Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.046
Filtrar
1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190619, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406282

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the period of chromium yeast supplementation on lipid profile of backfat and Longissimus lumborum muscle of barrows. It was evaluated carcass samples from forty barrows, genetically similar. Pigs diets were supplemented with 0.4 mg kg-1 of chromium yeast in four periods (0, 38, 62 and 94 days before slaughter). The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments, ten replicates, and each experimental unit consisting of one animal. Lipid profiles of backfat and Longissimus lumborum muscle were analyzed by gas chromatography. The increase in the period of chromium yeast use had a quadratic effect (P<0.05) for stearic and oleic fatty acids, and total saturated, monounsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids in backfat. DH-γ-linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids reduced when the period of chromium yeast use increased. In the meat, there was a quadratic effect (P<0.05) only in the γ-linoleic fatty acid. The use of chromium yeast for different periods influences the lipid profile of the backfat and the Longissimus lumborum muscle, with less effect in the meat.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cromo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Suínos
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101377, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358956

RESUMO

One of the current myopathies affecting the chicken meat industry is deep pectoral myopathy (DPM), also known as green muscle disease or Oregon disease, the condition is considered a major problem in poultry processing lines. Thus, the present study proposes to examine the meat quality of the Pectoralis major muscle (breast fillet) from carcasses of broilers affected by DPM in Pectoralis minor muscle (tender) and from a control group. Breast fillets samples were harvested from Ross AP95 broilers that were slaughtered at 42 days of age and were selected to the occurrence of the myopathy (score 2 and score 3) and from a control group without (score 0) the presence of myopathy. Chemical composition, cholesterol, fatty acid profile, pH, color, water-holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force, sarcomere length, and collagen were analyzed in the breast fillet. And with the results it was observed the samples classified as DPM score 2 had a higher moisture and a lower protein percentage. The higher values lipid was found in the samples from broilers affected by DPM. There was no difference (P > 0.05) fatty acid profile only to C10:0, C15:0, C17:0, C20:0, and C18:2c9,t11. Differences were detected (P < 0.05) for the pH, WHC, SF, and sarcomere length of the samples from broilers affected by DPM. The higher pH observed in the samples from birds classified as DPM score 2 and the higher WHC values were observed in the samples affected by DPM (score 2 and 3). The SF (P < 0.05) among samples, with the most tender samples (lower SF values) being those unaffected by the condition DPM (score 0). The dorsal side surface, where the Pectoralis major muscle is in contact with the Pectoralis minor muscle, higher L* values were found in the meat affected by the myopathy. Although deep pectoral myopathy affects the Pectoralis minor muscle of broilers, it can also alter the qualitative characteristics and chemical composition of the breast fillets (Pectoralis major muscle).


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças Musculares , Animais , Culinária , Carne/análise , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Músculos Peitorais
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(33): 9725-9734, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378390

RESUMO

Understanding the natural diet of grazing sheep can help fulfill their nutritional requirements and positively affect the quality of their meat. Emerging fecal DNA (fDNA) metabarcoding technology can provide more accurate estimates for the dietary composition of free-ranging animals. This study has shown that pasture feeding can promote deposition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in Tan lambs' muscle and decrease the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs), and thus, we investigated the dietary composition of grazing lambs using fDNA metabarcoding to assess the prevalence of medicinal herbage plants in their diet. Herein, based on the full-time natural pasture grazing and 4-h natural pasture grazing with indoor feeding patterns, the herbage taxa (Bassia scoparia, Euphorbia humifusa, Arnebia euchroma, and Salsola sp.) most correlated to n-3 PUFAs were highlighted to elucidate how diversification in dietary components was associated with the muscle FA profile of lambs. Our findings provide experimental evidence for future feeding research.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Graxos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , DNA , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético , Ovinos
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112577, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352577

