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1.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4037-4044, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467537

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fatty acid saturation (oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid) on water distribution, migration, and gel properties of pork salt-soluble protein, by detected indicators that are Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), water-holding capacity (WHC), and gel strength. These results suggested that the WHC and gel strength decreased with the decrease of fatty acid saturation (p < 0.05). LF-NMR analysis revealed that the relaxation time T21 and T22 decrease (p < 0.05) with the decrease of fatty acid saturation. Results also showed that the T21 increased and T23 decreased in linolenic acid group compared with oleic acid group. Meanwhile, the peak area ratio of P21 and P22 decreased (p < 0.05), while P23 increased (p < 0.05). Therefore, the saturation of fatty acids had a great influence on the gel properties of protein. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: It provides a theoretical basis for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids emulsified gel meat products and promotes the development of meat processing industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Géis , Carne de Porco , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Géis/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , Suínos , Água
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0249143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473726

RESUMO

Pork processing plants were apparent hotspots for SARS-CoV2 in the spring of 2020. As a result, the swine industry was confronted with a major occupational health, financial, and animal welfare crisis. The objective of this work was to describe the epidemiological situation within processing plants, develop mathematical models to simulate transmission in these plants, and test the effectiveness of routine PCR screening at minimizing SARS-CoV2 circulation. Cumulative incidence of clinical (PCR-confirmed) disease plateaued at ~2.5% to 25% across the three plants studied here. For larger outbreaks, antibody prevalence was approximately 30% to 40%. Secondly, we developed a mathematical model that accounts for asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic, and background "community" transmission. By calibrating this model to observed epidemiological data, we estimated the initial reproduction number (R) of the virus. Across plants, R generally ranged between 2 and 4 during the initial phase, but subsequently declined to ~1 after two to three weeks, most likely as a result of implementation/compliance with biosecurity measures in combination with population immunity. Using the calibrated model to simulate a range of possible scenarios, we show that the effectiveness of routine PCR-screening at minimizing disease spread was far more influenced by testing frequency than by delays in results, R, or background community transmission rates. Testing every three days generally averted about 25% to 40% of clinical cases across a range of assumptions, while testing every 14 days typically averted 7 to 13% of clinical cases. However, the absolute number of additional clinical cases expected and averted was influenced by whether there was residual immunity from a previous peak (i.e., routine testing is implemented after the workforce had experienced an initial outbreak). In contrast, when using PCR-screening to prevent outbreaks or in the early stages of an outbreak, even frequent testing may not prevent a large outbreak within the workforce. This research helps to identify protocols that minimize risk to occupational safety and health and support continuity of business for U.S. processing plants. While the model was calibrated to meat processing plants, the structure of the model and insights about testing are generalizable to other settings where large number of people work in close proximity.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos
3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443539

RESUMO

During the shelf-life, meat undergoes a number of processes that negatively affect the quality of the product, including fatty acid composition. The application of various plant extracts in meat could affect the changes of fatty acids during storage. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various spice and herb extracts on fatty acid composition in raw pork, beef, and chicken meat when stored at 4 °C for 13 days. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, two datasets were extracted from each type of meat. One dataset included samples with allspice, bay leaf, black seed, cardamom, caraway, clove, and nutmeg with the high share of total MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) in chicken and pork meat and high MUFA and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) contribution in beef meat after storage. The second dataset included basil, garlic, onion, oregano, rosemary, and thyme with high PUFA share in chicken and pork meat and high SFA (saturated fatty acids) contribution in beef meat. From the regression analysis, a significant effect of time on fatty acid composition in meat was reported. Generally, the rates of fatty acid changes were dependent on the plant extract incorporated into the meat. The most visible effect of plant extracts was obtained in chicken meat. In chicken meat with plant extracts, the rates of SFA and PUFA changes with time were slower compared to the control sample. In summary, the fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat varied during storage, and the addition of plant extracts significantly affected the rate of these changes, which was dependent on the meat matrix.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carne de Porco/análise , Preservação Biológica , Carne Vermelha/análise , Refrigeração , Animais , Galinhas , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360535

