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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745115

RESUMO

Element bioaccessibility consists of the fraction of the element that is mobilized from food matrices into digestive extractants. The degree of bioaccessibility of a toxic metal is a fundamental consideration in estimating its bioavailability. In addition, gaining a better understanding of the essential elements released into the gastro intestinal fluids allows a more thorough assessment of the health benefits of food matrices in the field of nutrition science. In the present study, an in vitro digestion model simulating gastro-intestinal digestion (GID) was used to investigate the bioaccessibility of stable elements in mixed leaf salad and 210Po in various foods (meat, seafood, vegetables). The simulation was carried out over three phases: after a pre-treatment with a saliva solution, raw and cooked seafood samples were subjected to a complete simulated gastrointestinal digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion). The 210Po bioaccessibility was found to range from 16.2±9.39% to 62.8±17.7% and from 6.26±2.15% to 67.5±13.1% for raw and cooked food respectively. Moreover, bioaccessibility could not be determined for As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Hg, La, Pb, Sb, Sn, Te, Th, Tl, Ti, U. It proved to be poor (1-16%) for Al, Fe and S; fair (40-50%) for Cu, P, and Si; and high (>50%) for Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zn. The results show that bioaccessibility varies according to the chemical form of the element in the food as well as the matrix composition.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Polônio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Digestão , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Carne/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Verduras/química
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 366-371, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840648

RESUMO

Ground venison packets from shotgun- and archery-harvested White-tailed Deer in Illinois in 2013 and 2014 were analyzed for metal contamination. Radiographs indicated that 48% of 27 ground venison packets from 10 shotgun-harvested deer contained metal fragments, while none of the 15 packets from three archery-harvested deer contained fragments. ICP-MS analysis verified that all metal fragments from seven of the venison samples from shotgun-harvested deer were composed of lead, with average concentrations from 1.04 to 8.42 µg g-1, dry weight. A single serving of ground venison containing one of these metal fragments embedded in it would be predicted to have a lead concentration ranging from 6.4 to 51.8 µg g-1. Sixty percent of 20 commercial meat processing plants surveyed by phone in 2018 and 2019 indicated that they mixed venison from multiple deer when preparing ground venison products. However, our results do not show any cross-contamination in archery-harvested ground venison processed prior to the firearm hunting seasons.


Assuntos
Cervos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Animais , Illinois , Chumbo/análise
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(6): 668-672, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842284

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the correlation between dietary N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) intake and chronic inflammation state of body. Methods: A total of 306 samples of 102 types of food were purchased from a supermarket in Xiamen in September 2019, including grains, meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, beans, dairy products, vegetables and fruits. The content of Neu5Gc in food was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 500 healthy freshmen from Xiamen University were selected by using a simple random sampling method. The food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate the food intake in the past year. The food intake was corrected by 3 consecutive 24-hour recalls, and the amount of Neu5Gc intake was calculated. The concentration of anti-Neu5Gc antibody, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum was detected. Spearman correlation analysis was used to explore the correlation between Neu5Gc intake and anti-Neu5Gc antibody, CRP and IL-6 levels. Results: Neu5Gc was mainly found in red meat and liquid dairy products. The contents of Neu5Gc in beef, lamb and pork were (30.32±2.84), (20.39±4.73) and (5.58±1.04) mg/kg, respectively, and in liquid milk and yogurt were (10.87±1.54) and (6.91±0.24) mg/L, respectively. The M (P25, P75) intake of Neu5Gc for all participants was 4.62 (2.20, 8.60) mg/d. The M(P25, P75) intake of Neu5Gc for males about 6.60(2.83, 10.20) was higher than that for females about [3.84 (1.84, 6.35) mg/d] (P<0.001). The M (P25, P75) of serum anti-Neu5Gc, CRP and IL-6 levels were 3.07 (2.17, 4.14) µg/ml, 0.37 (0.22, 0.87) mg/ml and 61.82 (12.23, 315.30) pg/ml, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the intake level of Neu5Gc was positively correlated with serum anti-Neu5Gc antibody, CRP and IL-6 levels, with rs values about 0.222, 0.102 and 0.126, respectively (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: Dietary Neu5Gc intake is mainly from red meat and liquid dairy products, and its intake level is positively correlated with chronic inflammatory state of body.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Ácidos Neuramínicos , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/análise , Ovinos
4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127427, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619936

