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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675084

RESUMO

Dry-cured pork products, such as dry-cured ham, undergo an extensive proteolysis during manufacturing process which determines the organoleptic properties of the final product. As a result of endogenous pork muscle endo- and exopeptidases, many medium- and short-chain peptides are released from muscle proteins. Many of them have been isolated, identified, and characterized, and some peptides have been reported to exert relevant bioactivity with potential benefit for human health. However, little attention has been given to di- and tripeptides, which are far less known, although they have received increasing attention in recent years due to their high potential relevance in terms of bioactivity and role in taste development. This review gathers the current knowledge about di- and tripeptides, regarding their bioactivity and sensory properties and focusing on their generation during long-term processing such as dry-cured pork meats.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Humanos , Carne de Porco/análise , Peptídeos , Proteólise , Proteínas Musculares/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne/análise
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692335

RESUMO

Reports of Salmonella enterica I serotype 4,[5],12:i:- infections resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ASSuT) have been increasing. We analyzed data from 5 national surveillance systems to describe the epidemiology, resistance traits, and genetics of infections with this Salmonella strain in the United States. We found ASSuT-resistant Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- increased from 1.1% of Salmonella infections during 2009-2013 to 2.6% during 2014-2018; the proportion of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- isolates without this resistance pattern declined from 3.1% to 2.4% during the same timeframe. Among isolates sequenced during 2015-2018, a total of 69% were in the same phylogenetic clade. Within that clade, 77% of isolates had genetic determinants of ASSuT resistance, and 16% had genetic determinants of decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, or azithromycin. Among outbreaks related to the multidrug-resistant clade, 63% were associated with pork consumption or contact with swine. Preventing Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- carriage in swine would likely avert human infections with this strain.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Salmonella enterica , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Sorogrupo , Filogenia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Salmonella , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Euro Surveill ; 28(2)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695482

RESUMO

The French National Reference Centre for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella (FNRC-ESS) detected two human clusters of 33 cases (median age: 10 years; 17 females) infected by Salmonella enterica serotype Bovismorbificans, ST142, HC5_243255 (EnteroBase HierCC­cgMLST scheme) in September-November 2020 and of 11 cases (median age: 11 years; seven males) infected by S. enterica serotype 4,12:i:-, ST34, HC5_198125 in October-December 2020. Epidemiological investigations conducted by Santé publique France linked these outbreaks to the consumption of dried pork sausages from the same manufacturer. S. Bovismorbificans and S. 4,12:i:- were isolated by the National Reference Laboratory from different food samples, but both strains were identified in a single food sample only by qPCR. Three recalls and withdrawals of dried pork products were issued by the French general directorate of food of the French ministry for agriculture and food in November 2020, affecting eight supermarket chains. A notification on the European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed and a European urgent enquiry on the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for Food and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses (EPIS-FWD) were launched. No cases were reported outside France. Outbreaks caused by multiple serotypes of Salmonella may go undetected by protocols in standard procedures in microbiology laboratories.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Suínos , Criança , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Sorogrupo , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
4.
Food Chem ; 409: 135337, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587514

RESUMO

This work investigated the effects of oil-modified crosslinked starch (Oil-CTS) as a fat replacer on the gel properties, water distribution, microstructures, and fatty acid composition of pork meat batter. Results showed that the replacement of pork back fat by Oil-CTS could improve the gel performance in terms of rheological property, texture, and water-holding capacity (WHC), and reduce the water mobility of pork meat gels, which caused by the formation of a more ordered and denser protein network structure. Additionally, when the fat was replaced by Oil-CTS partially or totally (25-100 %), the total fat content in pork meat gels decreased by 16.5-82 % and the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) content decreased from 5.87 g/100 g in untreated sample to 1.17-4.88 g/100 g in starch-replacing-fat samples, indicating Oil-CTS could be used as a fat replacer to prepare the low-fat meat products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Amido , Água/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Géis
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 387: 110042, 2023 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527792