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to develop the magnolol-chitosan films and study the positive effect of the combination of magnolol and chitosan. The addition of magnolol made the magnolol-chitosan films exhibit higher density (1.06-1.87 g/cm3), but the relatively lower water vapor permeability (12.06-7.36 × 10-11·g·m-1·s-1·Pa-1) and water content (16.10-10.64%). The dense and smooth surface and cross-section of magnolol-chitosan films were observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images. The interaction of magnolol and chitosan was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). After the addition of magnolol, the antioxidant capacity of magnolol-chitosan films was increased from 18.99 to 82.00%, the growth of P. aeruginosa was inhibited and the inhibition percentage of biofilm formation was increased from 30.89 to 86.04%. We further verified that the application of magnolol-chitosan films on chilled pork significantly reduced the increases in pH value, inhibited the growth of microorganisms and extended the shelf life. Results suggest that magnolol had a positive effect on magnolol-chitosan films and could be effectively applied to pork preservation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Carne de Porco/análise , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Suínos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435946

RESUMO

Species belonging to the genus Sphingomonas have been isolated from environments such as soil, water and plant tissues. Many strains are known for their capability of degrading aromatic molecules and producing extracellular polymers. A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, red-pigmented, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, rod-shaped strain, designated DH-S5T, has been isolated from pork steak packed under CO2-enriched modified atmosphere. Cell diameters were 1.5×0.9 µm. Growth optima were at 30 °C and at pH 6.0. Phylogenetic analyses based on both complete 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-genome sequence data revealed that strain DH-S5T belongs to the genus Sphingomonas, being closely related to Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537T (97.4 % gene sequence similarity), followed by Sphingomonas qilianensis X1T (97.4 %) and Sphingomonas hylomeconis GZJT-2T (97.3 %). The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization value between the isolate strain and S. alpina DSM 22537T was 21.0 % with an average nucleotide identity value of 77.03 %. Strain DH-S5T contained Q-10 as the ubiquinone and major fatty acids were C18 : 1 cis 11 (39.3 %) and C16 : 1 cis 9 (12.5 %), as well as C16 : 0 (12.1 %) and C14 : 0 2-OH (11.4 %). As for polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine and sphingoglycolipid could be detected, alongside traces of monomethylphosphatidylethanolamine. Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain DH-S5T (=DSM 110829T=LMG 31606T) is classified as a representative of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas aliaeris sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Carne de Porco , Sphingomonas , Animais , Atmosfera , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alemanha , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sphingomonas/classificação , Sphingomonas/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
6.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110525, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399503

RESUMO

Microenvironmental factors may influence the antioxidant efficacy of food-derived peptides. This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant properties of peptides released during the ripening (9 to 24 months of processing) of Spanish dry-cured ham (Biceps femoris muscle) assisted by spectral-chromatographic methodologies. Results indicated that 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-cation (ABTS●+) quenching capacity of peptide extracts significantly increased (P < 0.05) until 24 months whereas peroxyl radical (ROO●) scavenging activity increased slowly and remained with non-significant change (P > 0.05) between 15 and 24 months. However, both ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH●) scavenging ability significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at 24 months. Additionally, morphological traits of peptide extracts suggested that a prolonged ripening enabled the formation/reconstruction of intra-/inter-molecular interactions in dispersion medium. Meta-analysis of chromatographic and spectral fingerprinting proved that the non-conjugated/π-conjugated oligomers mediated by aromatic moieties probably differentiated DPPH● and ABTS●+ antioxidant performance of peptides, showing a potentially altered solvent polarization process.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Carne de Porco , Peptídeos , Extratos Vegetais , Ácidos Sulfônicos
7.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110532, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399510

