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1.
Gene ; 764: 145062, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860900

RESUMO

Recently, DNA-based methods have proved to be accurate, fast and sensitive for meat authentication. According to the European Union, the food safety standards require accurate and detailed composition information of the meat products. Therefore, an accurate, fast and cost-effective identification methodology is needed. In this study, multiplex PCR coupled with 12S rDNA sequencing was employed for the detection of meat adulteration in two red meat products (frozen beef liver and cold cut samples, respectively) in Egypt. Multiplex PCR allowed the identification of ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey residuals in processed red meat products (cold cuts) in a single step PCR reaction. Preliminary uniplex PCR was performed to evaluate primers specificity using DNA extracted from the positive control samples. The primers produced specific fragments for ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey as follows: 271, 183, 531 and 145 bp, respectively. Multiplex PCR revealed that none of the samples was contaminated by porcine or donkey residuals, but 62.5% of all tested processed beef samples contained poultry contaminants. The sensitivity of this method was 0.01 ng/µL for beef, poultry and donkey and 0.1 ng/µL for pig. Another promising finding is the identification of all frozen beef liver samples as a cattle species (Bos taurus) through PCR-sequencing of a short fragment of 12S rRNA gene. Finally, we recommend the employment of multiplex PCR and PCR-sequencing of 12S rDNA for quality control in routine analysis of processed and frozen meat products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Egito , Limite de Detecção , Produtos da Carne/normas , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Food Chem ; 335: 127631, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736157

RESUMO

In this work, sodium 4-styrenesulfonate functionalized polyacrylonitrile nanofibers mat (SS/PAN NFM) was firstly prepared and applied as 96-well plate solid-phase extraction adsorbent for quantitative determination of seven ß-agonists residues in pork samples. The functional modification endowed the SS/PAN NFM with superior adsorption performance for target ß-agonists. The adsorption process is spontaneous (ΔG < 0), the initial adsorption rate can reach 6.03-9.09 mg/g/min and the maximum adsorption capacity is calculated to be 48.3 mg/g at 298 K. Moreover, SS/PAN NFM can be reused for 12 times without degradation in adsorption capability. Combined with UPLC-MS/MS, the limits of detection can reach 0.006-0.24 µg/kg, the recoveries ranged from 87.2% to 111% and the relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day precisions were in the scope of 1.75%-11.6% and 5.08%-13.5%, respectively. The obtained results fully demonstrated the practicability of this method in preventing the hazard of ß-agonists residues.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/análise , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Nanofibras/química , Poliestirenos/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/química , Adsorção , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Suínos
3.
Food Chem ; 338: 127932, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932080

RESUMO

An efficient and reliable duplex SYBR Green real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for beef products adulteration detection was developed based on bovine specific and vertebrate universal primers. By analyzing the numbers, positions (Tm value) of melting curve peaks of the duplex PCR products, we simultaneously identified bovine and preliminary screened non-bovine in samples, and also semi-quantified the bovine percentage according to the area ratios of peaks. All of these were necessary for adulteration determination. The specific and universal primers were designed based on mitochondrial genes ND4 and 16S rRNA respectively, their amplicons Tm values were 72.6 ± 0.5 °C and 79-81 °C. There might be some other peaks at 74-78 °C and above 81 °C if non-bovine components existed. Thelimit of detectionwas 1 pgforbovineDNA, and1 - 30 pg fornon-bovineDNAbasedon differentspecies.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Primers do DNA/genética , Qualidade dos Alimentos
4.
Food Chem ; 336: 127551, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795783

