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1.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103890, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579849

RESUMO

Seroprevalence data for Toxoplasma gondii and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis aries/musimon) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) hunted/culled in northern Italy were used to fit seroprevalence distributions describing the exposure and co-exposure of the species to the two pathogens. The higher proportion of T. gondii and HEV seropositive animals was observed in wild boars with point estimate seroprevalence of 49% (N = 331) and 15% (N = 326) respectively. Data allowed comparisons by area (pre-Alpine Vs Alpine environment) for roe deer, red deer and mouflons. Contrasts between the distributions describing the uncertainty in seroprevalence suggest roe deer, red deer and mouflons have higher probability of being seropositive to T. gondii in pre-Alps. When considering HEV, few seropositive animals were detected and contrasts were symmetrically centred to zero for roe deer and red deer; mouflons shown higher probability of being seropositive in Alpine environment. HEV seropositive animals also included chamois (P = 5.1%, N = 97) in the Alpine districts, confirming circulation of HEV in remote areas. Evidence of HEV and T. gondii co-exposure was limited except for wild boars where it was observed in 30 samples representing 60% of the overall HEV-positive samples. Seroprevalence data of single infection and co-infection are extremely useful to investigate circulation of zoonotic pathogens in wild animals and estimate the foodborne risk of human exposure, however, these type of data do not directly translate into the presence/absence of the pathogen in seropositive and seronegative animals. At benefit of future development of quantitative risk assessments aiming at estimating the risk of human infection/co-infection via consumption of game meat, we developed and made available an online application that allows estimating the probability of the pathogen(s) being present as a function of seroprevalence data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Sus scrofa , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 263, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range, infecting most warm-blooded hosts. Approximately 30% of humanity is infected with T. gondii, but clinical toxoplasmosis is relatively infrequent. Toxoplasmosis has a wide range of clinical symptoms involving almost all organ systems. In most persons that acquire infection postnatally, symptoms (when present) are mild and mimic other diseases such as flu, Lyme disease, Q fever, hematological alterations, or mumps. It is likely that clinical disease is more common than reported. The ingestion of infected meat or food and water contaminated with oocysts are the two main modes of postnatal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. The infective dose and the incubation period of T. gondii infection are unknown because there are no human volunteer experiments. METHODS: Here, I have critically reviewed outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans for the past 55 years, 1966-2020. Information from oocyst-acquired versus meat-acquired infections was assessed separately. RESULTS: Most outbreaks were from Brazil. There were no apparent differences in types or severity of symptoms in meat- versus oocyst-acquired infections. Fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, myalgia, and fatigue were the most important symptoms, and these symptoms were not age-dependent. The incubation period was 7-30 days. A genetic predisposition to cause eye disease is suspected in the parasites responsible for three outbreaks (in Brazil, Canada, and India). Only a few T. gondii tissue cysts might suffice to cause infection, as indicated by outbreaks affecting some (but not all) individuals sharing a meal of infected meat. CONCLUSIONS: Whether the high frequency of outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Brazil is related to environmental contamination, poor hygiene, socioeconomic conditions, or to genotypes of T. gondii needs investigation.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Higiene , Carne/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/economia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/genética
3.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 309-319, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886960

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. The ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts excreted by infected cats or ingestion of uncooked or undercooked meat containing tissue cysts of T. gondii are the 2 major modes of transmission of T. gondii. Deer are a popular game. Recently, outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis were reported in humans in North America linked to ingestion of undercooked venison. Here, we review prevalence, persistence of infection, clinical disease, epidemiology, and public health risks of T. gondii infections in deer and other cervids for the past decade. Estimates of worldwide serological prevalence are summarized individually for each species of deer, elk, moose, and caribou. Genetic diversity of 112 viable isolates of T. gondii from cervids is discussed, including its public health significance. Prevalence of T. gondii in deer is very high. Any part of a deer, including liver, spleen, and muscles, should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Carne/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Toxoplasmose/etiologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Culinária/métodos , Culinária/normas , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Genótipo , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Baço/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(1): 5-10, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685061