RESUMO

This study demonstrates a pH-responsive antibacterial film based on polyvinyl alcohol/poly (acrylic acid) incorporated with aminoethyl-phloretin (PVA/PAA-AEP) for intelligent food packaging. The thermal, mechanical, barrier and light transmittance properties of PVA/PAA are enhanced by PAA presence of ≤6%. The interactions between PVA and PAA were hydrogen and ester bonds. The pH-responsive characteristic is dependent on the protonation/deprotonation tendency of the carboxylic groups on PAA in acidic/alkaline environment. The PVA/PAA3 is selected for the incorporation of AEP and its pH-responsive swelling follows Ritger-Peppas and Schott second-order models. The AEP is hydrogen bonded with the matrix of PVA/PAA3 and the release of AEP is pH-responsive and a rate-limiting step following the First-order model. With pH decrease, the predominant release control was gradually changing from polymer relaxation to Fick diffusion. The PVA/PAA3-AEP films demonstrate AEP content dependent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, the antibacterial efficiency against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus is significantly better than Escherichia coli. The target film PVA/PAA3-AEP3 can effectively prolong the shelf-life of pork (TVB-N < 25 mg/100 g) by 4 days at 25 °C, suggesting its great potential in intelligent food packaging.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Acrilatos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Floretina , Álcool de Polivinil , Suínos
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(8): 999-1005, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445840

RESUMO

To optimize the quantitative detection method for Salmonella enterica and analyze the quantitative contamination level of Salmonella enterica in raw pork samples from farmer's markets in Chengdu. Based on qualitative detection standard method of Salmonella enterica in China (GB 4789.4-2016) and the quantitative detection method of FSIS in the United States (MLG 4.08 and MLG appendix 2.05 MPN), the selective enrichment broth, screening plate, identification method and quantitative dilution ratio in quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica were optimized using 70 samples of raw pork. The optimized method compared by student's t-test was used to detect 40 samples of raw pork collected from farmer's markets in Chengdu from June to October 2020. For isolation of Salmonella from raw pork samples, the coincidence degree of TTB enrichment solution was significantly higher than that of RV enrichment solution (0.93±0.32 vs 0.35±0.62,t=8.324,P=0.001) and the consistency of suspicious colonies screened by XLT4 plate was significantly higher than that of Salmonella chromogenic medium (0.77±0.09 vs 1.00±0.00,t=2.971,P =0.017). The MPN method used 4 successive gradient dilutions, namely 12 tube method, could obtain more accurate quantitative value for Salmonella enterica. The combined use of selective enrichment broth TTB, XLT4 plate, Real-time PCR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry could get better results for screening and identifying Salmonella enterica. The detection rate for Salmonella enterica isolated from raw pork in farmer's markets was 92.5% (37/40). The most of the Salmonella positive samples (83.8%, 31/37) were detected with a contamination level ranged from 0.1 to 55 MPN/g. The optimized quantitative detection method for Salmonella enterica in raw pork in this study can effectively screen the target bacteria and obtain more accurate quantitative value.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Fazendeiros , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Suínos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149203, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332384

RESUMO

The aim of this investigation is to quantify the environmental footprint of an industrially produced bean and pork stew produced using a combination of local/imported and fresh/ processed ingredients. The study describes 16 midpoint categories and an aggregated score, calculated following the EC Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) methodology. The carbon footprint of 1 kg of stew amounts to 2.23 kg CO2 eq., with the production of ingredients (upstream phase) dominating most impact categories (e.g., 68.0% of carbon footprint and 73.5% of the single score), due primarily to the emission intensity of animal products. Although the white beans account for 43.7 wt%, its carbon emissions represent only 18.4% of those generated by the ingredients. However, white beans have a high contribution on other impact categories such as toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication, which are associated with the use of agrochemicals. Despite being imported from Argentina to Spain, transport has a limited contribution to most impact categories (e.g., 18.1% climate change and 12.9% the single score). Despite showing a very high carbon intensity, the contribution of spices to the environmental footprint of the stew is very limited due to the very small amounts consumed. The industrial cooking stage (core phase) contributes to 17.3% of the stew's carbon footprint and 10.6% of the aggregated score, due to emissions derived primarily from the use of natural gas and electricity. Distribution is the activity contributing the most to the consumption stage. The tinplate employed to fabricate the metal cans is responsible for most of the impact associated with the packaging of the stew. However, substituting tinplate with aluminium is not recommended due primarily to the lower environmental savings associated with the recycling of the latter.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Pegada de Carbono , Eutrofização , Suínos , Verduras
10.
Food Chem ; 365: 130411, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218106