RESUMO

Once deposited, radiocesium remains in the environment for a long time, and constantly enters the food chain. Over time, game species tend to accumulate 137Cs by two orders of magnitude more than farm animals. This occurs especially in places heavily contaminated, thus meat products made out of local game should be treated with caution. One of such areas, known as the Opole Anomaly, is located in South-Western Poland and represents one of most 137Cs contaminated regions across Europe after the Chernobyl accident. The aim of the study was to find out the 137Cs activity in soil and local game, the value of the soil-to-game aggregated transfer factor and to assess the effective dose of the ionising radiation (Eeff) received by consumers of local game meat in years 2012-2019. We examined meat of three common game species: red deer, roe deer and wild boar for 137Cs activity. 137Cs activity in meat samples ranged from 0.14 to 592 Bq kg-1. The aggregated transfer factor (Tag) in game ranged from 0.006 to 0.01 m2 kg-1 f.w. for wild boar, 0.005-0.008 m2 kg-1 f.w. for roe deer, and 0.003-0.004 m2 kg-1 f.w. for red deer. The effective dose received by people who regularly consume local game meat ranged from less than 14.2 µSv y-1 to 134 µSv y-1, depending on the amount of differently contaminated game meat consumed annually. Even those for whom game is the only source of meat, consumption of wild boar along with local mushrooms and bilberries will, since 2012, not exceed the regulation limit of 137Cs at the level of 1 mSv y-1. By the best of our knowledge this is the first study regarding 137Cs activity in game and risk assessment from the most contaminated "post-Chernobyl" area in Poland.


Assuntos
Cervos , Síndrome de Poland , Animais , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Humanos , Carne/análise , Polônia , Solo , Sus scrofa , Suínos
5.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399449

RESUMO

In this study, the benefits of using avocado peel extract (APE), rich in phenolic compounds, to reduce the oxidation and formation of harmful compounds resulting from cooking, were investigated. Beef and soy-based burgers with the addition of APE (0.5% and 1%) were studied after pan frying concerning proximate and physicochemical characteristics, inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], hexanal, and carbonyls), heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and acrylamide formation. Sensory analysis was additionally performed. APE-affected proximate composition, protein, fat, and ash contents (%) were found to be markedly higher in APE-incorporated burgers (~28.32 ± 0.29, ~14.00 ± 0.01, and ~1.57 ± 0.05, respectively), compared with the controls (~26.55 ± 0.51, ~12.77 ± 0.32, and ~1.48 ± 0.16, respectively). Lower concentrations of TBARS, hexanal, and carbonyls were observed in APE-treated burgers on Days 1 and 10, post-cooking, compared to controls. Overall, it was found that APE had a greater protective effect than the positive control (sodium ascorbate incorporated) in beef burgers. In soy burgers, the positive control demonstrated pro-oxidant activity. The addition of 0.5% APE was found to inhibit HAs and acrylamide formation in beef and soy burgers. Although the addition of APE affected the color of both meat and soy burgers, it did not impact consumer preference. It was therefore concluded that APE extract might be a suitable clean-label alternative to synthetic antioxidants, and that it can protect and increase the nutritional value of meat and meat-free burgers.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Persea , Animais , Bovinos , Culinária , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(16): 11080-11090, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342440

RESUMO

Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-PCBs) are a subclass of persistent bioaccumulative pollutants able to enter the food chain. We investigated the transfer of ndl-PCBs from contaminated feed into meat and liver of fattening chickens. A total of 48 chicks were divided into five treatment and one control groups. Treated animals were fed with contaminated diets (11.7 ± 0.4 µg/kg sum of indicator ndl-PCBs; 88% dry matter (DM)) before slaughter for different subperiods of time: 16, 23, 28, 32, and 36 days for groups 1-5, respectively. One day after the end of each subperiod, three animals per group were slaughtered to determine the congener-specific ndl-PCB content. All remaining animals were fed the control feed until slaughter on day 37 to probe depuration. We used these data to generate congener-specific physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for indicator ndl-PCBs. The models show that PCBs 28, 138, 153, and 180 form a more slowly eliminated cluster (with an observed transfer rate into meat over 74% and observed half-lives over 8.7 days) than PCBs 52 and 101 (with a transfer rate under 13% and half-lives under 2.6 days). Our simulations show that ndl-PCB levels in feed lower than 3.9 (long 56-day) or 4.4 µg/kg (short 37-day fattening period) would be necessary to ensure the current maximum level in muscle meat (fat basis), according to EU Regulations 1881/2006 and 1259/2011. The PBTK models are made available in the Python and Food Safety Knowledge Exchange formats.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animais , Galinhas , Carne/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 427, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341838