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of liver hydatidosis in sheep slaughtered in a private slaughterhouse in Konya and to estimate the economic loss incurred because of the disease. Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 12 months between 1 June 2018 and 31 May 2019. Given that the aim of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of liver hydatidosis, only the livers of 41,002 sheep were examined for hydatid cysts. Results: The liver of 810 (1.97%) sheep was found to be infected with hydatid cysts during the study period. The infection rate was determined as 5.34% in animals older than one year of age and 1.68% in animals less than one year of age. Regardless of the age group, the highest infection rate was found in autumn (3.34%), while the lowest infection rate was seen in spring (0.84%). In the sheep, the highest infection rate was in December (17.2%), and in lambs, it was in June (2.9%). On the other hand, the lowest infection rate in sheep was observed in November (1.8%), while the lowest infection rate in lambs was found in April (0.7%). The total economic loss incurred due to the annihilated livers was estimated as 36,450 TL (6.417$). Regardless of the number of cysts and degree of infection, the infected livers were completely discarded. The economic loss incurred due to the discarded livers was estimated by considering the 2019 offal prices. Conclusion: Based on the data obtained from this study, it could be concluded that hydatidosis still exists in Konya as well as throughout Turkey and that it causes serious economic loss.


Assuntos
Matadouros/economia , Equinococose Hepática/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Equinococose Hepática/economia , Equinococose Hepática/epidemiologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Carne/economia , Carne/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/economia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(4): 1499-1504, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594621

RESUMO

Dicrocoeliosis is a trematode infection in cattle, sheep and goats caused by the small liver fluke, Dicrocoelium spp. Though endemic in Ghana, its disease situation is poorly understood. In the present study, the prevalence, distribution and worm load of Dicrocoelium spp. in cattle at slaughter in Wa were determined. A total of 389 cattle were screened during meat inspection for liver flukes, and polymerase chain reaction accompanied by DNA sequencing of the 28S rRNA gene was used to identify Dicrocoelium spp. Generally, prevalence of bovine dicrocoeliosis (small liver fluke) stood at 19.54 % with prevalence in males and females being 17.62 % and 21.43 %, respectively. Animals under 2 years suffered more infection than older ones (23.08 % vs. 16.80 %). Dicrocoelium infection was recorded in animals from all the communities where slaughtered cattle came from. On average, 31 flukes per infected animal were recorded. A molecular confirmatory test on seven flukes identified them as D. hospes. This preliminary study highlights the importance of bovine dicrocoeliosis in Ghana and has identified D. hospes as a causal agent. The data provides basis for further studies to appraise the trematode disease situation in animals and phylogeny of Dicrocoelium spp. circulating in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Dicrocoelium/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/parasitologia , Dicrocoelium/anatomia & histologia , Dicrocoelium/classificação , Feminino , Inspeção de Alimentos , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/normas , Carga Parasitária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109031, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485138

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It has been reported as the fourth leading cause of hospitalization and second leading cause of death among 31 major foodborne pathogens in the United States. Humans are infected through consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing T. gondii tissue cysts or ingestion of food, soil, or water contaminated by T. gondii oocysts. People often lack knowledge about how to prevent T. gondii infection, especially the risks associated with eating or handling raw or undercooked meat. Current available data on cooking or low temperature storage for whole cuts of meat are not sufficient to validate inactivation of T. gondii. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the relationship of time and temperature with the survival rate of T. gondii during cooking and low temperature storage of fresh cut meats. We used different statistical sampling techniques such as bootstrap resampling and Gibbs sampling to establish those relationships. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the safe temperature for cooking and storing meats. The results showed no detection of T. gondii in fresh meats when the internal temperature reached above 64 °C (147.2 °F) and below -18 °C (0 °F). The tissue cysts can remain viable at least up to 30 days at 4 °C (39 °F) and about 3.3% cysts survived at 62.8 °C (145 °F). This study can provide helpful information in improving the risk models to further mitigate the public health burden of toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Carne/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Culinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
7.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(6): 938.e1-938.e2, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096200

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a parasitic infection that is associated with the consumption of raw meat. The specific genotype Trichinella nativa has been found in raw bear meat. The most common genotype that has been linked with myocarditis is T spiralis. We present a case of T nativa myocarditis secondary to consumption of raw bear meat. The clinical manifestations as well as therapy of this specific genotype is outlined.