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of ultrasound on the taste profile of unsmoked bacon, metabolite identification, metabolite analysis and metabolic pathway analysis were performed by 1H NMR, multivariate statistical analyses and MetaboAnalyst respectively. Results showed that ultrasound improved the concentration of free amino acids and organic acids thus promoting the taste development of unsmoked bacon. Sensory results demonstrated that ultrasound groups (especially 500 W) had higher sensory scores compared with non-ultrasonic group, which could be attributed to the improved levels of nine metabolites (alanine, arginine, glutamate, isoleucine, lysine, tyrosine, valine, creatine and lactate) after ultrasound treatment. Meanwhile, six metabolic pathways (tyrosine metabolism, etc.) were screened as crucial pathways tightly related to the taste development of unsmoked bacon after ultrasound treatment. In conclusion, ultrasound is found to be an effective technology to improve the taste profile of unsmoked bacon.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Aminoácidos , Lisina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Paladar
11.
Food Chem ; 365: 130464, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252624

RESUMO

Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) extensively present in thermal-processed foods. Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and tea polyphenols (TP) are commonly used in meat processing, while the properties and cytotoxicity of CNPs existed in fried pork added NaNO2 and TP remain unknown. The results showed that compared with no addition (NA, 4.008 ± 0.43 nm) in soaked pork, the smaller diameters of CNPs (0.968 ± 0.44 nm) were found in CNPs-NaNO2-20 group (addition 20 mg/kg NaNO2), the larger (155.8 ± 7.30 nm) in CNPs-TP-100 group (addition 100 mg/kg TP). The diameter of CNPs was positively correlated with the added concentration. CNPs decreased the viability of HL-7702 cells. Compared with NA group, cell viability in CNPs-NaNO2-80 group was obviously (p < 0.05) decreased by 3.17%, while the CNPs-TP-200 group was 13.84% higher. CNPs could block cells growth by arresting cells in S-phase and increasing cellular ROS levels. CNPs generated in fired pork added 200 mg/kg TP in soaking showed less cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Carbono , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Nitrito de Sódio/toxicidade , Suínos , Chá
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(8): 3563-3573, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268771

RESUMO

Microstructural factors associated with surface iridescence in cooked, cured pork products were investigated. Meat iridescence is a commonly observed physical phenomenon in raw meat and meat products that consist of intact muscle tissue. Since the purchase decision of consumers is mainly driven by the first impression of meat color and appearance, products showing colorful iridescence may be rejected. Four different muscles (RF: M. rectus femoris, BF: M. biceps femoris, ST: M. semitendinosus, and LD: M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) were brine-injected, cooked, sliced, and iridescence was evaluated by digital image analysis and sensory analysis. Sarcomere lengths, fiber diameters, and surface microstructure were analyzed in iridescent and noniridescent sections. Highest iridescence extent by image analysis was found in LD (37.3 ± 16.4%), and highest overall iridescence score (extent and intensity, 6.11 ± 1.78) was observed in BF. Sarcomere lengths did not differ significantly between iridescent (1.05 ± 0.09 µm LD) and noniridescent areas (1.08 ± 0.94 µm LD) within muscles (p > 0.05). Iridescent sections showed smooth and ordered surface structures with cross-sectioned myofibers, whereas in noniridescent sections, surfaces were more unstructured and myofibers obliquely cut. The results of the study indicate that the sarcomere length and fiber diameters may thus be only of minor importance for the explanation of meat iridescence in cooked meat products and are rather related to multiple scattering and absorption effects on smaller structural entities such as the myofilament lattice or larger entities such as fiber bundles. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Iridescence can be a problem for the meat industry due to consumers concerns about green-iridescent colors in meat. The underlying mechanisms and structures have not yet been fully clarified, and thus no practical solutions to eliminate iridescence have been found so far. This research presents new insights into the structural attributes that are interrelated with meat iridescence and shows that iridescence is rather influenced by cutting angle of muscle fibers and surface homogeneity than by muscle fiber diameters or sarcomere lengths. This should be considered by the industry when seeking for ways to reduce the potential problem of iridescence.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Humanos , Iridescência , Carne , Músculo Esquelético , Sarcômeros , Suínos
13.
Anim Genet ; 52(5): 633-644, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291482

