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1.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108665, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492481

RESUMO

Meat colour is an important attribute for consumer acceptance but there is an interval between colour grading and retail display. This experiment investigates the effect of time post-slaughter (5, 14 and 40 days) on colour and bloom depth (after 1 and 24 h) for beef carcasses graded AUS-MEAT colour 4 (MC 4). Sixteen carcasses were selected at grading, 8 carcasses were graded MC 4 and 8 as compliant colour (AUS-MEAT score 2 or 3). At 5 days post-slaughter, compliant loins had greater overall bloom depth and were more red than MC 4 loins. Bloom depth (24 h) increased with ageing time but reached maximum bloom at 14 days for both treatments. After ageing for 14 and 40 days, the bloom depth of MC 4 loin was no different to the 5 day aged compliant loins after 24 h on display. Colour at grading may not be a reliable measure of retail colour considering the changes post slaughter.


Assuntos
Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha/normas , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108654, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419789

RESUMO

In the European Community, conformation and fat cover of bovine carcasses is assessed using the SEUROP grading system. In this study we pursued the development of an application software (App) based on Visual Image Analysis, useful for SEUROP and Fat Cover grading of bovine carcasses using a smartphone. The App was trained using 500 bovine carcasses. Carcass conformation and Fat Cover classes were assessed in parallel by expert evaluators and by App. Overall, a high correspondence was found between the measurements of carcasses parameters by operators and by the App, as high as 84.2% for SEUROP and 86.4% for the Fat Cover. In the 15.8% of samples with discordant SEUROP evaluation, and in the 13.6% of samples with discordant Fat Cover evaluation, the operators' and App measurements deviated by only one class. All values also aligned with the requirements expected by the current legislation for the use of automated and/or semi-automated systems able to determine the market value of carcasses.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Bovinos , União Europeia , Carne Vermelha/normas
3.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 63, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a key parameter to study the history of populations and to identify and fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL) and it has been studied for many years in animal populations. The advent of new genotyping technologies has allowed whole-genome LD studies in most cattle populations. However, to date, long-range LD (LRLD) between distant variants on the genome has not been investigated in detail in cattle. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of LRLD in French beef cattle by analysing data on 672 Charolais (CHA), 462 Limousine (LIM) and 326 Blonde d'Aquitaine (BLA) individuals that were genotyped on the Illumina BovineHD Beadchip. Furthermore, whole-genome LD and haplotype block structure were analysed in these three breeds. RESULTS: We computed linkage disequilibrium (r2) values for 5.9, 5.6 and 6.0 billion pairs of SNPs on the 29 autosomes of CHA, LIM and BLA, respectively. Mean r2 values drop to less than 0.1 for distances between SNPs greater than 120 kb. However, for the first time, we detected the existence of LRLD in the three main French beef breeds. In total, 598, 266, and 795 LRLD events (r2 ≥ 0.6) were detected in CHA, LIM and BLA, respectively. Each breed had predominantly population-specific LRLD interactions, although shared LRLD events occurred in a number of regions (55 LRLD events were shared between two breeds and nine between the three breeds). Examples of possible functional gene interactions and QTL co-location were observed with some of these LRLD events, which suggests epistatic selection. CONCLUSIONS: We identified long-range linkage disequilibrium for the first time in French beef cattle populations. Epistatic selection may be the main source of the observed LRLD events, but other forces may also be involved. LRLD information should be accounted for in genome-wide association studies.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Carne Vermelha/normas
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279391