RESUMO

The inhibitory effects of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) and its flavonoid ingredients on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in roast beef patties were investigated. Ten HAs were found in control patties, and the total content was 212.73 ± 7.13 ng/g. With the addition of PO (1%, 5%, and 10%, w/w), HAs decreased by 62.39%, 68.03%, and 73.75%, respectively. The main flavonoid ingredients (rutin, hesperidin, and flavanone) also present a similar inhibitory effect. The Density Function Theory (DFT) methods were adopted to investigate the inhibitory mechanism. These ingredients bonded with the intermediate to block the formation of norharman. Both experimental and calculated data of the ingredients were analyzed on their HAs inhibitory capacity. Our results provide a novel and valuable strategy to reduce HAs via a low additive level of medicinal and edible plants. And the correlation between experimental and calculated data could be applied to predict the inhibitory ability of inhibitors.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Flavonoides/química , Portulaca/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Aminas/análise , Aminas/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Portulaca/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2852-2856, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839974

RESUMO

An in-depth understanding of mass transfer during brining process is important for improving the quality and characteristics of meat products. In this study, a fitted equation of time and NaCl concentrations in the aqueous phase of beef was established to calculate the NaCl diffusion coefficient for simulation. A three-dimensional simulating model of mass transfer was developed to evaluate the NaCl diffusion in beef during brining process. And the validity of this simulating model was verified by comparing the NaCl concentrations evaluated by the numerical simulation simulated with the experimental measurements. The results indicated that the power function time variant equation can predict NaCl concentrations (R2 = 0.995) and accurately calculate the NaCl diffusion coefficient (8.46 × 10-10 m2 /s). The simulating model visually showed the NaCl diffusion in beef during brining process. Therefore, this research provided a new method for predicting the NaCl diffusion in realistic meat processing. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research gives a new method for predicting the NaCl diffusion in meat product. The method accurately evaluated NaCl concentrations in beef at different brining time and clearly showed NaCl diffusion in beef during brining process, which could be helpful in reducing the cost and the complexity of detecting NaCl concentrations in meat during brining process.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Animais , Bovinos , Difusão , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Sais/análise
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691493

RESUMO

The difference of muscle fiber type composition affects several parameters related to meat quality; however, the relationship between muscle fiber types and meat taste is unclear. To elucidate this relationship, we determined the taste of various beef samples using a taste sensor (INSENT SA402B) and analyzed its correlation with different muscle fiber type composition. We used 22 kinds of beef samples and measured nine tastes, including the relative and change of membrane potential caused by adsorption (CPA) values, using six sensors (GL1, CT0, CA0, AAE, C00, and AE1). The taste sensor analysis indicated positive value outputs for the relative C00, AAE, and GL1 values as well as for the CPA value of AAE, which corresponded to bitterness, umami, sweetness, and richness, respectively. We found significant positive correlations of the myosin heavy chain 1 (MyHC1) composition with umami taste, and with richness. This result suggests that high levels of slow MyHC1 can induce strong umami taste and richness in beef. We expect that our results will contribute to the elucidation of the relationship between muscle fiber types and meat palatability.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/classificação , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Paladar , Animais , Bovinos , Potenciais da Membrana , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 333: 127549, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683266

RESUMO

Enzymatic tenderization is extensively applied in the meat industry, whereas its influence on meat flavor has seldom been evaluated. Proteinase K, papain, bromelain and Flavourzyme® were used to treat beef muscle, and the changes in volatile compounds and odors were subsequently analyzed. Proteolysis by proteinase K was found to elevate the average bitterness of the identified peptides by generating peptides with high Q values, whereas proteolysis by papain generated the highest level of amino acids. Enzymatic treatment by Flavourzyme and bromelain significantly elevated the levels of ketones and odors, whereas excessive proteolysis by papain and proteinase K largely reduced the levels of esters and aldehydes. The level of amino acids and degree of hydrolysis were found to be predominant factors that regulated the level of volatiles and odors. These results highlighted the huge influence of enzymatic tenderization on meat flavor, depending on degree of hydrolysis and cleavage pattern of applied proteases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Odorantes , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteólise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Hidrólise , Paladar
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516410