RESUMO

The present study assessed the influence of the type of the tropical pastures on lamb body weight (BW) gain and meat quality. Fifty-four lambs were allocated to three grazing pastures: (1) AG - Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5); (2) PP - pigeon pea legume (Cajanus cajan cv. Anão); and (3) CS - contiguous swards, half of the paddock with AG and half with PP. After 92 days of grazing, the lambs were slaughtered. Carcasses were evaluated and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine color, lipid profile, tocopherol concentrations, and lipid oxidation. Although the pastures present differences in the characteristics of nutritional quality, the animals did not show difference in BW gain. The results show that all forage presented similar concentration of alpha-tocopherol (137 ± 14.37 mg kg-1 of fresh matter), whereas total and condensed tannin contents were greater in PP, intermediate in CS, and the lowest in AG treatment (P = 0.0001). Meat α-tocopherol content was similar among treatments (P = 0.1392), with an average concentration close to the optimal level to reduce the meat oxidation. Meat from AG treatment had 45 and 25% lower n-6/n-3 ratio than meat from PP and CS treatments, respectively. The legume increases the unsaturated fatty acids and the grass can reduce the n6/n3 ratio. The level of condensed tannin concentration did show to have important effect on meat characteristics. Both tropical pastures studied can provide a high amount of alpha-tocopherol, generating a great potential to increase the concentration of this antioxidant in lamb's meat.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Carne Vermelha , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Poaceae , Ovinos
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 442, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410508

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether the inclusion of silymarin in broiler feed was able to mitigate the adverse effects of mycotoxin on growth performance, health status, liver oxidative stress, and meat fatty acid profiles. A completely randomized design with four treatments, four repetitions, and 15 chicks per repetition was used, with the following groups: (a) feed without additives (NoMyc-NoSil), (b) feed supplemented with silymarin (NoMyc-Sil), (c) feed contaminated with mycotoxin (Myc-NoSil), and (d) feed contaminated with mycotoxin and supplemented with silymarin (Myc-Sil). Growth performance, intestinal and liver health, and meat quality were assessed. The consumption of feed contaminated with mycotoxin delayed weight gain and increased the feed conversion ratio; however, the addition of silymarin prevented these adverse effects on the chicken industry. Serum ALT activity was higher in Myc-NoSil broilers than in other groups. Intake of silymarin in healthy birds increased serum globulin concentration and reduced albumin concentration and ALT and AST serum activities compared to the Myc-NoSil group. The NoMyc-Sil birds had greater villus heights and crypt depths. Luminosity and water loss by cooking were affected by mycotoxin ingestion, changes that did not occur in the meat of birds that were supplemented with silymarin. The sum of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the meat did not change among treatments, unlike the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids higher in the meat of birds that consumed silymarin. We conclude that silymarin is a potential additive in broiler feed; it reduces impairment of growth performance at the end of the productive cycle, prevents oxidative stress, improves meat quality, and increases polyunsaturated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Silimarina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos , Carne/análise
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10321-10328, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436881

RESUMO

The halal food market is globally growing along with the increased risk of adulteration. We proposed an amplification-free and mix-to-read CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid analytical strategy allowing rapid identification and analysis of pork components, thus enriching the toolbox for ensuring halal food authenticity. We designed and optimized guide RNA (gRNA) targeting the pork cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene. gRNA allowed specific identification of the target Cyt b gene from pork components followed by activation of Cas12 protein to abundantly cleave single-stranded DNA probes with terminally labeled fluorophore and quencher groups, thus turning on fluorescence. The presence of the pork Cyt b gene thus can be mix-and-read- and only-one-step-detected, which may indicate the risk of halal food adulteration. The method allowed specific discrimination of pork meat from beef, mutton, and chicken and yielded a detection limit of 2.7 ng/µL of total DNA from pork meat. The reliability of the method was tested using the following processed meat products: halal foods beef luncheon meat and spiced beef and non-halal foods sausage and dried pork slices. The CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid test strategy is promising for rapid food authentication.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101301, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273651

