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1.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103890, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579849

RESUMO

Seroprevalence data for Toxoplasma gondii and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis aries/musimon) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) hunted/culled in northern Italy were used to fit seroprevalence distributions describing the exposure and co-exposure of the species to the two pathogens. The higher proportion of T. gondii and HEV seropositive animals was observed in wild boars with point estimate seroprevalence of 49% (N = 331) and 15% (N = 326) respectively. Data allowed comparisons by area (pre-Alpine Vs Alpine environment) for roe deer, red deer and mouflons. Contrasts between the distributions describing the uncertainty in seroprevalence suggest roe deer, red deer and mouflons have higher probability of being seropositive to T. gondii in pre-Alps. When considering HEV, few seropositive animals were detected and contrasts were symmetrically centred to zero for roe deer and red deer; mouflons shown higher probability of being seropositive in Alpine environment. HEV seropositive animals also included chamois (P = 5.1%, N = 97) in the Alpine districts, confirming circulation of HEV in remote areas. Evidence of HEV and T. gondii co-exposure was limited except for wild boars where it was observed in 30 samples representing 60% of the overall HEV-positive samples. Seroprevalence data of single infection and co-infection are extremely useful to investigate circulation of zoonotic pathogens in wild animals and estimate the foodborne risk of human exposure, however, these type of data do not directly translate into the presence/absence of the pathogen in seropositive and seronegative animals. At benefit of future development of quantitative risk assessments aiming at estimating the risk of human infection/co-infection via consumption of game meat, we developed and made available an online application that allows estimating the probability of the pathogen(s) being present as a function of seroprevalence data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Sus scrofa , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
3.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(2): 127-145, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738770

RESUMO

Globally, Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes over 20 million cases worldwide. HEV is an emerging and endemic pathogen within economically developed countries, chiefly resulting from infections with genotype 3 (G3) HEV. G3 HEV is known to be a zoonotic pathogen, with a broad host range. The primary source of HEV within more economically developed countries is considered to be pigs, and consumption of pork products is a significant risk factor and known transmission route for the virus to humans. However, other foods have also been implicated in the transmission of HEV to humans. This review consolidates the information available regarding transmission of HEV and looks to identify gaps where further research is required to better understand how HEV is transmitted to humans through food.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Carne/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109013, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340943

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3 is the main genotype in Europe. The foodborne transmission via consumption of meat and meat products prepared from infected pigs or wild boars is considered the major transmission route of this genotype. High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is a technique, which can be used for inactivation of pathogens in food. Here, preparations of a cell culture-adapted HEV genotype 3 strain in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were subjected to HPP and the remaining infectivity was titrated in cell culture by counting fluorescent foci of replicating virus. A gradual decrease in infectivity was found by application of 100 to 600 MPa for 2 min. At 20 °C, infectivity reduction of 0.5 log10 at 200 MPa and 1 log10 at 400 MPa were observed. Slightly higher infectivity reduction of 1 log10 at 200 MPa and 2 log10 at 400 MPa were found by application of the pressure at 4 °C. At both temperatures, the virus was nearly completely inactivated (>3.5 log10 infectivity decrease) at 600 MPa; however, low amounts of remaining infectious virus were observed in one of three replicates in both cases. Transmission electron microscopy showed disassembled and distorted particles in the preparations treated with 600 MPa. Time-course experiments at 400 MPa showed a continuous decline of infectivity from 30 s to 10 min, leading to a 2 log10 infectivity decrease at 20 °C and to a 2.5 log10 infectivity decrease at 4 °C for a 10 min pressure application each. Predictive models for inactivation of HEV by HPP were generated on the basis of the generated data. The results show that HPP treatment can reduce HEV infectivity, which is mainly dependent on pressure height and duration of the HPP treatment. Compared to other viruses, HEV appears to be relatively stable against HPP and high pressure/long time combinations have to be applied for significant reduction of infectivity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Pressão Hidrostática , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Inativação de Vírus , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Carne/virologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Temperatura
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776964

RESUMO

Outbreaks of emerging coronaviruses in the past two decades and the current pandemic of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in China highlight the importance of this viral family as a zoonotic public health threat. To gain a better understanding of coronavirus presence and diversity in wildlife at wildlife-human interfaces in three southern provinces in Viet Nam 2013-2014, we used consensus Polymerase Chain Reactions to detect coronavirus sequences. In comparison to previous studies, we observed high proportions of positive samples among field rats (34.0%, 239/702) destined for human consumption and insectivorous bats in guano farms (74.8%, 234/313) adjacent to human dwellings. Most notably among field rats, the odds of coronavirus RNA detection significantly increased along the supply chain from field rats sold by traders (reference group; 20.7% positivity, 39/188) by a factor of 2.2 for field rats sold in large markets (32.0%, 116/363) and 10.0 for field rats sold and served in restaurants (55.6%, 84/151). Coronaviruses were also detected in rodents on the majority of wildlife farms sampled (60.7%, 17/28). These coronaviruses were found in the Malayan porcupines (6.0%, 20/331) and bamboo rats (6.3%, 6/96) that are raised on wildlife farms for human consumption as food. We identified six known coronaviruses in bats and rodents, clustered in three Coronaviridae genera, including the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammacoronaviruses. Our analysis also suggested either mixing of animal excreta in the environment or interspecies transmission of coronaviruses, as both bat and avian coronaviruses were detected in rodent feces on wildlife farms. The mixing of multiple coronaviruses, and their apparent amplification along the wildlife supply chain into restaurants, suggests maximal risk for end consumers and likely underpins the mechanisms of zoonotic spillover to people.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/genética , Carne/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Porcos-Espinhos/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Ratos , Risco , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/virologia
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1649-1655, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748778