RESUMO

The emerging market of frozen meat emphasizes the need to better understand beef surface discoloration and the ideal parameters of freezing beef to retain an acceptable color. The objectives of this study were to determine the impacts of myoglobin oxygenation level prior to freezing and frozen storage duration on frozen beef color. USDA Choice strip loins (n = 36) were aged for 4 d or 20 d. Steaks were randomly assigned to a myoglobin oxygenation level [deoxygenated (DeOxy; immediately packaged after cutting), oxygenated (Oxy; oxygenated in air for 30 min), or highly oxygenated (HiOxy; packaged for 24 h in 80% O2)]. Steaks were then vacuum packaged in oxygen permeable or impermeable film and immediately frozen (-5 °C). Following either 0, 2, 4, or 6 mo of frozen storage, steaks were removed from the packaging and immediately analyzed for instrumental color (L*, a*, and b*), percent oxymyoglobin, metmyoglobin, and deoxymyoglobin, delta E, redness ratio, a*:b* ratio, hue angle, subjective discoloration, and lipid oxidation. The HiOxy steaks had greater oxygen penetration and the greatest a* values compared with DeOxy and Oxy steaks, regardless of packaging (P < 0.0005). With 4 d of aging, HiOxy steaks had greater a* values than DeOxy and Oxy at all storage times (P = 0.0118). The HiOxy steaks aged for 20 d and frozen for 6 mo had significantly higher delta E values than all other myoglobin oxygenation levels and postmortem aging periods (P < 0.0001). Redness and percent oxymyoglobin were highest for HiOxy steaks within each storage period (P < 0.0002). The HiOxy steaks had the highest percent oxymyoglobin and DeOxy had the lowest percent oxymyoglobin within each aging and storage period (P < 0.01). Conversely, DeOxy steaks had the highest percent metmyoglobin and HiOxy had the lowest percent metmyoglobin when packaged in impermeable film (P < 0.0001). The HiOxy steaks from 20 d of aging had the highest discoloration compared with 4 d aging and more discoloration than all other myoglobin treatments at 6 mo of storage (P < 0.0001). The HiOxy 20 d aged steaks exhibited the highest lipid oxidation values at 2, 4, and 6 mo (P = 0.0224) and HiOxy steaks exhibited a brighter and deeper cherry red color compared with the DeOxy steaks. The HiOxy steaks were greater in redness or similar when compared with Oxy steaks, but experienced more detrimental effects when frozen storage was extended.


Assuntos
Metamioglobina/química , Mioglobina/química , Oxigênio/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Embalagem de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Congelamento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxirredução
10.
Food Chem ; 331: 127291, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559598

RESUMO

This study investigated inulin and calcium-rich milk mineral incorporation into a pork sausage in order to examine the effects on microbiome and biochemical activity in the gastrointestinal tract upon ingestion. Rats (n = 48) were fed one of four sausages; a pork sausage enriched with 1) inulin (6.0%) and milk mineral (3%), 2) inulin (6.0%), 3) milk mineral (3%) or 4) control sausages without enrichment. NMR-based metabolomics revealed that inulin-enrichment increased the fecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Milk mineral-enrichment also increased SCFA concentrations, although less pronounced. In addition, milk mineral reduced the concentration of nitroso compounds in feces and small intestinal content. Combined enrichment with both inulin and milk mineral showed no cumulative effect on SCFA formation and seemed to oppose the milk mineral-induced reduction of nitroso compound formation. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that alterations of the gut microbiome contributed to the observed effects.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inulina/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Leite/química , Minerais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/química , Masculino , Ratos
11.
Food Chem ; 330: 127202, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531637