RESUMO

A magnetic porous organic framework (M-POF) was rationally designed and served as a sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of six nitroimidazoles from chicken meat prior to their assay by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The M-POF exhibited good magnetic responsiveness and outstanding affinity to nitroimidazoles with large adsorption capacity up to 36 mg g-1. Under optimal conditions, the developed method offered good linearity (r greater than 0.992) in the range of 1.5-100.0 ng g-1, low limits of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.5-0.8 ng g-1, low limits of quantification of 1.5-2.5 ng g-1 and high enrichment factors of 80-175 for the nitroimidazoles. The method was successfully applied to analyze nitroimidazoles in chicken meat. The recoveries were 80.2-118% with relative standard deviations lower than 12%. The adsorption mechanism was further explored and the results showed that the M-POF exhibited adsorption potential for compounds with strong polar interactions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Magnetismo/métodos , Carne/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nitroimidazóis/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bioensaio , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Magnetismo/instrumentação , Músculo Esquelético/química , Nitroimidazóis/análise , Porosidade , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação
5.
Food Chem ; 332: 127414, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615379

RESUMO

The reasons for the change in the water retention capability of salted pork caused by potassium chloride (KCl) instead of sodium chloride (NaCl) were investigated. Accompanied by the gradually increased substitution rate of KCl, the oxidative degradation of protein, water content, water activity (aw), gap, as well as water loss in salted pork were increased, and the results showed significant differences (p < 0.05). LF-NMR results indicated that NaCl was replaced by KCl, which can observably increased the mobility of water in the salted pork (p < 0.05). All indexes showed excellent correlation. NaCl was replaced by KCl, which affected the water retention capability of salted pork, because K+ promoted changes in the meat's physicochemical properties. The KCl replacement group presented higher water content, while displayed lower water retention capability.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Água/química , Animais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Oxirredução , Proteínas/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Suínos
6.
Food Chem ; 333: 127524, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679418

RESUMO

Semicarbazide (SEM) is a protein-bound nitrofurazone metabolite that is detrimental to human health. Therefore, to ensure food safety, it is necessary to detect SEM in food samples. To this end, we developed a novel electrochemical sensor to detect SEM by using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as the recognition element. Computer-aided molecular modelling was performed to guide the synthesis of the MIP, and subsequently, MIP/carboxylated single-walled carbon-nanotubes/chitosan (MIP/SWNTs-COOH/CS) was prepared as the sensing platform to develop the electrochemical sensor. The linear range of the sensor was 0.04-7.6 ng mL-1, with a detection limit of 0.025 ng mL-1. The sensor was successfully applied to detect SEM in four different real samples, with recoveries ranging from 83.16% to 93.40%. The results indicated that the fabricated electrochemical sensor can be widely applied to detect SEM in the environment and in agri-food products.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Impressão Molecular , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Semicarbazidas/análise , Eletrodos , Mel/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Carne/análise , Polímeros/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 333: 127480, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688306

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic industrial chemical but is also found in heated potato foods such as French fries due to the Maillard reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars. However, high-temperature cooking is often required for flavoring, browning, and sterilizing of raw ingredients. Imidazole dipeptides, such as carnosine (ß-alanyl-l-histidine, CAR) and anserine (ß-alanyl-Nπ-methyl-l-histidine, ANS), are present in high concentrations in meat and are known to scavenge radical species and toxic aldehydes. Here, we investigated the reaction between CAR/ANS and AA under several conditions expected to detoxify AA by cooking with meat. The reaction products were characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS as CAR/ANS-AA adducts at the N-terminus, and His-Nτ/Nπ. The reactivity of CAR sites toward AA were in the order N-terminus > Nτ > Nπ. A selective LC-ESI-SRM/MS method was also developed and confirmed the formation of CAR/ANS-AA adducts during pan frying of minced potato and chicken breast.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Anserina/química , Carnosina/química , Galinhas , Culinária , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Carne/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127395, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615385

RESUMO

This paper describes a simple, efficient and rapid analytical method for extraction and determination of nitrite in meat and chicken products by vortex-assisted supramolecular solvent-based liquid phase microextraction (VA-SUPRAS-LPME) prior to spectrophotometric detection. The SUPRAS was rapidly formed by the addition of a colloidal decanoic acid suspension to tetrahydrofuran (THF). The validation studies were carried out in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), matrix effects, robustness, uncertainty measurement, precision, accuracy, and certified reference material (CRM) analysis using optimized experimental conditions. The LOD, LOQ, linearity and matrix effect were 0.035 ng mL-1, 0.1 ng mL-1, 0.1-300 ng mL-1, and 9.6% respectively, with high preconcentration factor (200). The method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in processed products. Moreover, the results obtained by the proposed method were compared to the standard Griess method, and showed no significant differences in term of Student's t-test.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Química Verde , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236889, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730330