RESUMO

Alternative technologies, which have been developed in order to meet the consumers' demand for nourishing and healthy meat and meat products, are followed by the food industry. In the present study, it was determined, using the HPLC method, that green tea contains a high level of epicatechin (EP) under optimal conditions and that pomegranate peel contains a high level of punicalagin (PN). Green tea, pomegranate peel, EP and PN were added to meatballs at different concentrations in eight groups. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were measured. The antimicrobial activity was examined for 72 h using three different food pathogens. The highest level of antimicrobial activity was achieved in the 1% punicalagin group, whereas the minimum inhibition concentration (L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium) was found to be 1.87 mg/mL. A statistically significant decrease was found in FFA, POV and TBARS levels of meatballs on different days of storage (p < 0.05). When compared to the control group, the bioactive compounds preserved the microbiological and chemical properties of meatballs during storage at +4 °C (14 days). It was concluded that the extracts with high EP and PN concentrations can be used as bio-preservative agents for meat and meat products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Catequina/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Produtos da Carne/normas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Carne Vermelha/normas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 50, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the adoption of genomic evaluations in livestock has increased genetic gain rates, its effects on genetic diversity and accumulation of inbreeding have raised concerns in cattle populations. Increased inbreeding may affect fitness and decrease the mean performance for economically important traits, such as fertility and growth in beef cattle, with the age of inbreeding having a possible effect on the magnitude of inbreeding depression. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in genetic diversity as a result of the implementation of genomic selection in Angus cattle and quantify potential inbreeding depression effects of total pedigree and genomic inbreeding, and also to investigate the impact of recent and ancient inbreeding. RESULTS: We found that the yearly rate of inbreeding accumulation remained similar in sires and decreased significantly in dams since the implementation of genomic selection. Other measures such as effective population size and the effective number of chromosome segments show little evidence of a detrimental effect of using genomic selection strategies on the genetic diversity of beef cattle. We also quantified pedigree and genomic inbreeding depression for fertility and growth. While inbreeding did not affect fertility, an increase in pedigree or genomic inbreeding was associated with decreased birth weight, weaning weight, and post-weaning gain in both sexes. We also measured the impact of the age of inbreeding and found that recent inbreeding had a larger depressive effect on growth than ancient inbreeding. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we sought to quantify and understand the possible consequences of genomic selection on the genetic diversity of American Angus cattle. In both sires and dams, we found that, generally, genomic selection resulted in decreased rates of pedigree and genomic inbreeding accumulation and increased or sustained effective population sizes and number of independently segregating chromosome segments. We also found significant depressive effects of inbreeding accumulation on economically important growth traits, particularly with genomic and recent inbreeding.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Endogamia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Seleção Artificial , Animais , Aptidão Genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Linhagem , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Carne Vermelha/normas
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11897, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099805

RESUMO

Water holding capacity (WHC) is an important sensory attribute that greatly influences meat quality. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates the beef WHC remains to be elucidated. In this study, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles of 49 Chinese Simmental beef cattle were measured for meat quality traits and subjected to RNA sequencing. WHC had significant correlation with 35 kg water loss (r = - 0.99, p < 0.01) and IMF content (r = 0.31, p < 0.05), but not with SF (r = - 0.20, p = 0.18) and pH (r = 0.11, p = 0.44). Eight individuals with the highest WHC (H-WHC) and the lowest WHC (L-WHC) were selected for transcriptome analysis. A total of 865 genes were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two groups, of which 633 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment revealed that DEGs were significantly enriched in 15 GO terms and 96 pathways. Additionally, based on protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, animal QTL database (QTLdb), and relevant literature, the study not only confirmed seven genes (HSPA12A, HSPA13, PPARγ, MYL2, MYPN, TPI, and ATP2A1) influenced WHC in accordance with previous studies, but also identified ATP2B4, ACTN1, ITGAV, TGFBR1, THBS1, and TEK as the most promising novel candidate genes affecting the WHC. These findings could offer important insight for exploring the molecular mechanism underlying the WHC trait and facilitate the improvement of beef quality.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/análise , Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Carne/normas , Fenótipo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Carne Vermelha/normas , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
Meat Sci ; 179: 108548, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993070