Assuntos
Carne/parasitologia , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Miocardite , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Músculo Quadríceps/patologia , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Biópsia/métodos , Feminino , Testes de Função Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Miocardite/sangue , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Alimentos Crus/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Trichinella/genética , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Triquinelose/tratamento farmacológico , Triquinelose/etiologia , Triquinelose/fisiopatologia
8.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(1): 40-49, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202167

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed protozoan that mainly causes health issues in the fetuses of pregnant women who have never been exposed to this parasite and patients with deficient immune systems. Except in these vulnerable populations, the primary infection generally goes unnoticed in most healthy individuals. Apart from transplant/transfusion, congenital transmission, direct contact with infected cats or their feces, and environmental contamination (i.e., oocysts in food, water, and soil) pathways, humans can acquire the parasite through consumption of animal tissues infected by T. gondii. This meta-analysis estimated the risk of acquiring T. gondii by consuming raw or undercooked meat, regardless of which animal species are eaten. Using a random-effect model, crude and adjusted pooled measures of association (risk and odds ratio) were estimated according to study design (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies). The meta-analysis included measures of heterogeneity as well as quality rating scales for each study design. Our results suggest that individuals who eat raw or undercooked meat have, respectively, 1.2-1.3 times the risk and 1.7-3.0 times the odds of T. gondii infection compared to those who thoroughly cook meat, regardless of the animal species they consume. These results align with the current understanding that adequately cooking meat inactivates the parasite and decreases the risk of transmission. Seroprevalence ranged from 1.3% to 88.6%, while the proportion of individuals eating raw or undercooked meat fluctuated from 0.7% to 98.3% across the studies in the meta-analysis. These numbers reflect various preferences with regard to eating meat (i.e., eating tartar, sausages, or salamis) as well as individual, cultural and religious food habits, and personal awareness.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Carne/parasitologia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Culinária , Humanos , Prevalência , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
9.
Parasitol Res ; 120(1): 83-91, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103216

RESUMO

Alaria alata is a trematode included among several emerging zoonotic parasites. The mesocercarial larval stage of A. alata named Distomum musculorum suis (DMS) may potentially be infective for humans. In the past, DMS was often observed in wild boar meat during the official Trichinella inspection by artificial digestion before a more specific and effective detection method, the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT), was introduced. In the present study, the AMT method was used to screen 3589 tissue samples collected from wild boars hunted in Poland during the 2015-2019 period. The survey mainly focused on the southern part of Poland with the majority of samples coming from Malopolskie, Swietokrzyskie, and Dolnoslaskie provinces; samples from ten additional provinces were also included. The total prevalence was 4.2% with mean abundance of 4.7 DMS. Occurrence was dependent upon environmental conditions (i.e., wetland habitats and water reservoirs) rather than on sex of the host or season in which they were hunted. The recovered trematodes were identified as Alaria spp. according to their morphological features. Molecular analysis of 18S rDNA and COI genes confirmed the species identification to be A. alata and documented genetic variability among the isolates.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Larva/patogenicidade , Carne/parasitologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(2): 104-113, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030358

RESUMO

Recently, horse meat (basashi) contaminated with Sarcocystis spp. caused food poisoning in Japan. An official detection method provided by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), Japan, was designed to detect Sarcocystis fayeri to diagnose and control outbreaks of basashi food poisoning. In 2011, Sarcocystis-contaminated venison also caused food poisoning. However, the official MHLW detection method was not adequate for detecting Sarcocystis spp. in venison. In this study, we established a novel PCR-based detection method that amplifies 18S rRNA gene based on the conserved region of the sequence in 32 species of Sarcocystis for screening and quantification. Fifty venison samples from three areas in Hokkaido were examined by the MHLW method and the novel detection method. All samples were Sarcocystis spp.-positive. A sequence analysis indicated the presence of a species of Sarcocystis specific to sika deer (Cervus nippon), and not to horses. Another primer pair was designed for a quantitative real-time PCR assay to determine the copy number of the Sarcocystis-18S rRNA gene in parasitized venison. The melting curve analysis revealed high specificity of this assay. The calculated curve demonstrated that this quantitative PCR assay showed R2 value of 0.993 with 10-106 copies. Using this quantitative real-time PCR assay, the gene copy numbers were determined in 50 venison samples. The copy numbers of each sample ranged from 104 to 107 per gram. The copy numbers differed according to the area in Hokkaido. This indicates that the density of Sarcocystis spp. that infect Sika deer in Hokkaido is affected by the area. The novel screening and quantitative PCR method for Sarcocystis in venison was useful for collecting epidemiological information on Sarcocystis in wild Japanese sika deer, which will contribute to improve the safety of venison products in Japan.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sarcocystis/genética , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Japão/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 404-411, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158552