RESUMO

Australian rates of campylobacteriosis are among the highest in developed countries, yet only limited work has been done to characterize Campylobacter spp. in Australian retail products. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on 331 C. coli and 285 C. jejuni from retail chicken meat, as well as beef, chicken, lamb and pork offal (organs). Campylobacter isolates were highly diverse, with 113 sequence types (STs) including 38 novel STs, identified from 616 isolates. Genomic analysis suggests very low levels (2.3-15.3%) of resistance to aminoglycoside, beta-lactam, fluoroquinolone, macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics. A majority (>90%) of isolates (52/56) possessing the fluoroquinolone resistance-associated T86I mutation in the gyrA gene belonged to ST860, ST2083 or ST7323. The 44 pork offal isolates were highly diverse, representing 33 STs (11 novel STs) and harboured genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides, lincosamides and macrolides not generally found in isolates from other sources. Prevalence of multidrug resistant genotypes was very low (<5%), but ten-fold higher in C. coli than C. jejuni. This study highlights that Campylobacter spp. from retail products in Australia are highly genotypically diverse and important differences in antimicrobial resistance exist between Campylobacter species and animal sources.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Carne/análise , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Galinhas , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos , Suínos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(8): 756-766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663053

RESUMO

This study aims to establish the relationship between the consumption of certain foods and the presence of organochlorine pesticides in human milk. A total of 167 samples of breastmilk were collected. Sample analysis was carried out by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Pesticide concentrations (op'DDT, pp'DDT, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT, HCB, ß-HCH) were grouped by consumption level of fish, dairy products, meat, eggs, and seafood and then were compared to each other. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated between the concentration of pesticides (higher and/or lower than median) and the exposure variable (high consumption). The results indicated low median concentrations of HCB, ß - HCH, op'DDT and pp'DDT, whose fluctuations and trends between different frequencies of food consumption were not significant. pp'DDE and Σ - DDT values according to the increase in consumption of fish were significantly increased. Women with high fish consumption have a higher risk of high concentrations of pp'DDE and Σ-DDT (OR: high consumption: 5.6 (1.3-23.6). A protective effect was observed in the consumption of dairy products (ß-HCH and op'DDT), meat (HCB), and seafood (pp'DDT). These results suggest that it is possible that the consumption of fish, dairy products, meat, and seafood influences the presence of organochlorine pesticides in the studied population.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Leite Humano/química , Praguicidas/análise , Adulto , Laticínios , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Ovos/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Produtos Pesqueiros , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Carne/análise , México
11.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(4): 346-357, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508164

RESUMO

Considering the increasing pet owner's concern about the food their pets are consuming, in this study we investigated the origin of the main ingredients in wet and dry foods produced in Brazil using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. We concluded that chicken and pork seem to be the dominant ingredients in most of the samples, with larger proportions in wet cat food. Even in pet foods showing 'beef' as the main ingredient on the label, we found a low proportion of bovine products in both wet and dry cat foods. Comparing the contribution of plant-derived products (C3 and C4 plants) and animal-derived products (chicken-pork, bovine and fish), approximately 21 % of cat foods had more than 30 % of ingredients with plant origin in their composition. The high amount of plant-derived products in cat foods found here raises the question whether this should be mentioned on package labels.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Plantas/química , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Bovinos , Galinhas , Peixes
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584890

RESUMO

Previous research regarding Holstein cows has mainly focused on increasing milk yield. However, in order to maximize the economical profits of Holstein cattle farming, it is necessary to fully take advantage of Holstein bulls to produce high-grade beef. The present study aims to investigate different transcriptomic profiling of Holstein bulls and steers, via high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). The growth and beef quality traits of Holstein steers and bulls were characterized via assessment of weight, rib eye area, marbling score, shear force and intramuscular fat percentage of the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. The results indicated that castration improved the meat quality, yet reduced the meat yield. Subsequently, RNA-seq of the LL muscle from Holstein steers and bulls revealed a total of 56 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We performed the functional enrichment analysis in Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of the DEGs using GOseq R package software and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis using KOBAS tool. Through the integrated analysis of DEGs with reported QTLs and SNPs, seven promising candidate genes potentially affecting the beef quality of LL muscle following castration were discovered, including muscle structural protein coding genes (MYH1, MYH4, MYH10) and functional protein coding genes (GADL1, CYP2R1, EEPD1, SHISA3). Among them, MYH10, GADL1, CYP2R1, EEPD1 and SHISA3 were novel candidate genes associated with beef quality traits. Notably, EEPD1 was associated with both meat quality and reproduction traits, thus indicating its overlapping role in responding to hormone change, and subsequently inducing beef quality improvement. Our findings provide a complete dataset of gene expression profile of LL in Holstein bulls and steers, and will aid in understanding how castration influence meat yield and quality.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Carboxiliases/genética , Bovinos , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA/química , RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
Food Chem ; 330: 127205, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521397