RESUMO

The effect of supercritical fluid extract of tomato pomace (TP) and essential oil of organic peppermint (PM) on pH, color, residual nitrite content, lipid oxidation (TBARS value) and total plate count (TPC) of cooked pork sausages produced with 50 mg/kg of sodium nitrite was investigated. Five batches were produced: T1: 100 mg/kg of sodium nitrite; T2: 50 mg of sodium nitrite; T3: 50 mg of sodium nitrite and 0.150 µL/g TP; T4: 50 mg of sodium nitrite, 0.075 µL/g TP and 0.075 µL/g PM; T5: 50 mg of sodium nitrite and 0.150 µL/g PM. The lowest residual nitrite content and TBARS value were observed in treatment T4. The inclusion of TP increased redness of cooked pork sausages. TPC was the lowest in treatment T5. The results of this study showed that the addition of TP and PM enhanced quality of cooked sausages produced with reduced level of sodium nitrite.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Mentha piperita/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Nitrito de Sódio/química , Animais , Cor , Culinária , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Suínos
12.
Food Chem ; 330: 126897, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569929

RESUMO

Because of the need to abolish the castration of piglets without anaesthesia/analgesia, the pig industry is searching for a mode of action for the valorisation of meat with boar taint, an off-odour in entire male pigs. Carcasses with boar taint were selected by means of sensory and chemical analysis, after which patties with different levels of tainted boar meat were produced, as well as cooked ham and Frankfurter sausages using different smoke condensates and cooking temperatures. For these products orthonasal and retronasal boar taint odour were assessed by a trained expert panel. The results offer guidance regarding dilution of tainted meat (with <400 µg/kg androstenone if skatole is low or <200 µg/kg androstenone in concurrence with ≥37 µg/kg skatole) and the potential application of smoke condensates (e.g., Rudinsmoke C for sausages and Smokez LFBN for ham) as promising boar taint masking strategies.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Androstenos/análise , Animais , Culinária , Odorantes/análise , Escatol/análise , Fumaça , Suínos
13.
Food Chem ; 328: 127133, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480263

RESUMO

To explore the molecular mechanisms of meat quality, four high-quality (HQ) samples and four low-quality (LQ) samples from longissimus dorsi muscles were chosen, and tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling combined with mass spectrometry (MS) were performed to find associations between meat quality and proteome profiles. The LQ meats had lower pH, lighter color, and higher drip loss compared to the HQ meats. About 140 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Functional analysis results of differentially expressed proteins showed that decreased release of Ca2+, lower contents of type II fibers, lower contents of glycogen, and decreased glycogenolysis in HQ meats indicated a lower degree of glycolysis in HQ as compared to LQ meats. Meanwhile, some differentially expressed proteins suggested that the levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis were lower in HQ meats than in LQ meats. This study reveals physiological changes between HQ and LQ meats according to the proteome profiles.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Proteômica/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Apoptose , Autopsia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glicogênio/análise , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Glicólise , Proteínas de Carne/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579617

RESUMO

FABP4 is a candidate gene for carcass and meat quality traits in livestock and poultry. However, the effects of FABP4 have not been examined in the Yanbian yellow cattle, an economically important local cattle breed in China. In this study, we characterized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FABP4 in this cattle breed and their associations with meat quality traits. Six SNPs (referred to as SNP1-6) were identified in FABP4 by direct sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The six SNPs were significantly correlated with meat quality traits. In particular, the GG and GA genotypes of SNP1 were significantly associated with water and fat contents and GG and AA genotypes of SNP1 were significantly associated with protein contents (P < 0.05). The fat content and marbling in heterozygous individuals at SNP2-6 were significantly higher than those in wild-type or mutant individuals (P < 0.05), while protein content was significantly higher in wild-type and mutant individuals than in heterozygous individuals (P < 0.05). A gene expression analysis indicated that the lipid metabolism-related genes FABP4, PPARγ, ANGPTL4, and LPL show similar expression patterns with respect to FABP4 genotypes, with the highest levels in wild-type individuals and the lowest levels in mutants. In conclusion, FABP4 SNPs can be used for marker-assisted selection in Yanbian yellow cattle breeding.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Animais , China , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
15.
Food Chem ; 326: 127016, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428855