RESUMO

China has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, and this has accounted for an increase in meat consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying factors of consumers' perception and purchasing behaviour of lamb meat in China. This study adopts a conceptual framework, which includes expectations, perception, and purchase behaviour of red meat among Chinese consumers. A total of 31 questions were included in a self-administered questionnaire through an online platform, with 601 meat consumers who participated in this study. Results showed that Australian and New Zealand meat were perceived as having positive quality characteristics (e.g. natural, reliable) followed by Chinese local meat. Partial Least Squares Path Modelling (PLS-PM) further identified that the key drivers that influenced meat purchase were seasonality, purchase location, and consumer experience particularly in cooking methods used. Purchase point for Chinese consumers were equally weighed with butchers, supermarket, and traditional market as being the most common purchase locations. Unexpectedly, Chinese consumers were found to consume less meat in summer and more during winter. Purchase drivers included meat safety certification and the perceived health benefits of meat.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne Vermelha/normas , Adulto , Animais , China , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/economia , Carne Vermelha/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10450, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001984

RESUMO

To identify differentially expressed proteins associated with energy metabolism and tenderness during the postmortem aging of yak longissimus lumborum muscle samples, we collected tissue samples from yaks raised at different altitudes. At 12 h post-slaughter, we identified 290 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in these samples, whereas 436 such DEPs were detected after 72 h. Identified DEPs were clustered into four main functional categories: cell structural proteins, glycogen metabolic proteins, energy reserve metabolic proteins, and cellular polysaccharide metabolic proteins. Further bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins were associated with carbon metabolism, glycolysis, and the biosynthesis of amino acids. Our functional insights regarding these identified proteins contribute to a more detailed molecular understanding of the processes of energy metabolism in yak muscle tissue, and represent a valuable resource for future investigations.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/normas , Altitude , Animais , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteômica , Controle de Qualidade , Tibet
10.
Meat Sci ; 177: 108505, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773186

RESUMO

Given the paucity of lamb carcase grading tools, there is a distinct need for the development of rapid, non-destructive grading tools for Australian lamb carcases, particularly fat content given its importance to meat and eating quality. The aim of the current study was to determine the potential for Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to predict IMF using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and machine learning analysis methods. As such, 299 lamb loins were measured using a NIR fibre optic device, a sample was excised for Soxhlet determination of IMF content and prediction models were created using either PLS or machine learning analyses methods. IMF prediction model outcomes were similar between analysis methods with an R2 = 0.6 and RMSE = 0.84 and R2 = 0.65 and RMSE = 0.72, respectively. This study highlighted that spectra from one slaughter varied greatly from the two succeeding slaughters and wavelengths selected between studies are not consistent.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Músculo Esquelético/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Austrália , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Aprendizado de Máquina , Carne Vermelha/normas , Carneiro Doméstico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/veterinária
11.
Meat Sci ; 176: 108487, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714070

RESUMO

We evaluated at-home methods to tenderize flank steaks. Steaks sourced from a commercial beef processor were aged 28 d postmortem, prior to treatment application. Individual steaks were cut into four sampling portions and treated via blade tenderization (BT), and marination with lime juice (LJ) and/or pineapple puree (PP). Blade tenderization (2×) was conducted parallel and perpendicular to muscle fiber direction; LJ and PP were added at 25% of sample weight. Tenderness was assessed via Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) and data was analyzed via mixed models. Neither the three-way interaction (P = 0.64), the BT x PP interaction (P = 0.19), nor LJ (P = 0.35) treatment altered WBSF. Blade tenderization x LJ (P = 0.09) and LJ x PP (P = 0.07) tended to alter WBSF. Blade tenderization (P = 0.03) and pineapple puree (P < 0.01) reduced WBSF by 2.40 and 4.50 N, respectively. WBSF was reduced by 7.3 to 24% via treatment combinations of LJ, BT, or PP.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Papaína , Carne Vermelha/normas , Sódio na Dieta , Ananas/química , Animais , Bovinos , Citrus aurantiifolia/química , Combinação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
12.
Meat Sci ; 174: 108423, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422773