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct challenge studies in raw pork by strictly following all aspects of the 2014 EURL technical guidance document for conducting shelf-life studies on Listeria monocytogenes. Growth potential was assessed on three batches of self-cut pork chops and one batch of in-house prepared pure minced pork without any additives in air and MAP (70 % O2/30% CO2) packaging. Pork chops did not support the growth of the pathogen throughout the shelf-life, given the specific conditions used in this study, with growth potential values of 0.28 and 0.46 log CFU/g, respectively, for both air and MAP. Substantial growth (>0.5 log CFU/g) was obtained in minced pork after investigating only one batch, with growth potential values of 1.69 and 0.80 log CFU/g, for air and MAP. However, both intra- and inter-batch variability for pork chops and intra-batch variability for minced pork was observed; with elevated growth being evened out by the way growth potential is calculated in the EURL 2014 document, leading to underestimations and posing a potential risk to public health. Maximum growth rate in minced pork at a constant temperature of 7 °C was estimated at µmax = 0.680 log CFU/day and µmax = 0.489 log CFU/day in air and MAP, respectively. Model predictions for the growth potential showed acceptable results for air-packed minced pork with better accuracy when the lag phase was implemented as indicated in the renewed protocol (CRL EU, 2021). In MAP, all models used, including the Combase Growth model and to a lesser extent the DMRI dynamic safety model, overestimate the growth potential probably due to a lack of integration of the changing CO2 levels in the packages. The predictive models used in this study do not adequately account for the dynamics in the raw pig matrix, which may have an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes, including interaction with the microbiome and CO2, and emphasize the importance of remaining critical of predictive model outcomes. In addition, the experimental intra- and inter-batch variability raise questions about the sense or nonsense of using predictive microbiology in these raw pork products.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Microbiota , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono , Temperatura , Atmosfera , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
6.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 92: 106267, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543047

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasound curing with various working modes and frequency combinations, including mono-, dual- and tri-frequency, on the content of NaCl and tenderness of pork loins (Longissimus dorsi). The physical qualities, myoglobin, moisture migration, distribution, and microstructure of pork were also evaluated. The results displayed that the NaCl content of samples cured by simultaneous ultrasound (100 W/L) working mode with a frequency combination of 20, 40, and 60 kHz was higher than that of other ultrasound working modes. The effect of ultrasonic brining was significantly better than the static curing when the saline solution was >35 mL. In addition, the samples cured by simultaneous ultrasound had better physical qualities, including more pickling absorptivity, less cooking loss, and lower hardness, tenderness, and chewiness value. The intensity of lightness was reduced, although redness and yellowness remained unaltered compared to static curing. The myoglobin content decreased drastically without changing the oxygenation level, and the relaxation time of T2b and T21 was delayed. The microstructure indicated that the ultrasonic treatment could promote changes in meat texture. Overall, the simultaneous ultrasound at various frequencies could efficiently accelerate NaCl penetration and improve pork quality.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Ultrassom , Mioglobina
7.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109070, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508862

RESUMO

This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of pork emulsion gels manufactured from hot-boned (HB) pork and winter mushroom powder in the absence of phosphate. It was found that compared to cold-boned (CB) pork, HB pork had a higher pH and exhibited a higher myofibrillar protein solubility with a lower actomyosin content (P < 0.05). Four types of pork gels were prepared, namely CB pork without phosphate, CB pork with phosphate (CBP), HB pork without phosphate, and HB pork with winter mushroom powder but without phosphate (HBW). The total exuded fluid was comparable for the CBP and HBW gels on all storage days. In addition, the HB and HBW gels had similar springiness and cohesiveness properties to the CBP gel (P > 0.05). These results indicate that the quality of pork gels manufactured in the absence of phosphate can be improved by the use of HB pork and with the incorporation of winter mushroom powder.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Fosfatos , Culinária , Pós , Emulsões , Géis
8.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109074, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525917

RESUMO

Genetic and feeding factors were combined to improve various quality attributes of pork. Thirty Duroc (D) and thirty Pietrain NN (P) female crossbreeds received a control (C) or an R diet including extruded faba bean and linseed, from 30 to 115 kg. Growth, feed efficiency and slaughter weight were higher for P vs. D pigs and for R vs. C pigs. D pigs had fatter carcasses than P, whereas feeding did not affect carcass fatness. Compared with P, loin meat from D pigs had lower drip, higher ultimate pH and lipid content, and higher marbling, tenderness and juiciness scores (P < 0.05). R feeding did not modify sensory traits but improved pork nutritional value by markedly reducing n-6:n-3 and saturated:n-3 fatty acid ratios (P < 0.001). Combining D genotype and R diet is a favorable strategy for sensory, nutritional, technological properties and societal image of pork through relocation of feed resources, but requires a better market valorization to be implemented.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos/genética , Feminino , Animais , Tecido Adiposo , Carne , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Composição Corporal , Ração Animal
9.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109073, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525918