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is a critical indicator of pork quality that affects directly the purchasing desire of consumers. However, to measure IMF content is both laborious and costly, preventing our understanding of its genetic determinants and improvement. In the present study, we constructed an accurate and fast image acquisition and analysis system, to extract and calculate the digital IMF content, the proportion of fat areas in the image (PFAI) of the longissimus muscle of 1709 animals from multiple pig populations. PFAI was highly significantly correlated with marbling scores (MS; 0.95, r2  = 0.90), and also with IMF contents chemically defined for 80 samples (0.79, r2  = 0.63; more accurate than direct analysis between IMF contents and MS). The processing time for one image is only 2.31 s. Genome-wide association analysis on PFAI for all 1709 animals identified 14 suggestive significant SNPs and 1 genome-wide significant SNP. On MS, we identified nine suggestive significant SNPs, and seven of them were also identified in PFAI. Furthermore, the significance (-log P) values of the seven common SNPs are higher in PFAI than in MS. Novel candidate genes of biological importance for IMF content were also discovered. Our imaging systems developed for prediction of digital IMF content is closer to IMF measured by Soxhlet extraction and slightly more accurate than MS. It can achieve fast and high-throughput IMF phenotype, which can be used in improvement of pork quality.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Carne de Porco , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Masculino , Fenótipo
14.
Anim Genet ; 52(5): 645-655, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324723

RESUMO

lncRNAs play crucial roles in fat metabolism in animals. Previously, we have compared the mRNA transcriptome profiles between seven fat-type Chinese pig breeds and one lean-type Western breed (Yorkshire, YY). The associations between differentially expressed (DE) genes and phenotypical traits were investigated. In the present study, to further explore the underlying regulatory mechanisms, lncRNAs were sequenced and compared between YY and Chinese indigenous breeds. The results showed 9114 and 7538 DE lncRNAs between at least one Chinese breed and the YY breed in the adipose and muscle tissue respectively. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the target genes of these DE lncRNAs mainly influenced the glucolipid metabolism, which is an important process affecting meat quality. Correlation analyses between the DE lncRNA and DE mRNA genes related to meat quality and growth traits were performed. The results showed that LTCONS_00073280 was associated with intramuscular fat content. Four lncRNAs (LTCONS_00101781, LTCONS_00037879, LTCONS_00088260 and LTCONS-00128343) might mediate backfat thickness. Overall, this study provides candidate lncRNAs that potentially affect meat quality, which might be useful for molecular breeding of pig breeds in future.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Músculos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Fenótipo , Carne de Porco
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(4): 646-664, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A quantitative microbiological risk assessment was conducted for Salmonella spp. in fresh pork from retail stores to consumers in China in order to provide evidence for adopting effective risk management measures. METHODS: The national food safety and risk monitoring data was used to estimate the initial contamination level of Salmonella in the retail fresh pork. The growth model and the cross-contamination model of Salmonella were referenced from the ComBase data base and scientific literature, respectively. Then the human health risk was predicted by the consumption of Salmonella-contaminated fresh pork and the Beta-Poisson dose-response model. RESULTS: The number of Salmonellosis per year among 1 million residents due to fresh pork was estimated to be 4748.The sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of Salmonellosis was mainly and positively correlated with the preparation rate of ready to eat food, the consumption quantity of pork, the initial contamination level of Salmonella in fresh pork, and the proportion of improper cleaning of knives and chopping boards. When the contamination level of Salmonella in fresh pork is controlled below 1 CFU/g, the average probability of illness will be reduced by 59.39%; the average probability of illness will be reduced by 58.97% by increasing the ratio of complete cleaning of chopping boards or the separation ratio of chopping boards for raw and ready-to-eat food to 90%. CONCLUSION: The risk could be effectively reduced by controlling the concentration of Salmonella contamination in retail pork or improving hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , China , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Salmonella , Suínos
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 620-628, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216663