RESUMO

This research was conducted to determine the effects of natural capsaicin extract (NCE) as an alternative to the antibiotic (chlortetracycline, CTC) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, immune function, and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 168 one-day-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens with an average weight of 46.4 ± 0.6 g were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments, with 7 replicates per treatment and 8 broilers per pen. These 3 dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (CON), a basal diet + 75 mg/kg CTC (CTC), and a basal diet + 80 mg/kg NCE (NCE). Broilers from the NCE group showed higher average daily gain compared to broilers from the CON group at all stages (P < 0.05). On d 42, NCE supplementation improved dietary nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy compared to nonsupplemented or CTC-supplemented diets (P < 0.05). The digestibility of organic matter and crude protein were higher in the NCE diet than in the CON or CTC diets (P < 0.05). Higher relative weight of bursa of Fabricius was observed in broilers fed NCE diets compared with CON (P < 0.05). Pancreatic trypsin and lipase activities were significantly increased in the NCE group compared with those in the CON group (P < 0.05). The value of lightness (L*) of breast muscles from broilers fed NCE diets was significantly lower compared to those fed CON diets (P < 0.05). Broilers fed NCE diets also had higher levels of serum total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and lower levels of interleukin-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α compared with broilers fed CON diets (P < 0.05). The liver catalase activity of broilers was also significantly increased in the NCE group than the CON group (P < 0.05). In addition, broilers from NCE group had lower concentrations of serum urea-N, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol, and higher concentration of growth hormone compared with those from the CON group (P < 0.05). Therefore, we concluded that supplementation of 80 mg/kg of NCE in diets could improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant status, immune function, and meat quality in broilers.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunidade , Carne/análise , Nutrientes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101303, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280644

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of partially defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, HI) larva meal on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domestica). A total of 192 female ducks aged 3 d were divided between 4 dietary treatments (6 pens/treatment; 8 birds/pen), characterized by increasing levels of substitution of corn gluten meal with HI meal (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%; HI0, HI3, HI6, and HI9, respectively), and reared until 50 days of age. Twelve birds/treatment (2 birds/pen) were slaughtered on d 51 to evaluate the slaughter traits (i.e., carcass, breast, thigh, and organs weights), carcass yield and meat quality. The slaughter weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, and abdominal fat weight showed a quadratic response to HI meal (minimum for the HI6 group, P < 0.05). Dietary HI meal inclusion did not influence the ultimate pH, the color, the proximate composition or the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in either the breast or thigh meat. The mineral profile of the meat was slightly affected by the dietary treatment, with a linear increase in the Cu content of the thigh meat (P < 0.05), whereas no differences were observed for Zn, Mn, or Fe. Dietary HI meal inclusion increased the saturated fatty acid rate in the thigh meat (maximum for the HI9 group, P < 0.05), and the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast meat (maximum for the HI0 and HI9 groups, respectively, P < 0.05). The ∑n-6/∑n-3 ratio decreased linearly in both the breast and thigh meat, with the HI9 group showing the lowest values (P < 0.05). Finally, the heavy metal concentrations were below the EU limits for poultry meat. To conclude, the inclusion up to 9% of partially defatted HI larva meal in the diet of Muscovy ducks did not affect the slaughter traits or the meat quality, although it did affect the meat fatty acid profile.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Patos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Larva , Carne/análise
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101297, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280645

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the kinetic behavior, carcass characteristics, oxidative status (blood and meat), and meat fatty acid profiles of 6 organically reared slower growing chicken genotypes (SrG). One hundred male chickens of 6 SrG were used: Ranger Classic (RC), Ranger Gold (RG), Rowan Ranger (RR), RedJA (RJ), CY Gen 5 JA87 (CY), and M22 × JA87 (M). Twenty chickens/genotype were selected to analyze behavior, while, 15 individuals were slaughtered and different traits were analyzed in the blood and drumstick meat. The variables were grouped into different principal components: kinetic activity (PC1, with explorative attitude as the highest score), productive performance (PC2, carcass and head/feet yields), blood (PC3, carbonyls, and TBARS) and meat (PC6, thiols, and TBARS) markers, technological traits (PC4, pH, and color), proximate meat composition (PCA5, moisture, lipids, protein, and ash), fatty acid profile, and nutritional indexes (PC7, IP, and PUFAn-3). Uni- and bivariate analyses showed a strong positive association between kinetic behaviors and blood and meat oxidation and a medium positive association with fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes, whereas a negative association was found between productive performance loads and the technological traits of meat. Generalized linear models showed that all PCs were influenced by genotype. In particular, CY and M resulted as less active genotypes; conversely, RR showed more kinetic activity, whereas RJ, RG, and RC exhibited intermediate levels of activity. Cluster analysis of kinetic behavior and blood or meat oxidative status highlighted 2 groups: nonwalking (NW: CY and M) and walking (W: RC, RG, RR, and RJ) animals. However, in the W group, another was visualized, constituted by genotypes with high kinetic activity resulting in the worst oxidative balance (Walking not trained-genotypes, Wnt: RR and RJ). The present results confirmed that the kinetic behavior of SrG genotypes is negatively correlated with productive performance. Furthermore, a significant association between kinetic behavior and blood (positively correlated) or meat (negatively correlated) oxidative status was noted. Such differences are mainly due to the intrinsic response of the genotypes used (i.e., training-walking capacity).