RESUMO

For exploring the effect of protein S-nitrosylation on the energy metabolism of early postmortem pork (within 24 h postmortem), the six Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle homogenates were treated with nitric oxide donor (NOR-3, (±)-(E)-4-Ethyl-2-(E)-hydroxyimino-5-nitro-3-hexenamide), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) and control (0.1 M K2HPO4, pH 7.4) in the in vitro buffer system for 24 h, respectively. The western blotting result showed that NOR-3 treatment led to a greater level of protein S-nitrosylation (p < 0.05). However, S-nitrosylation levels had no significant difference between L-NAME and control groups (p > 0.05). In addition, results showed that 16 significantly differential energy metabolites were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and clearly separated among three groups in the principal component analysis. Four pathways (glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, purine metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway) related to energy metabolism were significantly influenced by different levels of protein S-nitrosylation. Furthermore, the correlation analysis of metabolites demonstrated that metabolites were in dynamic equilibrium with each other. These results indicate that protein S-nitrosylation can participate in and regulate energy metabolism postmortem pork through glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Carne de Porco/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109077, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549079

RESUMO

This study compares minced carcass chemical composition and meat quality of castrated (CM), immunocastrated (IM) and entire male (EM), and female (FE) pigs at 70, 100 and 120 kg target body weights (TBW) (n = 80; 20 per sex). Sex affected fat, protein, and moisture content of the minced carcasses. Carcass fatty acid (FA) composition was affected by sex, with higher saturated and monounsaturated FA content in CM than in FE, IM and EM, and higher polyunsaturated FA in CM than in EM, with FE and IM in between. Except for intramuscular fat, which was higher in CM than in FE and EM, no significant differences between sexes were found in meat quality. TBW affected carcass chemical composition and some meat quality traits. An interaction between sex and TBW was found with IM approaching EM or CM depending on TBW.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Carne/análise
11.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109078, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549078

RESUMO

The effects of κ-carrageenan gum (KG) on the 3D printability and rheological properties of pork pastes were investigated in this study. There were five groups with different levels of KG (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 g/kg) named as KG-0, KG-2, KG-4, KG-6, and KG-8, respectively. The addition of KG increased the yield stress, viscosity, shear stress, recovery percentage, storage modulus, loss modulus, and initial and average flow forces (P < 0.05). The results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that addition of KG reduced T21 and T22 (P < 0.05). The best printing parameters were obtained by accuracy and stability results: printing filling percent, 90%; printing speed, 35 mm⋅s-1; layer height, 2 mm; nozzle diameter, 1.55 mm, and KG addition level, 6 g/kg. KG addition improved the hardness, springiness, chewiness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and density, respectively (P < 0.05). The results suggested that KG addition improved the rheological properties and 3D printability of the pork pastes.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Carragenina , Viscosidade , Reologia
12.
Food Chem ; 408: 135159, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549165

RESUMO

Garlic diallyl disulfide (DAD) nano-emulsions consisting of soy proteins were constructed, and their effects on physicochemical properties and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formation in roasted pork were investigated. DAD was well encapsulated by soy proteins with a mean particle of 400-700 nm. Applying DAD nano-emulsions to pork patties significantly altered the color and texture of roasted pork, with a slight increase in brightness and decreases in redness and yellowness. The flavor determination demonstrated that sulfur-containing compound levels in encapsulated DAD were significantly reduced, particularly 7S group compounds, indicating an effective shielding effect on the irritating odor of garlic oil by protein. The levels of three HAAs (MeIQx, PhIP, and Harman) were significantly reduced by DAD nano-emulsion exposure (51.84 %, 76.80 %, and 48.70 %, respectively). This study provides a new method for inhibiting HAA formation and improving the sensory qualities of meat products.


Assuntos
Alho , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Alho/química , Proteínas de Soja , Culinária/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Aminas/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Carne/análise
13.
Meat Sci ; 197: 109086, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580792

RESUMO

Pickering emulsion is a potential substitute for animal fat due to high stability and solid-like properties. Therefore, the effect of replacing 25%-100% pork backfat with Pickering emulsion (75% corn oil volume fraction) stabilized by modified pea protein-chitosan composite particles on the quality of sausages was studied. All meat pastes exhibited a strong gel-like rheological character (G' > G"). The incorporation of Pickering emulsion in sausages enhanced the textural properties (hardness, springiness, chewiness, cohesiveness and resilience) and the uniformity and compactness of micromorphology, as well as suppressed the cooking loss and TBARS content. In particular, the sausages with a backfat substitution ratio of 100%, showing a similar overall sensory acceptability to the backfat sausage, revealed the best rheological properties, texture properties and micromorphology and the lowest cooking loss and fat oxidation (P < 0.05). The results showed that Pickering emulsion stabilized by modified pea protein-chitosan composite particles is a potential fat substitute for meat products with the desirable characteristics.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Substitutos da Gordura , Produtos da Carne , Proteínas de Ervilha , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Emulsões , Carne Vermelha/análise
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 225: 112-122, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513176