RESUMO

The incidence of endocrine disruptors, both possible (glyphosate and glufosinate), and demonstrated (perchlorate and chlorate), was estimated in baby food commodities (meat, fish, cheese, vegetable and fruit). Ion-chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of the 105 samples did not show traces of glyphosate, glufosinate or their metabolites, while in 10.5% of the samples a quantifiable amount of perchlorate was found. Some samples based on fruit and vegetables revealed a substantial amount of chlorate, especially the preparations that contained carrots and potatoes: five samples were in a concentration range of 40-120 µg kg-1, while one homogenized pear sample reached 372.2 µg kg-1. The pure meat samples revealed occasional chlorate appearance, with less than 10 µg kg-1. This is the first report of chlorate evaluated in various types of baby food and may serve as symptomatic data regarding its occurrence in infant/toddler diets. Therefore, effective monitoring programs and subsequent strict regulations are strongly required.


Assuntos
Cloratos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Percloratos/análise , Animais , Cloratos/química , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Frutas/química , Herbicidas/química , Carne/análise , Percloratos/química , Verduras/química
14.
Food Chem ; 329: 127185, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516709

RESUMO

Rabbit is a healthy meat, with low allergenicity and excellent nutritional properties. The global popularity of rabbit meat makes it a target for food fraud. We present a LC-QTOF-MS/MS approach for detecting and identifying rabbit-specific peptide-markers from thermally processed meat products to differentiate rabbit from other commonly-consumed animal species. We identified 49 heat-stable specific peptides. We selected the most stable markers for testing complex meat matrices by analysing pâtés-type products with a rabbit meat content ranging from 5% to 85%. Of the 49 heat-stable peptides detected in pure cooked rabbit meat, three were consistently detected in all investigated pâté samples i.e., SSVFVADPK, AFFGHYLYEVAR and PHSHPALTPEQK. Monitoring meat species other than rabbit in the examined pâtés using pork-, lamb- and chicken-specific peptides identified the presence of undeclared chicken in two samples. The results confirm that LC-QTOF-MS/MS is a suitable tool for multi-species detection in processed meat products, particularly for authentication purposes.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Peptídeos/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Carne/análise , Coelhos , Ovinos , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Food Chem ; 330: 127187, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531636

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of broilers fed diets containing glycerol monolaurate (GML) in place of antimicrobials. Groups: T0 group used as control; T100, T200, and T300 groups received diets supplemented with 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of GML, respectively. The feed mixture used in the poultry feed during the four phases of the production cycle (days 1 to 7; 8 to 21; 22 to 35; and 36 to 42 of birds age) showed similar levels of protein, lipid and ash, as well as fatty acid profiles. Samples of frozen breasts from chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age were used for chemical gross composition and fatty acid analysis. We observed lower lipid levels in the meat of broilers in the T200 and T300 groups than in the T0 group. Lower lipid peroxidation occurred in the meat of animals that consumed GML in respect to control. Total saturated fatty acid percentage was lower, while total polyunsaturated fatty acid percentage was higher in the meat of broilers fed GML than in the control group. We conclude that the increase in GML concentrations alters the lipid profile of broiler meat.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Lauratos/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/análise , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 328: 127125, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480262

RESUMO

This study evaluates the addition of monolayered (MO) and multilayered (MU) fish oil microcapsules to meat model systems and determines the effects of processing and culinary cooking. Adding MO and MU increased the content of EPA and DHA and the level of secondary oxidation products but being far away from the oxidation values that generate anomalous flavours. However, it did not lead to oxidative damage of the enriched batches or affect the moisture and lipid content during processing and/or culinary cooking. The type of fish oil microcapsules, the processing and/or culinary cooking and the type of meat matrix influenced the fatty acid digestion. The highest bioaccessibility of EPA and DHA occurred in cooked samples enriched with MO after processing and before culinary cooking. To optimize EPA and DHA enrichment and bioaccessibility, the type of fish oil microcapsules may be selected as a function of the type of added meat products.