RESUMO

Following a century of major discoveries on the mechanisms determining meat colour and tenderness using traditional scientific methods, further research into complex and interactive factors contributing to variations in meat quality is increasingly being based on data-driven "omics" approaches such as proteomics. Using two recent meta-analyses of proteomics studies on beef colour and tenderness, this review examines how knowledge of the mechanisms and factors underlying variations in these meat qualities can be both confirmed and extended by data-driven approaches. While proteomics seems to overlook some sources of variations in beef toughness, it highlights the role of post-mortem energy metabolism in setting the conditions for development of meat colour and tenderness, and also points to the complex interplay of energy metabolism, calcium regulation and mitochondrial metabolism. In using proteomics as a future tool for explaining variations in meat quality, the need for confirmation by further hypothesis-driven experimental studies of post-hoc explanations of why certain proteins are biomarkers of beef quality in data-driven studies is emphasised.


Assuntos
Cor , Proteômica , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Metabolismo Energético , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/normas , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
13.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 8, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants that regulate transcription, such as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), have shown enrichment in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for mammalian complex traits. However, no study has reported eQTL in sheep, although it is an important agricultural species for which many GWAS of complex meat traits have been conducted. Using RNA sequence data produced from liver and muscle from 149 sheep and imputed whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), our aim was to dissect the genetic architecture of the transcriptome by associating sheep genotypes with three major molecular phenotypes including gene expression (geQTL), exon expression (eeQTL) and RNA splicing (sQTL). We also examined these three types of eQTL for their enrichment in GWAS of multi-meat traits and fatty acid profiles. RESULTS: Whereas a relatively small number of molecular phenotypes were significantly heritable (h2 > 0, P < 0.05), their mean heritability ranged from 0.67 to 0.73 for liver and from 0.71 to 0.77 for muscle. Association analysis between molecular phenotypes and SNPs within ± 1 Mb identified many significant cis-eQTL (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.01). The median distance between the eQTL and transcription start sites (TSS) ranged from 68 to 153 kb across the three eQTL types. The number of common variants between geQTL, eeQTL and sQTL within each tissue, and the number of common variants between liver and muscle within each eQTL type were all significantly (P < 0.05) larger than expected by chance. The identified eQTL were significantly (P < 0.05) enriched in GWAS hits associated with 56 carcass traits and fatty acid profiles. For example, several geQTL in muscle mapped to the FAM184B gene, hundreds of sQTL in liver and muscle mapped to the CAST gene, and hundreds of sQTL in liver mapped to the C6 gene. These three genes are associated with body composition or fatty acid profiles. CONCLUSIONS: We detected a large number of significant eQTL and found that the overlap of variants between eQTL types and tissues was prevalent. Many eQTL were also QTL for meat traits. Our study fills a gap in the knowledge on the regulatory variants and their role in complex traits for the sheep model.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Carne Vermelha/normas , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Transcriptoma
14.
Methods ; 186: 90-96, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640315

RESUMO

Many studies on beef nutritional qualities require the quantification of intramuscular fat. To reduce the sample amount, solvent use and time of analysis, two alternative methods to the Folch et al. (1957) reference method were studied: a miniaturised Folch's method and a near-infrared spectroscopic method. Performances and acceptability limits were evaluated with accuracy profiles for each of the methods. Equations to correct bias between the alternative and reference methods were calculated. Uncertainties associated with measurements were determined, and the validity domains were defined. From a previous set of studies, the ability of each method to discriminate samples from bovines of different breeds or receiving diverse treatments was tested. The validity domain of the miniaturised Folch's method ranged from 1.9 to 13.8 g of total lipids/100 g of tissue, and that of the near-infrared spectroscopic method ranged from 4.8 to 13.8 g of total lipids/100 g of tissue, with less than 20% difference from the reference method's results. Thus, the two alternative methods could be used depending on the research objectives: the miniaturised Folch's method could be used for detailed quantification of intramuscular fat and the near-infrared spectroscopic method for a quick classification of a large number of muscles. The precise knowledge of uncertainties associated with each measurement was determined, and perfect continuity with the results obtained so far with the reference Folch's method was confirmed.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Lipídeos/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Carne Vermelha/normas , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Calibragem , Bovinos
15.
Methods ; 186: 79-89, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649989