RESUMO

Mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) essential oil (MEO) reportedly displays excellent antimicrobial properties. In this study, MEO was loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs). The characteristics, antibacterial properties and benefit in pork preservation of MEO-CSNPs were evaluated. The MEO-CSNPs displayed an excellent encapsulation efficiency (EE) (67.32%-82.35%), the particle size values of 131.3 nm-161.9 nm, and the absolute zeta potential values above 30 mV. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the MEO was incorporated into CSNPs without requiring a chemical reaction, the antibacterial activity of the MEO remained. Furthermore, the damage of MEO-chitosan nanoemulsions (MEO-CSs) to the cell membranes of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was confirmed by the change of bacterial cell morphology. The anti-biofilm assays verified that the MEO-CSs substantially inhibited biofilm formation and destroyed the mature biofilms. MEO-CSs were also applied to pork, proving a great potential for pork preservation. This study provides a potential approach for developing and utilizing MEO-CSs as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Citrus/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Carne de Porco , Animais , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
17.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105098, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280499

RESUMO

Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen associated with a variety of infections in humans, especially those in the urinary tract. The isolation of this pathogen in foods of animal origin such as meat is poorly documented and should not be neglected, in view of the zoonotic risk that this can pose to human health. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, virulence profile, and similarity between P. mirabilis strains isolated from chicken, beef, and pork meat and those causing community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI-CA), in order to better understand the role of this bacterium as a zoonotic pathogen. P. mirabilis was isolated from the three types of meat and was found to be more prevalent in chicken. All isolates exhibited several genotypic and phenotypic virulence characteristics, such as adhesion capacity in HEp-2 cell culture, biofilm formation, cytotoxicity in Vero cells and genes that express fimbriae (mrpA, pmfA, ucaA, atfA), hemolysin (hpmA), proteases (zapA and ptA) and siderophore receptor (ireA). UTI-CA strains showed a higher prevalence of ucaA and ireA genes, whereas those from the chicken meat had a higher prevalence of the atfA gene compared with the isolates from the beef and pork meat. It was observed that chicken meat and UTI-CA strains mainly formed very strong biofilms, whereas strains isolated from beef and pork formed more weak and moderate biofilms. Several strains from meat showed close genetic similarity to those from UTI-CA and had the same virulence profiles. Thus, meats may be an important source of the dissemination of P. mirabilis responsible for causing UTIs in the community.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Infecções Urinárias , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Carne , Proteus mirabilis/genética , Suínos , Células Vero , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
Animal ; 15(8): 100305, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294546