Assuntos
Galinhas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Carne/análise , Estresse Oxidativo
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101309, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280646

RESUMO

Selection for accelerated growth rate and high breast yield in broiler chickens have been associated with an increase in myopathies, including wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS). To investigate effects of growth rate on carcass traits and incidence of myopathies, 14 strains were evaluated, encompassing 2 conventional (CONV; strains B and C: ADG0-48 > 60 g/d) and 12 slower-growing (SL) strains. The latter were categorized based on growth rate: FAST (strains F, G, I and M; ADG0-62=53-55 g/d), MOD (strains E, H, O and S; ADG0-62=50-51 g/d), and SLOW (strains D, J, K and N; ADG0-62<50 g/d). In a randomized incomplete block design, 7,216 mixed-sex birds were equally allocated into 164 pens (44 birds/pen; 30 kg/m2), with each strain represented in 8 to 12 pens over 2 to 3 production cycles. From each pen, 4 males and 4 females were processed at 2 Target Weights (TWs) based on their expected time to reach 2.1 kg BW (TW 1: 34 d for CONV; 48 d for SL strains) and 3.2 kg BW (TW 2: 48 d for CONV; 62 d for SL strains). Weights and yields for the carcass, breast, drumsticks, thighs, and wings were obtained; breast fillets were assessed to determine the presence and severity of WB and WS. At both TWs, breast yield was higher as growth rate increased (P < 0.001), with CONV having greater breast yield than other categories. Strain F had the greatest breast yield at both TWs (P < 0.001) within the FAST category. At TW 2, CONV had the greatest incidence of WB and WS (P < 0.001). However, within FAST, strain F had the greatest incidence of myopathies (P < 0.001) at both TWs, exhibiting values as high or as greater than CONV birds. The incidence of WB and WS in strains with differing growth rates but high breast meat yield suggests that the latter may play a major role in the occurrence of these myopathies.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculares , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/análise , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Músculos Peitorais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 415, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312698

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the effects of slaughter age and gender on specific carcass and technological meat quality characteristics in Anatolian water buffaloes. The study was conducted on 55 water buffaloes using a 2 × 2 factorial design with two independent variables at two levels. Gender subgroups of male (n = 29) and female (n = 26) and slaughter age subgroups of younger than 2 years of age (n = 29) and older than 2 years of age (n = 26) were evaluated. Hot carcass and cold carcass weights were higher in old water buffaloes than young ones (P < 0.001). The skin weight of old buffaloes was also higher than young buffaloes (P < 0.01). Drip loss, expressed juice, and Warner Bratzler (WB) shear force values of longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were not influenced by age group and gender of buffaloes. The lightness (L*) and hue (H*) values were higher in young buffaloes than old animals (P < 0.001). The meat of male buffaloes had lower redness (a*) and chroma (C*) values than that of female buffaloes. The current results indicated that female water buffalo could also be used for meat production away from negative impressions on the meat quality of female water buffalo.


Assuntos
Bison , Búfalos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/análise
15.
Se Pu ; 39(5): 494-509, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227334