RESUMO

Several foodborne zoonotic trematodes of the family Opisthorchiidae have been reported to infect people, specifically two genera, Clonorchis and Opisthorchis. Three species Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini are the most extensivley studied of the Opisthorchiidae. At least 680 million people worldwide are at risk of infection of these liver flukes through the consumption of raw or partially cooked freshwater cyprinid fish. An estimated 45 million people in Europe and Asia are currently infected with these liver flukes. Of these, the 35 million are infected with C. sinensis mainly in China, 10 million with O. viverrini in Southeast Asia, and 1.2 million with O. felineus in Eastern Europe and Russia. These liver flukes have been proven to be causative agents of bile duct cancer or cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A multidisciplinary program should be implemented involving comprehensive research on molecular genetics, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, as well as educational and control programs should progressively be introduced and applied in endemic regions of O. viverrini, O. felineus and C. sinensis throughout their ranges, hence, opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis free communities can be realised globally.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Carne/parasitologia , Opisthorchidae , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Infecções por Trematódeos/complicações , Infecções por Trematódeos/transmissão
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 772-788, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326588

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. The ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts excreted by infected cats or ingesting uncooked or undercooked meat containing tissue cysts of T. gondii are the 2 major modes of transmission of T. gondii. Viable T. gondii is more prevalent in pork and lamb than in beef. In the past decade, there have been many articles on the high seroprevalence in cattle, particularly from China. There is a report of an outbreak of acute toxoplasmosis in humans suspected to be linked to the ingestion of Artisan fresh cheese from cow's milk. There are conflicting reports concerning the rate of congenital transmission of T. gondii in cattle, especially from Brazil. In a report from Brazil, viable T. gondii was isolated from the blood of 1 of 60 pregnant cows slaughtered at an abattoir and from 1 fetus. The role of beef in the epidemiology of T. gondii infections is still not clear. Here, we review prevalence, persistence of infection, clinical disease, epidemiology, and public health risks of T. gondii infections in cattle from beef and cow's milk worldwide for the past decade.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Saúde Pública , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Saúde Global , Humanos , Carne/parasitologia , Leite/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Toxoplasmose Congênita/transmissão
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 448-452, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185053

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease, which may infect humans and a wide range of animals, including carnivores, herbivores and even birds. Humans get infections through ingestion of raw or semi-cooked meat or meat products containing live Trichinella larvae. Currently, this zoonosis is predominantly prevalent in southwestern, northeastern and central parts of China, which poses a great threat to human health and socioeconomic development. In addition, the emergent public health hazards caused by trichinellosis outbreaks greatly threaten human health and social stability. This review describes the current status, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of trichinellosis in China, so as to provide insights into trichinellosis control in the country.


Assuntos
Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Carne/parasitologia , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Triquinelose/tratamento farmacológico , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e89, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234182

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an important human disease-causing parasite. In the USA, T. gondii infects >10% of the population, accrues economic losses of US$3.6 billion/year, and ranks as the second leading culprit of foodborne illness-related fatalities. We assessed toxoplasmosis risk among the Old Order Amish, a mostly homogenous population with a high prevalence of T. gondii seropositivity, using a questionnaire focusing on food consumption/preparation behaviours and environmental risk factors. Analyses were conducted using multiple logistic regression. Consuming raw meat, rare meat, or unpasteurised cow or goat milk products was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (unadjusted Odds Ratios: 2.192, 1.613, and 1.718 , respectively). In separate models by sex, consuming raw meat, or consuming unpasteurised cow or goat milk products, was associated with increased odds of seropositivity among women; washing hands after touching meat with decreased odds of seropositivity among women (adjusted OR (AOR): 0.462); and cleaning cat litterbox with increased odds of seropositivity among men (AOR: 5.241). This is the first study to assess associations between behavioural and environmental risk factors and T. gondii seropositivity in a US population with high seroprevalence for T. gondii. Our study emphasises the importance of proper food safety behaviours to avoid the risk of infection.


Assuntos
Amish , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/parasitologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Helminthol ; 94: e201, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050957