RESUMO

This study explored the effect of erythrosine B (EB) as a photosensitizer in corn starch (CS) film and its physicochemical properties and photodynamic bacteriostatic ability against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella both in vitro and inoculated on pork under the irradiation of D65 light-emitting diode (LED) (400-800 nm). The study revealed that the physiochemical properties of CS films: moisture content, water solubility, and water vapor transmission were improved with the addition of EB. In addition, the elasticity and the thermal stability of the film were enhanced. The results showed that the CS-EB films stimulated a maximum of 26.36 µg/mL hydrogen peroxide and 74.5 µg/g hydroxyl radical under irradiation. The CS composite films with a 5 % concentration of EB inhibited the bacterial growth by 4.7 Log CFU/mL in vitro after 30 min of illumination, and 2.4 Log CFU/mL on the pork samples under the same experimental condition. Moreover, the antibacterial ability was enhanced with the increase in EB concentration. Overall, the CS-EB composite films can inhibit the growth of bacteria through photodynamic inactivation and has the potential to become a new type of environmentally friendly packaging material.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Eritrosina/farmacologia , Zea mays , Amido/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos
15.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111946, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461202

RESUMO

The quality of pork, such as intramuscular fat (IMF) content and flavor, can affect the acceptance of the consumer. Many studies have reported on the pork quality of Chinese local and commercial pigs (for example Large White (LW) pigs). The Jianhe White Xiang (JWX) pig, one of the Chinese Xiang pigs, is known for its high IMF and pork flavor. However, studies investigating the characterization and difference of lipids and metabolites between the JWX and LW pork are limited. Herein, we performed metabolomic and lipidomic profiling of JWX and LW pork by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The IMF and meat redness (a*) of the JWX pork were significantly higher than those of the LW pork. Metabolomic profiling revealed that 118 out of 501 polar metabolites, such as carnitine, amino acids, sugar, and dipeptide, were significantly different between the two types of pork. Additionally, the screened metabolites were mainly related to carnitine synthesis, phospholipid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Lipidomic profiling identified 100 of 376 lipids, which contained carnitine, diglyceride, triglyceride (TG), sphingomyelin, cardiolipin, fatty acid, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which were significantly different between the two types of pork under the positive and negative ion modes (variable importance in projection (VIP) > 1, p < 0.05, and fold change (FC) > 2 or FC < 0.5). All of the different TG substances were up-regulated in the JWX pork, and their carbon chain length was longer than that of the residual TGs. In addition, the JWX pork had more double bonds of PC and PE substances than LW pork. Thus, our findings provide comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic profiles between the JWX and LW pork and a basic understanding on increasing the pork quality.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Carnitina , Lecitinas , Triglicerídeos , Açúcares
16.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111957, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461208

RESUMO

Chinese traditional fermented meat products in Guizhou province harbor a unique microbial community owing to particular geographical, environmental, and climatic conditions. In this study, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) with high protease activity were isolated from a Guizhou traditional naturally fermented meat product, i.e., Qianwufu sausages. In addition, the potential of isolated CNS strains to be used as starter cultures in sausage fermentation was evaluated. Culture- and molecular-biology-based methods were employed to isolate and identify CNS. A total of 40 CNS strains could hydrolyze pork meat proteins. In particular, strain QB7 identified as Staphylococcus simulans had the highest proteolytic activity, was resistant to growth in the presence of 6.5 % NaCl and 150 mg/kg of nitrites, and lacked virulence genes, hemolytic, decarboxylase, DNase, and biofilm-forming activities. Subsequently, S. simulans QB7 was used as a starter in sausage fermentation, which led to an increase in competitiveness of dominant bacteria, reduced growth of undesirable bacteria, higher content of total free fatty acids and free amino acids, and lower pH and water activity values. Thus, S. simulans QB7 can potentially be used as a starter to improve the quality and nutritional properties of fermented meat products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Coagulase , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Proteólise
17.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111983, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461226

RESUMO

Effects of sweetener neomethyl hesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) on the gelation properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) at 0.2 M and 0.6 M NaCl were investigated. The results showed that addition of NHDC did not obviously change the cooking loss and strength of MP gels at 0.2 M NaCl. Whilst at 0.6 M NaCl, addition of high doses of NHDC (50-100 µM/g) remarkably increased cooking loss and decreased strength of MP gels. The expanded MP enhanced the interactions between NHDC and MP, leading to aggregation of MP as evidenced by the increasing particle size and the reducing solubility. The MP aggregates impeded hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds crosslinking in the gelation process, thereby damaged the gelation properties of MP at 0.6 M NaCl. This was supported by the poor network of MP gels observed by SEM. In the end, molecular docking elucidated the main types of interaction at molecular level, including hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity. The results would provide guidance for NHDC as a potential sweetener in meat products.