RESUMO

QuEChERS pretreatment combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-Q-TOF/MS) has been investigated for application in screening 244 pesticide residues in chilli. Fresh chilli samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and dried chilli samples were extracted using an acetonitrile/acetic acid (99∶1, v/v) mixture. The two extraction solvents were stored at -20 ℃. After salting out and cleaning by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE), heptachlor epoxide B was added as an internal standard, and the resulting residues were dissolved in 1.00 mL acetone. The dissolved sample solution was loaded onto an HP-5MS UI column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 µm) and eluted by GC-Q-TOF/MS with a programmable temperature vaporizer and splitless injection in the full-scan mode. The compensation effects of the analytical protectant (AP) and matrix-matched calibration method on the matrix effect were established. AP could be used in the fresh chilli matrix to compensate for matrix effects, but it was not effective in the dried chilli matrix. The matrix-matched calibration method was effective in both matrices, which was selected for the quantification of pesticide residues in the samples. Because of the existence of the isomers of one compound and the same characteristic ions of different compounds, analyte detection was based on a flexible retention time deviation of ±0.25 min and accurate mass deviation of ±20×10 -6. Screening was performed by the software in the automatic matching mode. Compound identification and quantitation were based on a database and calibration curve established with reference materials. Suspicious samples were subjected to manual analysis. Quantitative analysis of 244 pesticide residues in fresh chilli and 222 pesticide residues in dried chilli was performed. The results showed that the developed database and method can provide a reference for the high-throughput screening and quantitation of fresh and dried chilli. Different levels of pesticides were added to the blank chilli samples, and the addition level corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 10 was used as the limit of quantification (LOQ). The LOQs of 44 pesticides with a maximum residue limit (MRL) ≤0.05 mg/kg in fresh chilli did not exceed 0.010 mg/kg. The linear ranges of these 44 pesticides were 0.01-1.00 mg/L. At spiked levels of the LOQ and 2.5 times the LOQ, the ratios of the 44 pesticides with recoveries of 60% to 120% were 88.64% and 100%, respectively. The LOQs of 200 pesticides with MRLs ≥0.05 mg/kg or without MRLs in fresh chilli did not exceed 0.025 mg/kg. The linear ranges of these 200 pesticides were 0.05-1.00. At spiked levels of the LOQ, twice the LOQ, and 10 times the LOQ, the ratios of the 200 pesticides with recoveries of 60% to 120% were 49.50%, 87.00%, and 89.50%, respectively. The linear correlation coefficients (r 2) of the 244 pesticides in fresh chilli were greater than 0.99. The LOQs of 222 pesticides in dried chilli were less than 0.15 mg/kg, and the linear ranges were 0.04-1.00 mg/L. The ratios of these 222 pesticides with r 2 greater than 0.99 was 95.46%. At spiked levels of the LOQ, twice the LOQ and 10 times the LOQ in dried chilli, the ratio of the 222 pesticides with recoveries of 60% to 120% were 72.52%, 73.42%, and 81.53%, respectively. The established screening and confirmation method was used to analyze 12 fresh chilli samples and 14 dried chilli samples. Eight pesticides were found in nine fresh chilli samples and three dried chilli samples, all of which were confirmed to be positive after manual identification. The concentrations of these pesticides were lower than the MRLs required by GB 2763-2019: National Food Safety Standard Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides in Food. The results demonstrate that the established method is rapid, easy to execute, efficient, and reliable. It can be used for the high-throughput screening and quantitation of pesticide residues in fresh and dried chilli.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Calibragem , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida
16.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204052

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the packaging system type on the physical characteristics and microbial changes in ostrich meat during refrigerated storage. The applied packaging systems were vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) using two combinations of gases: MAP1 (40% O2/40% CO2/20% N2) and MAP2 (60% O2/30% CO2/10% N2). Eight meat samples were obtained in three replicates for all parameters, except for pH, for which six replicates were obtained from the M. ilifibularis (IF) muscle, and were stored in a refrigerator at 2 °C and analyzed at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days for the effect of packaging methods on physical meat quality. The initial pH (5.99) decreased at the end of the storage time for MAP1 to 5.81, whereas VP was stable from day 0 to 12 and increased up to 6.08 on day 16. Regarding meat color, the L* value increased during storage for MAP1 and MAP2 from 36.99 to 40.75 and 41.60, respectively, whereas it declined for VP to 34.22. The same tendencies were reported for redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). Drip loss was the lowest in MAP1 and highest in VP. The lowest total viable bacteria counts were identified in VP, as compared to MAP1 and MAP2.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Struthioniformes , Animais , Atmosfera , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Refrigeração , Tempo , Vácuo
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203102