RESUMO

Pigs act as the intermediate hosts of the zoonotic tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica, as well as of the non-zoonotic Taenia hydatigena. In Vietnam, human taeniasis and cysticercosis have been reported throughout the country; however, data on porcine cysticercosis are scarce. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Taenia spp. in slaughtered pigs in two districts in Phu Tho, a mountainous province in northern Vietnam from where neurocysticercosis patients commonly originate. The carcasses of 399 pigs from 51 small-scale abattoirs were checked for cysticerci, while tongue, liver, masseter muscles, diaphragm and heart were sliced and examined. Retrieved cysticerci underwent polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing for species confirmation. Blood was also collected to detect antibodies by lentil lectin-purified glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB) and recombinant T24H antigen (rT24H)-EITB and circulating antigens by B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. In two pigs, T. asiatica cysticerci were found, confirming the presence of the parasite in pigs in Vietnam at a low prevalence (0.5%; 95% exact confidence interval (CI): 0-1.19%). Cysticerci of T. solium were found in none of the pigs, although one serum sample was positive for antibodies in both LLGP-EITB and rT24H-EITB. Furthermore, a high prevalence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis was observed (18.0%; 95% Wilson score CI: 14.6-22.1%). In more than half of the T. hydatigena-positive pigs, circulating antigens were detected by Ag-ELISA, confirming that this test cannot be used to diagnose T. solium cysticercosis in this region. Finally, Spirometra erinaceieuropaei was found in one pig liver. It is the first record of this zoonotic cestode species in pigs in Vietnam. Overall, the findings confirmed the complex epidemiology of Taenia spp. in pigs in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Humanos , Carne/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Taenia/classificação , Teníase/parasitologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(12): 4113-4122, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979104

RESUMO

To ensure that meat from livestock and game is safe for human consumption, European legislation lays down rules for mandatory testing. Helminth larvae are a category of zoonotic foodborne pathogens that can contaminate meat. Among helminths, the only zoonotic nematode regulated in Europe regarding meat inspection is Trichinella spp.. It is precisely during Trichinella testing that other potentially zoonotic larvae can be found. Due to current lack of tools, their identification is often very complicated. Nematode larvae other than Trichinella, recovered from artificial digestions of pig and wild boar muscles from France and Germany, were subjected to a newly developed two-step identification scheme, which includes both morphological examination and molecular assays. The first step is a general orientation towards a broad taxonomic group; the second step consists of targeted identification based on the results of first step. Different parasites were identified, some of which were not zoonotic such as Metastrongylus spp. and Angiostrongylus vasorum, but others are known to be zoonotic such as Toxocara cati, Ascaris suum, and Uncinaria stenocephala. The strategy is efficient for the identification of nematode larvae recovered from muscles but could also be applied for larvae from other sources.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Carne/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Angiostrongylus/classificação , Angiostrongylus/genética , Animais , Ascaris suum/genética , Ascaris suum/isolamento & purificação , Digestão , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Larva , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Músculos/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Trichinella/classificação , Trichinella/genética , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Triquinelose/prevenção & controle
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3893-3898, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920650

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis represents an important public health issue, with the consumption of raw or undercooked meat being a major way of human infection. The role of beef in the transmission of the parasite to humans is questioned due to lower quantity of tissue cysts compared with other meat-producing species. However, the habit of consuming raw beef is regionally diffused, and the risk posed by Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle should not be overlooked. Therefore, to update information on T. gondii in cattle reared in Italy, a multicentric seroepidemiological survey was designed and implemented in four Northern regions (Liguria, Lombardy, Piedmont, and Trentino Alto Adige) and Sardinia. Overall, a convenience sampling was performed, collecting 1444 serum samples from 57 beef cattle herds. Thirteen beef breeds were sampled, besides cross-breed; bovines age varied from 3 months to over 12 years. Sera were tested with a commercial ELISA for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies. Individual and herd data were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis. A T. gondii seroprevalence of 10.2% was recorded, with differences among regions and values ranging from 5.3% in Liguria to 18.6% in the Piedmont region (p value = 0.0001). Both young and adult animals and males and females tested positive, without any significant difference (age and gender: p value > 0.05). Lower seroprevalence values were recorded in cattle born in Italy (8.7%) if compared with animals imported from abroad (13.4%) (p value = 0.046). The spread of T. gondii in beef cattle destined to Italian consumers is confirmed, suggesting the need of continuous monitoring of the infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108829, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836093