RESUMO

The quality of pork products from local breeds in extensive systems depends, among other things, on pig production. In particular, the variability in climatic conditions and feeding resources may influence the properties of tissues at slaughter and the quality of pork and processed products. The present study (part 2) was part of a larger project that assessed the influence of the finishing season and feeding resources on carcass and tissue traits and the quality of meat and dry-cured ham from Gascon pigs in an extensive system. Following the specifications of the Protected Designation of Origin "Noir de Bigorre", castrated Gascon males were reared on rangelands (grassland and forest areas) and received a supplementary diet from 5 to 6 months of age until slaughter at a minimum of 12 months and ca. 170 kg BW. Three finishing seasons were considered: Winter (n = 18), Spring (n = 22) and Autumn (n = 23). To estimate the specific effects of season on quality traits and avoid bias due to effects of genes known to influence these traits, polymorphisms in the RYR1, PRKAG3, MC4R and LEPR genes were included in the analysis models. Compared to Winter pigs, Spring and Autumn pigs had higher ultimate pH in the semimembranosus and gluteus medius (GM) muscles, lower meat lightness (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher GM intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P < 0.10). They also had higher GM contents of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) than Winter pigs (P < 0.05). Spring pigs had the lowest n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated FA ratio and the highest GM α-tocopherol content (P < 0.001), indicating pig grazing. The finishing season did not influence the processing yield of dry-cured hams (24-month process). Within each seasonal group, ten hams selected for genetic variability and IMF content were analyzed by a trained sensory panel. The season did not modify the appearance or odor, but influenced texture and taste. Hams from Winter and Spring pigs had higher tenderness and melting fat scores than hams from Autumn pigs (P < 0.01). Hams from Spring pigs had higher taste intensity and salty taste (P < 0.01) but lower positive tastes (e.g. fruits, forest) than hams from the other groups. Overall, finishing season had moderate effects on ham sensory traits. Furthermore, our results reveal high redness, tenderness, taste and odor intensity, and low rancid flavor of hams from Gascon pigs produced in an extensive system.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carne de Porco , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Carne de Porco/análise , Estações do Ano , Sus scrofa
19.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299415

RESUMO

Chemical characteristics of raw and processed Istarski prsut (PDO) produced from two different pig genotypes were studied with special emphasis on amino and fatty acid composition and factors of lipid stability. Raw hams of Large White (LW)xLandrace (L), and (LWxL)xDuroc (D) pig genotypes were used in the study (20 hams of each genotype). All left raw hams from each carcass were processed in accordance with the PDO specification of Istarski prsut, and other half (the right ones) of LWxL)xD genotype were used for analyses of raw hams (fresh muscles). Istarski prsut was evaluated on the basis of the chemical parameters of the raw and matured lean ham. The process of dry curing significantly influenced the chemical properties of Istarski prsut. Despite the higher content of intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acids, the fat of (LWxL)xD ham was much more resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation, suggesting that fatty acid profile and other factors, also play a significant role. Significant differences between pig genotypes in the amino acid and fatty acid profiles were found. The analyzed Istarski prsut may be distinguished by prints of multivariate chemometric statistical analysis, based on their amino acid and fatty acid compositions.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne de Porco/análise , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Genótipo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/classificação , Suínos/genética
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063614

RESUMO

An economic experiment was conducted in France in 2020 to evaluate consumer attitudes toward two ham products associated with different colorectal cancer risks. We focused specifically on comparing a conventional ham and a new hypothetical antioxidant-enriched ham with a reduced risk of provoking colorectal cancer. Study participants were given descriptions of the two hams before carrying out successive rounds of willingness-to-pay (WTP) assessments. The results show that WTP was higher for the antioxidant-enriched ham than for the conventional ham. WTP estimates were also impacted by providing additional information about the reduction in colorectal cancer risk associated with the antioxidant-enriched ham. Based on the participants' WTP, we came up with ex ante estimates for the social impacts of introducing the antioxidant-enriched ham onto the market, and we suggest that it would be socially optimal to promote the product. Competition arising from pre-existing product labelling and marketing assertions could greatly limit the market potential of antioxidant-enriched ham, which suggests that alternative approaches may be necessary, such as regulations mandating antioxidant enrichment. These results also concern all countries with high levels of meat consumption.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Alimentos Fortificados/economia , Carne de Porco/economia , Adulto , Antioxidantes , Comportamento de Escolha , Comércio , Dieta Saudável/economia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , França , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne de Porco/análise , Adulto Jovem
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