RESUMO

Marbling and rib composition are important attributes related to carcass yields and values, beef quality, consumer satisfaction and purchasing decisions. An open-access computer image analysis method based on a fresh beef rib image captured under nonstandardized and uncontrolled conditions was developed to determine the intramuscular, intermuscular and total fat content. For this purpose, cross-section images of the 5th-6th rib from 130 bovine carcasses were captured with a Galaxy S8 smartphone. The pictures were analyzed with a program developed using ImageJ open source software. The 17 processed image features that were obtained were mined relative to gold standard measures, namely, intermuscular fat, total fat and muscles dissected from a rib and weighed, and intramuscular fat content (IMF - marbling) determined by the Soxhlet method. The best predictions with the lowest prediction errors were obtained by the sparse partial least squares method for both IMF percent and rib composition and from a combination of animal and image analysis features captured from the caudal face of the 6th rib captured on a table. These predictions were more accurate than those based on animal and image analysis features captured from the caudal face of the 5th rib on hanging carcasses. The external-validated prediction precision was 90% for IMF and ranged from 71 to 86% for the total fat, intermuscular and muscle rib weight ratios. Therefore, an easy, low-cost, user-friendly and rapid method based on a smartphone picture from the 6th rib of bovine carcasses provides an accurate method for fat content determination.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Carne Vermelha/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Aplicativos Móveis , Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Smartphone
16.
Meat Sci ; 173: 108401, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310548

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for four organoleptic traits in beef meat, namely tenderness, juiciness, flavour and chewiness using data from 5380 young crossbred progeny of 748 different sires. As well as using the mean animal sensory score across all panellists for a given trait, other aggregate functions such as the median and modal values were also investigated. The heritability (SE) of mean tenderness, juiciness, flavour and chewiness was 0.16 (0.04), 0.14 (0.04), 0.11 (0.03) and 0.21 (0.06), respectively; heritability estimates for the other aggregate values of these traits were generally lower. All genetic correlations between tenderness, juiciness and flavour were positive (0.52 to 0.68) while the genetic correlations between these three traits with chewiness were all negative varying from -0.95 to -0.48. Weak genetic correlations (≤|0.16|) were evident between the sensory traits and all of carcass weight, conformation and subcutaneous fat cover.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Carne Vermelha/normas
17.
Meat Sci ; 172: 108363, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199082

RESUMO

Recovering value from dark cutting carcasses (Canada B4) was investigated by examining twelve muscles in the loin, fore- and hindquarters of atypical (AT, pH < 5.8), borderline (BD, 5.8 < pH < 6.0) and classic (CL, pH > 6.0) dark cutting carcasses. Subjective and objective colour, purge loss, and colour stability were measured over 4 days of retail display. Forequarter muscles from all dark cutting carcasses were not different from those of normal Canada AA carcasses, suggesting that forequarter muscles may be preferentially harvested for sale through normal retail outlets. None of the adductor, biceps femoris, gluteus medius, and semitendinosus muscles in the AT carcasses were dark and all had retail display colour stability comparable to that of normal steaks, indicating that these muscles in these carcasses are undervalued. Sorting of dark cutting carcasses by longissimus thoracis pH or a* and b* values will allow for value to be recovered from atypical dark cutting carcasses.


