, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and overall consumer liking. Data were analyzed in two sets, top loin steaks (n = 119) or beef cuts (n = 276) that included top loin steaks, tenderloin steaks, top sirloin steaks, and bottom round roasts. Average WBSF values for top loin steaks and beef cuts were 26.0 and 28.5 N, respectively. Consumer attributes were not strong predictors of WBSF. WBSF was more highly related to descriptive tenderness ratings (R2 = 0.37 for beef cuts). Overall liking was correlated to consumer attributes, most strongly to flavor liking (R2 = 0.94 for beef cuts). Descriptive and consumer juiciness ratings did not appreciably improve predictability of regression equations for either WBSF or consumer overall liking. These results indicated that using a WBSF value of 28 N or less for beef cuts would provide assurance for moderately tender beef as defined by descriptive sensory evaluation, and WBSF values between 30 and 32 N were slightly tender (as defined by descriptive sensory evaluation). Beef with WBSF values of 40 or higher were defined as slightly tough or tougher.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha , Animais
20.
Molecules ; 28(16)2023 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37630216

RESUMO

Beef sausage (BS) is one of the most favored meat products due to its nutrition and good taste. However, for economic purposes, BS is often adulterated with pork by unethical players. Pork consumption is strictly prohibited for religions including Islam and Judaism. Therefore, advanced detection methods are highly required to warrant the halal authenticity of BS. This research aimed to develop a liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method to determine the halal authenticity of BS using an untargeted metabolomics approach. LC-HRMS was capable of detecting various metabolites in BS and BS containing pork. The presence of pork in BS could be differentiated using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) with high accuracy. PLS-DA perfectly classified authentic BS and BS containing pork in all concentration levels of pork with R2X = (0.821), R2Y(= 0.984), and Q2 = (0.795). The level of pork in BS was successfully predicted through partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal PLS (OPLS) chemometrics. Both models gave high R2 (>0.99) actual and predicted values as well as few errors, indicating good accuracy and precision. Identification of discriminating metabolites' potential as biomarker candidates through variable importance for projections (VIP) value revealed metabolites of 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 3-hydroxyoctanoylcarnitine, 8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid, D-(+)-galactose, oleamide, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoylcarnitine, arachidonic acid, and α-eleostearic acid as good indicators to detect pork. It can be concluded that LC-HRMS metabolomics combined with PCA, PLS-DA, PLS, and OPLS was successfully used to detect pork adulteration in beef sausages. The results imply that LC-HRMS untargeted metabolomics in combination with chemometrics is a promising alternative as an analytical technique to detect pork in sausage products. Further analysis of larger samples is required to warrant the reproducibility.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Suínos , Quimiometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Metabolômica
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