RESUMO

The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), sodium pyrophosphate (PP), and NaCl at different ionic strengths on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) were investigated in roasted beef patties. Six HAs (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine [PhIP], 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline [MeIQx], 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline [4,8-DiMeIQx], 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline [IQ], 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole [harman], and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole [norharman]) were identified and quantified. The presence of 0.3% and 0.45% PP significantly increased the formation of PhIP (P < 0.05). Different levels of TPP/PP had no effect on MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, IQ, norharman, or harman (P > 0.05), but these products increased in the presence of NaCl at three ionic strengths and NaCl + 0.3% and 0.45% TPP/PP (P < 0.05). High hardness and surface temperatures were observed after treatments with NaCl and NaCl + TPP/PP. The increase in these six HAs in beef patties with the addition of polyphosphates and NaCl did not involve changes in pH, but mainly stemmed from higher surface temperatures during roasting.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 113-128, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise and increased dietary protein have been linked to improved muscle and cognitive health, but the combination may be more effective. OBJECTIVE: In this study performed in community-dwelling older adults undergoing a 3-d/wk resistance-based exercise training program, we investigated whether those who consumed lean red meat compared to carbohydrates on the 3 training days per wk would experience greater exercise-induced improvements in total body and leg lean mass (LM), muscle strength, and executive function (multiple primary outcomes), as well as muscle size and density, functional performance, cognition, inflammatory and neurotrophic markers, blood pressure, and lipid concentrations. DESIGN: In a 24-wk, 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial, 154 adults aged ≥65 y participated in a multicomponent 3-d/wk resistance-based exercise program with random allocation to either a lean red meat group (two 80-g servings of cooked red meat), the exercise plus lean red meat (Ex + Meat) group (n = 77) or a control group receiving carbohydrates in the form of one-half cup (approximately 225 g cooked weight) of rice or pasta or 1 medium potato, the exercise plus carbohydrate control (C + Ex) group (n = 77), on the training days. RESULTS: Exercise-induced improvements (mean within group changes) did not significantly differ between groups for the primary outcomes of total body LM (0.6 to 0.8 kg), leg LM (0.1 to 0.2 kg), thigh muscle cross-sectional area (3.7% to 4.9%), leg and back muscle strength (26% to 40%), and executive function (z-score SD: 0.33 to 0.39), nor the secondary outcomes of global cognition function (0.17 to 0.23 SD), fat mass (-0.65 to -0.75 kg), physical function measures (sit-to-stand, both 15%; 4-square step test, 2% to 7%), or systolic blood pressure (-3.2 to -4.1 mm Hg). The Ex + Meat group experienced greater improvements than the C + Ex in arm LM (0.07 kg; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14; P = 0.029), gait speed (0.05 m/s; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.11; P = 0.042), muscle density (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.9; P = 0.015), and appendicular LM in the per-protocol analysis (0.21 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.40; P = 0.03). The C + Ex group had greater net improvements in working memory/learning after 12 wk (SD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43; P = 0.011) and 24 wk (SD: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.49; P = 0.007). Inflammatory and neurotrophic markers did not change in either group. CONCLUSION: In healthy community-dwelling older adults undertaking resistance-based exercise training 3-d/wk, participants who consumed lean red meat in line with current Australian dietary recommendations did not experience any significant additional benefits in the primary outcome measures of muscle mass, strength, or cognitive function compared to participants consuming carbohydrates.This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12613001153707.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Músculos/fisiologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Composição Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Nova Zelândia , Desempenho Físico Funcional
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1622: 461137, 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414518