Assuntos
Cor , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Músculo Esquelético/química , Carne Vermelha/normas
18.
Meat Sci ; 172: 108371, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234338

RESUMO

The objective was to determine the factors associated with meat tenderness, juiciness, flavour and chewiness in 4791 growing crossbred cattle. Meat quality of bulls was inferior to that of both steers and heifers with little difference between the latter two genders. Angus, Hereford and Belgian Blues had the most tender meat with the Simmental being the toughest albeit the difference was, on average, only 5%. Moderate to strong correlations (r ≥ |0.43|) existed among tenderness, juiciness and flavour although some of the correlations differed by animal gender. Correlations between chewiness and tenderness in the different genders varied from -0.81 to -0.74 while the correlations between chewiness and the other sensory traits varied from -0.54 to -0.09. The (partial) correlations between each of the four sensory metrics and all of carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat score were ≤|0.09| with most not being different from zero. Correlations between the sensory traits with growth rate, muscle depth, feed intake and efficiency were all ≤|0.08| and mostly not different from zero.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Carne Vermelha/normas , Caracteres Sexuais , Paladar
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 336: 108904, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129004

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of organic fruit vinegars (blackberry, pomegranate, rosehip, and grape) used as marination liquids (MLs) on food-borne pathogens inoculated on beef, as well as on the quality characteristics (physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties) of beef during marination process at 4 °C for 24 h. In the first part of the study, meat samples separately inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (≅6 log CFU/mL) were marinated in four different MLs and the count of S. Typhimurium, L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 on samples decreased in the range of 1.040-1.225, 1.420-1.913 and 1.232-1.435 log CFU/g, respectively. Marination with rosehip vinegar (MLR) was determined as the most effective treatment against all pathogens. In the second part of the study, proximate composition, color parameters, cooking yield, marinate absorption, pH, texture profile, aerobic plate count and sensory properties of marinated meat samples were determined. The moisture content of the samples marinated with grape vinegar (MLG) (73.50%) was found lower than of the samples marinated with other formulations (in the range of 75.95-76.65%) (P < 0.05). Marination by various MLs resulted in significant differences between the L*, a* and b* values of meat samples (P < 0.05). The hardness value of the samples was decreased by marination with MLR (P < 0.05) and was determined as 25.70 N. There were no significant differences between the meat samples marinated with the four different MLs in terms of cooking yield, marinate absorption and pH (P > 0.05). Aerobic plate count was reduced in the range of 0.589-0.950 log CFU/g for 24 h marination (P > 0.05). The highest sensory evaluation scores in terms of flavor were determined in meat samples marinated with MLG (P > 0.05). Therefore, different fruit vinegars used as MLs improved the safety and quality of meat at different levels.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Culinária/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Ácido Acético/química , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne Vermelha/normas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química
20.
Gene ; 764: 145062, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860900

RESUMO

Recently, DNA-based methods have proved to be accurate, fast and sensitive for meat authentication. According to the European Union, the food safety standards require accurate and detailed composition information of the meat products. Therefore, an accurate, fast and cost-effective identification methodology is needed. In this study, multiplex PCR coupled with 12S rDNA sequencing was employed for the detection of meat adulteration in two red meat products (frozen beef liver and cold cut samples, respectively) in Egypt. Multiplex PCR allowed the identification of ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey residuals in processed red meat products (cold cuts) in a single step PCR reaction. Preliminary uniplex PCR was performed to evaluate primers specificity using DNA extracted from the positive control samples. The primers produced specific fragments for ruminant, poultry, pork, and donkey as follows: 271, 183, 531 and 145 bp, respectively. Multiplex PCR revealed that none of the samples was contaminated by porcine or donkey residuals, but 62.5% of all tested processed beef samples contained poultry contaminants. The sensitivity of this method was 0.01 ng/µL for beef, poultry and donkey and 0.1 ng/µL for pig. Another promising finding is the identification of all frozen beef liver samples as a cattle species (Bos taurus) through PCR-sequencing of a short fragment of 12S rRNA gene. Finally, we recommend the employment of multiplex PCR and PCR-sequencing of 12S rDNA for quality control in routine analysis of processed and frozen meat products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Egito , Limite de Detecção , Produtos da Carne/normas , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
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