Assuntos
Culinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Lipídeos/química , Carne/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , Animais , Cápsulas/química , Digestão , Óleos de Peixe/química , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127311, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540547

RESUMO

The bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) in the food chain may pose a threat to human health. The risk of dietary Hg intake is mostly caused by the consumption of fish and seafood, therefore the knowledge on the exposure from land animal products is limited. In our article, we summarized the results of analyses of Hg in muscle tissue and liver of different livestock and game animals obtained during ten years of official monitoring that was carried out in Poland from 2009 to 2018. The majority of the results in muscle tissue were below the limits of quantification (LOQs). The mean Hg concentrations in muscle tissue ranged from 0.6 to 5.6 µg kg-1 of wet weight and the mean liver Hg concentrations were within the range of 0.8-16.4 µg kg-1 of wet weight, with lowest levels in chickens and highest in wild boars. The results revealed decreasing trends in liver Hg in cattle and cervids over the years, which was congruous with decreasing emission of Hg in Europe. Our results showed that the consumption of meat and liver of livestock and game animals in Poland may be considered to be safe for human health, which was confirmed by the low number of noncompliant samples relative to the applicable legal limits, as well as by estimated dietary exposure.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Gado , Carne/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Exposição Dietética/análise , Europa (Continente) , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Polônia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519405

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the influence of sex on the quality of meat from farmed pheasants. Male (roosters, n = 18) and female (hens, n = 18) pheasants were slaughtered at 25 weeks of age. The breast muscles (Pectoralis major) were cut out from chilled carcasses and analyzed to determine the proximate chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and physicochemical and sensory properties of meat. Chemical analyses revealed that the meat of male had higher (p ≤ .05) content of collagen, Na, Cu, and Zn, whereas meat from females had higher (p ≤ .05) concentrations of total nitrogen of water-soluble compounds, nitrogen of water-soluble non-protein compounds, K, and Mn. The meat of male was characterized by greater (p ≤ .05) cooking loss. A sensory evaluation revealed that meat from females had lower (p ≤ .05) taste intensity and aroma desirability. Meat from male and female pheasants revealed differences in the content of minerals as well as low-molecular-weight water-soluble nitrogen compounds, which may affect the flavor of cooked meat. Irrespective of these differences, the analyzed pheasant meat was characterized by high quality, which indicates that it could offer an attractive alternative to other types of meat.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/análise , Codorniz , Caracteres Sexuais , Paladar , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minerais/análise
19.
Food Chem ; 331: 127163, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593037

RESUMO

Herein, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced DNA biosensor has been developed for real-time detection of donkey meat marker using biotinylated reporter and streptavidin functionalized gold nanostars (Stre@GNSs). Compared to the direct detection assay, this sandwich format for the enhancement of the signal, resulted in 6-folds orders increase in the sensitivity. Target DNA could be detected with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1.0 nM with a relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 3) of 0.85%. In addition, the fabricated SPR sensor showed good selectivity for the target analyte over full complementary, single-base mismatch, three base-mismatch and non-complementary oligonucleotides. Finally, the proposed sensor was successfully applied for detection of donkey meat adulteration with various percentages in homemade beef sausage, as a real sample. The results indicated that the proposed biosensor provides a high specificity, easy, good sensitivity and fast approach for identification of donkey meat adulteration in food samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Equidae/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , DNA/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanoestruturas/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Estreptavidina/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos
20.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(9): 1613-1628, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377930

RESUMO

During the summer, high ambient temperature and humidity cause economic loss to the global livestock industry via reduced livestock productivity and increased mortality. The problem of heat stress (HS) is likely to be exacerbated by global warming and climate change. Recent research has shown that HS not only leads to physiological and metabolic perturbations in live animals but can also affect carcass and meat quality characteristics plausibly by altering the rate and extent of postmortem muscle glycolysis and resultant pH. However, these impacts of HS are not consistent across species. Higher incidence of pale soft and exudative (PSE) meat has been reported in poultry. On the contrary, higher incidence of high ultimate pH and dark firm and dry (DFD) meat or no impacts of HS have been reported in sheep and cattle. With the limited data on HS impacts on meat quality of ruminants, it is difficult to explain the exact mechanisms driving these variable impacts. However, it is hypothesized that the severity and duration of HS may lead to variable impacts due to lack of opportunity to adapdate to acute heat exposure. Longer HS exposure may allow ruminants to adapdate to heat and may not record any negative impacts on meat quality. This paper reviews the recent research on impacts of HS on meat quality characteristics and identify the key areas of further research required to better understand these negative impacts to develop strategies for amelioration. In addition, some mitigation strategies of HS have also been discussed which include both managemental and nutritional interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Bovinos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Gado , Carne/análise , Ovinos
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