RESUMO

Research on fatty acids (FA) is important because their intake is related to human health. NIRS can be a useful tool to estimate the FA of beef but due to the high moisture and the high absorbance of water makes it difficult to calibrate the analyses. This work evaluated near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a tool to assess the total fatty acid composition and the phospholipid fraction of fatty acids of beef using freeze-dried meat. An average of 22 unrelated pure breed young bulls from 15 European breeds were reared on a common concentrate-based diet. A total of 332 longissimus thoracis steaks were analysed for fatty acid composition and a freeze-dried sample was subjected to near-infrared spectral analysis. 220 samples (67%) were used as a calibration set with the remaining 110 (33%) being used for validation of the models obtained. There was a large variation in the total FA concentration across the animals giving a good data set for the analysis and whilst the coefficient of variation was nearly 68% for the monounsaturated FA it was only 27% for the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). PLS method was used to develop the prediction models. The models for the phospholipid fraction had a low R2p and high standard error, while models for neutral lipid had the best performance, in general. It was not possible to obtain a good prediction of many individual PUFA concentrations being present at low concentrations and less variable than other FA. The best models were developed for Total FA, saturated FA, 9c18:1 and 16:1 with R2p greater than 0.76. This study indicates that NIRS is a feasible and useful tool for screening purposes and it has the potential to predict most of the FA of freeze-dried beef.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Carne , Animais , Calibragem , Bovinos , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/análise , Fosfolipídeos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208559

RESUMO

This study was performed to test bioimpedance as a tool to detect the effect of different thawing methods on meat quality to aid in the eventual creation of an electric impedance-based food quality monitoring system. The electric impedance was measured for fresh pork, thawed pork, and during quick and slow thawing. A clear difference was observed between fresh and thawed samples for both impedance parameters. Impedance was different between the fresh and the frozen-thawed samples, but there were no impedance differences between frozen-thawed samples and the ones that were frozen-thawed and then stored at +3 °C for an additional 16 h after thawing. The phase angle was also different between fresh and the frozen-thawed samples. At high frequency, there were small, but clear phase angle differences between frozen-thawed samples and the samples that were frozen-thawed and subsequently stored for more than 16 h at +3 °C. Furthermore, the deep learning model LSTM-RNN (long short-term memory recurrent neural network) was found to be a promising way to classify the different methods of thawing.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Carne , Estudos de Viabilidade , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Congelamento , Carne/análise
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206251

RESUMO

Vacuum packaging (VP) is used to reduce exposure of retail meat samples to ambient oxygen (O2) and preserve their quality. A simple sensor system produced from commercial components is described, which allows for non-destructive monitoring of the O2 concentration in VP raw meat samples. Disposable O2 sensor inserts were produced by spotting small aliquots of the cocktail of the Pt-benzoporphyrin dye and polystyrene in ethyl acetate onto pieces of a PVDF membrane and allowing them to air-dry. These sensor dots were placed on top of the beef cuts and vacuum-packed. A handheld reader, FirestinGO2, was used to read nondestructively the sensor phase shift signals (dphi°) and relate them to the O2 levels in packs (kPa or %). The system was validated under industrial settings at a meat processing plant to monitor O2 in VP meat over nine weeks of shelf life storage. The dphi° readings from individual batch-calibrated sensors were converted into the O2 concentration by applying the following calibration equation: O2 (%) = 0.034 * dphi°2 - 3.413 * dphi° + 85.02. In the VP meat samples, the O2 levels were seen to range between 0.12% and 0.27%, with the sensor dphi signals ranging from 44.03° to 56.02°. The DIY sensor system demonstrated ease of use on-site, fast measurement time, high sample throughput, low cost and flexibility.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Vácuo
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 409, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292417

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of feeding the same diet to different breeds of chickens and at different ages on fatty acid (FA) composition of the breast and thigh muscles. A total of 150 chickens comprising 50 each of red jungle fowl (RJ) and village chicken (VC), the slow-growing birds, and the commercial broiler (CB), fast-growing birds, were used for this study. Ten chickens from each breed were serially euthanized at days 1, 10, 20, 56, and 120 post hatch, and pectoralis major and bicep femoris were harvested to represent the breast and thigh muscles respectively. It was revealed that the breast muscle concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are significantly different (p<0.05) among the breeds. Also, the FA composition of breast and thigh muscles among RJ, VC, and CB at various ages studied varied significantly (p<0.05) but without a definite pattern. The composition of MUFA was lower, but that of PUFA was higher in the RJ and VC than in the CB breast muscles. Within the breeds, the composition of total MUFA decreased, while that of PUFA increased with age. The total MUFA and PUFA showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the breast and thigh muscles at different ages evaluated. This study suggests that slow-growing birds (RJ and VC) might be better sources of desirable FA than the fast-growing birds, CB.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Coxa da Perna , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Músculos Peitorais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...