RESUMO

In this study, conventional Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method was modified by magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for purification/pre-concentration of eleven estrogens and estrogen mimics from the extracts of pork and chicken muscles, prior to dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl) derivatization coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay. Dual octadecyl- and 2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl- groups functionalized mesoporous silica core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (C18/NH2-Fe3O4@mSiO2 MNPs) were synthesized and employed as MSPE sorbent with remarkable aqueous compatibility in comparison with conventional C18 functionalized sorbent. The proposed MSPE is easier to handle than the traditional SPE purification process in QuEChERS method. The lab-prepared MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), brunner-emmet-teller (BET), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Pre-column derivatization was conducted to significantly enhance the sensitivity of the analytes in MS/MS via analyzing their derivatives in positive ion mode instead of analyzing their original forms in negative ion mode. Under the optimal sample pretreatment and instrumental analysis conditions, the approach showed low limits of detection (LODs, 0.02‒3.00 µg kg-1), appropriate recoveries (81.1‒115.4%) and acceptable precisions (0.48‒15.1%, n = 6), with good feasibility and future prospect of trace compounds analysis in complex food samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Estrogênios/análise , Magnetismo , Carne Vermelha/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/economia , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adsorção , Animais , Galinhas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Concentração Osmolar , Dióxido de Silício/química , Solventes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Meat Sci ; 165: 108136, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272341

RESUMO

In this study, pH, meat color analysis, microbial counts and Raman spectroscopic data were obtained from beef steaks stored at 4 °C for up to 21 days using two different packaging methods: vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Models using partial least square regression (PLSR), indicated that Raman spectroscopy was able to predict total viable counts (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) measured at 21d post mortem (TVC in VP: R2cv = 0.99, RMSEP = 0.61; TVC in MAP: R2cv = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.38; LAB in VP: R2cv = 0.99, RMSEP = 0.54; LAB in MAP: R2cv = 0.75, RMSEP = 0.60). The results of this study demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy may have potential for the rapid determination of meat spoilage.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cor , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Vácuo
19.
Meat Sci ; 165: 108114, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272342

RESUMO

Ruminant meat (RM) is an excellent source of high-quality protein, B vitamins and trace minerals and plays an important role in global food and nutrition security. However, nutritional guidelines commonly recommend reduced intake of RM mainly because of its high saturated fatty acid (SFA) content, and more recently because of its perceived negative environmental impacts. RM is, however, rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations with low fish consumption. In addition, RM is a source of bioactive phospholipids, as well as rumen-derived bioactive fatty acids including branched-chain, vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been associated with several health benefits. However, the role of bioactive RM lipids in maintaining and improving consumers' health have been generally ignored in nutritional guidelines. The present review examines RM lipids in relation to human health, and evaluates the effectiveness of different feeding strategies and possibilities for future profile and content improvement.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Humanos , Ruminantes
20.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 947-955, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237089

RESUMO

Edible packaging films have been widely studied because of its safety, green, and effective characteristics. In this paper, chitosan (CH) edible films containing hexahydro-ß-acids (HBA) were prepared, and its physical and mechanical properties, bioactivity, and their impact on the shelf life of pork were investigated. The infrared spectra indicated that the molecular interaction between CH and HBA was observed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the surface morphology of the film, and light transmittance analysis displayed that the addition of HBA enhanced the film's UV blocking performance. Compared to the CH film, the tensile strength of CH-HBA film increased to 29.19 ± 0.45 MPa, and the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reached 1.40 ± 0.01 mg rutin/cm2 of the film. The antibacterial activity of the CH-HBA film on Escherichia coli (44825) and Staphylococcus aureus (26001) showed that the CH-HBA film is a feasible antibacterial package. Furthermore, compared to pork packaged in CH and polyethylene films, fresh pork packaged with CH-HBA films displayed prolongation of shelf life due to reduction in microbial proliferation, thiobarbituric values, pH, and total volatile base nitrogen contents during storage at 4 °C for 16 days. The freshness of pork was prolonged by 7-8 days when the dosage of HBA was increased to 0.3% from 0.1% (w/v). These results revealed that the CH-HBA film can effectively extend the shelf life of pork. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study effectively prolonged the shelf life of pork. A chitosan-edible film combined with hexahydro-ß-acids has a potential application value in replacing traditional packaged fresh meat.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ácidos/análise , Ácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Quitosana/análise , Filmes Comestíveis , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos , Resistência à Tração
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