RESUMO

Globalization opens new market areas and affects food consumption habits, resulting in rapid and remarkable cultural change. Food habits such as consumption of raw fish meat have become popular, resulting in increased risk of emerging infectious diseases. Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s) and A. pegreffii are the most common and important fish-borne zoonotic nematodes responsible for human anisakiasis, which occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish as well as cooked fish due to their heat-stable allergens. Here, we investigated the prevalence, intensity, and abundance of Anisakis larvae in imported fish and ready-to-eat local fish products in Turkey. A total of 205 ready-to-eat fish products, 100 imported frozen Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets, and 100 imported frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) were sampled from supermarkets, sushi restaurants, and fish markets. All samples were individually examined using a pepsin digestion technique. In total, 602 Anisakis type I larvae were recovered from 98/100 mackerel. No larvae were found in ready-to-eat products or frozen Atlantic salmon fillets. Overall, 8.8% of the larvae were found in the muscle tissue. The overall mean intensity and abundance of infection in mackerel were 6.14 and 6.02, respectively. The larvae were molecularly identified and their phylogenetic relationships with the relevant Anisakis sequences in GenBank were investigated. For this purpose, a subsample of randomly selected 100 Anisakis larvae were analyzed with PCR-RFLP of the ITS region. The larvae were identified as A. simplex (s.s.) (n = 87) and hybrids (n = 13). ITS and cox2 gene regions of all hybrids and randomly selected 50 A. simplex (s.s.) larvae were sequenced for species confirmation and phylogenetic analyses. No intraspecific nucleotide variation was found among the ITS sequences of either species. Seven and three haplotypes, respectively, were identified for A. simplex (s.s.) and hybrid species according to DNA polymorphism of the cox2 gene. Hybrids in our study clustered within the common A. simplex (s.s.) clade in the cox2 phylogenetic tree indicating the dominance of A. simplex (s.s) in the catching area of Atlantic mackerel. Consequently, our study indicates high occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae with an overall 98.0% prevalence in imported Atlantic mackerel, and highlights the importance of these fish as potential reservoirs for human allergic anisakiasis in Turkey and possibly in other countries.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Larva/genética , Perciformes/parasitologia , Salmo salar/parasitologia , Animais , Anisakis/embriologia , Anisakis/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Carne/parasitologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2799-2811, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677004

RESUMO

The third-stage larvae (L3) of the Anisakidae family are parasitic nematodes with zoonotic impact and are frequently encountered in the organs and musculature of various fish intended for human consumption. Since Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii are the major aetiological agents of human disease, this study aims to combine the morphological and molecular data on the recovered anisakid larvae to contribute to a simplified morphological distinction of those species and conducted a survey of anisakid larvae infection in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Here, 116 horse mackerel caught in Portuguese waters were analysed for the presence of L3 of anisakids, and 3148 larvae were collected, of which only 30% were retrieved during visual inspection. As such, visual inspection does not appear to be very effective in anisakid detection. A prevalence of 84.5% of infected fish was found, and the mean intensity and mean abundance were 32.1 and 27.1 parasites per fish, respectively. The morphological and molecular analyses of 196 L3 randomly chosen from the total sample of parasites demonstrated the presence of L3 of mostly Anisakis spp., with only one L3 of Hysterothylacium aduncum. Relative frequencies of 62.9% for A. pegreffii and 37.1% for A. simplex (s.s.) were obtained. The morphometry differences between these two sibling species were evaluated, and the results demonstrated significant differences between the length of the ventriculus and the length of the oesophagus. Precisely, A. simplex (s.s.) has a longer oesophagus and ventriculus than A. pegreffii. As such, these differences may be used to distinguish the two species through morphological analysis.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne/parasitologia , Portugal , Prevalência
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 223, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection may pose a severe medical problem especially in a congenital form and as an acquired infection in immunocompromised persons. Raw and undercooked meat of slaughtered animals is regarded as an important source of parasite infection; however, data concerning this issue in Poland are still insufficient. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs and cattle slaughtered for human consumption in Poland using serological and molecular methods. METHODS: Sera of 3111 pigs and 2411 cattle from 16 regions (voivodeships) of the country were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG using the direct agglutination test (DAT). Pepsin-digested samples of diaphragm and heart of seropositive animals were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA (B1 gene) by nested PCR and real-time PCR, while non-digested samples were only examined by nested PCR. The B1 gene DNA samples were genotyped at 11 genetic markers using multilocus nested PCR-RFLP (Mn-PCR-RFLP) and sequencing. RESULTS: Seropositive DAT results were found in 11.9% of pigs and 13.0% of cattle. The highest seroprevalence was found in pigs from Podkarpackie (32.6%) and in cattle from Mazowieckie (44.6%). Data analysis showed that cattle > 5-10 years-old, as well as cattle and pigs from small farms, and pigs from farms with open production systems, had higher odds of testing seropositive (P < 0.05). Among the examined tissue samples, positive PCR results were found in samples from 12.2% and 10.2% of seropositive pigs and cattle, respectively. Among the samples successfully genotyped by Mn-PCR-RFLP and sequenced, four samples were identified as T. gondii type II and one sample as type I. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of T. gondii antibodies in a substantial proportion of examined pigs and cattle as well as the detection of parasite DNA in their tissues highlight a potential health risk to the consumers in Poland.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Carne/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
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