Assuntos
Hesperidina , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Suínos , Animais , Cloreto de Sódio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Excipientes , Edulcorantes
18.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112087, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461336

RESUMO

This study revealed the roles of microorganisms and endogenous enzymes in evolution of the metabolic characteristics of the lean portion of traditional Chinese bacon by exploring the changes in microbial succession, metabolic characteristics, lipid oxidation, lipid hydrolysis, lipoxygenase activity, lipohydrolase activity, protein degradation, and environmental factors during processing. The results showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in the lean portion of traditional Chinese bacon, and 16 core genera (relative abundance > 1 %) were identified at the genus level. Significant differences were observed in the metabolic characteristics of different samples. A total of 23 differential metabolites were identified in positive and negative ion modes (P < 0.05, variable importance in the projection > 1.5). Peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value (TBARS), proteolysis index (PI) and the degree of lipid hydrolysis increased during the processing. Phospholipids were the main hydrolysis substrates. Lipoxygenase activity increased first and then decreased, while lipohydrolase activity decreased gradually. The results of canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the salt content was the main environmental factor affecting the microbial composition. The results of Spearman correlation analysis and comprehensive discussion showed that the metabolic characteristics of the lean portion of traditional Chinese bacon during the curing period were mainly due to the catalysis of the endogenous enzymes in meat and the extracellular enzymes secreted by bacteria such as Brochothix, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, etc. The extracellular enzymes secreted by Salinivibrio, Vibrio, and Staphylococcus in light-fermented meat and final meat might have important contributions to the metabolic characteristics.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Proteólise , Fosfolipídeos , Lipoxigenases , China
19.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112128, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461411

RESUMO

Unbalanced oxidative reactions occurred during the dry-curing period of ham can trigger unpleasant taste. Additionally, salt might mediate in these reactions that cause the oxidation of some of the generated peptides acting as a pro-oxidant. The influence of the processing and oxidation on the release of peptides and bioactivity have been dimly investigated. In this study, the dipeptide AW, and its oxidized form AWox were quantitated in dry-cured ham. AW concentration reached 4.70 mg/g of dry-cured ham at 24 months of traditional dry-curing. The intact and the oxidized peptide forms accumulated to 5.12 and 6.80 µg/g dry-cured ham in 12-months low-salted hams, respectively, while they were undetectable in 12 months-traditionally elaborated hams. Moreover, oxidation affected the antioxidant properties depending on the in vitro assay and reduced the AW potential as antihypertensive. This study reports the potential role of the dry-cured ham-derived peptide AW on cardiovascular health and the relevance of post-oxidation on its bioactivity.


Assuntos
Dipeptídeos , Carne de Porco , Oxirredução , Antioxidantes , Cloreto de Sódio
20.
Food Funct ; 13(23): 12093-12104, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377505

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a potential nutritional strategy to regulate meat quality in pigs and produce high-quality pork. However, the effects of CLA on nutritional quality, lipid dynamics, microbiota, and their metabolites in the gut of pigs remain unclear. Our study explored the effects of CLA on lipo-nutritional quality based on a Heigai pig model and investigated the regulatory mechanism using an integrated analysis of multiple omics. A total of 58 Heigai finishing pigs (body weight: 85.58 ± 10.39 kg) were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed diets containing 1% soyabean oil and 1% CLA for 40 days. 1% CLA significantly decreased the backfat thickness (P < 0.05) and increased the intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P < 0.05). The expression of lipid metabolism-related genes was significantly changed (P < 0.05) and lipidome analysis showed the alternations of lipid dynamics in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). In addition, based on the microbiome and metabolomic analyses, the relative abundances of Parabacteroides, Bacteroides, and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-010 increased and CLA changed the metabolome profiles and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) composition in the gut, which were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Additionally, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that differential microbial genera and SCFAs induced by CLA had tight correlations with the backfat thickness, IMF content and lipids in the LDM. CLA enhances the lipid accumulation and metabolism in muscle and these changes are associated with the production and functions of the differential bacteria and SCFAs in the gut of pigs.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Composição Corporal , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Suínos
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