RESUMO

On the last week of May of 2018, a community-based syndromic surveillance system detected mass abortions and deaths of young livestock in northeastern Kenya. Two weeks later, Rift Valley fever (RVF) was confirmed in humans presenting with febrile illness and hemorrhagic syndrome in the same region. A joint animal and human response team carried out an investigation to characterize the outbreak and identify drivers of disease transmission. Here, we describe the outbreak investigation and findings. A total of 106 human cases were identified in the months of May and June 2018: 92% (98) and 8% (8) of these cases occurring in the northern and western regions of Kenya, respectively. Seventy-six (72%) were probable cases, and 30 (28%) were laboratory confirmed by ELISA and/or PCR. Among the confirmed cases, the median age was 27.5 years (interquartile range = 20), and 60% (18) were males. Overall, the case fatality rate was 7% (n = 8). The majority of the confirmed cases, 19 (63%), reported contact with livestock during slaughter and consumption of meat from sick animals. All confirmed cases had fever, 40% (12) presented with hemorrhagic syndrome, and 23% (7) presented with jaundice. Forty-three livestock herds with at least one suspect and/or confirmed animal case were identified. Death of young animals was reported in 93% (40) and abortions in 84% (36) of livestock herds. The outbreak is indicative of the emergence potential of RVF in traditionally high- and low-risk areas and the risk posed by zoonosis to livestock keepers.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Carne/virologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Hemorragia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
9.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(7): 796-804, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812389

RESUMO

Wet markets are a critical part of South-East Asian culture and economy. However, their role in circulation and transmission of both endemic and emerging disease is a source of concern in a region considered a hotspot of disease emergence. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), live and dead wild animals are frequently found in wet markets, despite legislation against the bushmeat trade. This is generally considered to increase the risk of disease transmission and emergence, although whether or not wildlife vendors themselves have indeed increased incidence of zoonotic disease has rarely been assessed. In preparation for a future longitudinal study of market vendors investigating vendors' exposure to zoonotic pathogens, we conducted a pilot survey of Lao market vendors of wildlife meat, livestock meat and vegetables, to identify demographic characteristics and potential control groups within markets. We also investigated baseline risk perception for infectious diseases among market vendors and assessed the association between risk perception and risk mitigation behaviours. The surveys conducted with 177 vendors revealed similar age, sex, ethnic background and geographical origin between vendor types, but differences in professional background and work history for livestock meat vendors. The perception of disease risk was very low across all vendors, as was the reported use of personal protective equipment, and the two appeared unrelated. Personal risk discounting and assumptions about transmission routes may explain this lack of association. This information will help inform the development of future research, risk communication and risk mitigation policy, especially in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Gado/virologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Carne/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(17): 3250-3255, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current pandemic restarts a debate on permanently banning wildlife consumption in an effort to prevent further public health threats. In this commentary, we offer two ideas to enhance the discussion on foodborne zoonotic diseases in food systems. DESIGN: First, we focus on the probable consequences that the loss of access to wildlife could cause to the status of food and nutrition security of many people in developing countries that rely on bushmeat to subsist. Second, we argue that all animal-based food systems, especially the ones based on intensive husbandry, present food safety threats. CONCLUSION: To ban the access to bushmeat without a rational analysis of all human meat production and consumption in the global animal-based food system will not help us to prevent future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , COVID-19/virologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , COVID-19/transmissão , Países em Desenvolvimento , Dieta , Insegurança Alimentar , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses Virais/virologia
12.
J Neurovirol ; 26(4): 556-564, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572833

RESUMO

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is known to cause severe encephalitis in juvenile pigs and various non-native hosts; recent evidences suggest that PRV might cause encephalitis in humans. In a multicenter cohort study in China, next-generation sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was performed to detect pathogens in all patients with clinically suspected central nervous system infections. This study involved all the patients whose CSF samples were positive for PRV-DNA; their clinical features were evaluated, and species-specific PCR and serological tests were sequentially applied for validation. Among the 472 patients tested from June 1, 2016, to December 1, 2018, six were positive for PRV-DNA, which were partially validated by PCR and serological tests. Additionally, we retrospectively examined another case with similar clinical and neuroimaging appearance and detected the presence of PRV-DNA. These patients had similar clinical manifestations, including a rapid progression of panencephalitis, and similar neuroimaging features of symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia and bilateral hemispheres. Six of the patients were engaged in occupations connected with swine production. PRV infection should be suspected in patients with rapidly progressive panencephalitis and characteristic neuroimaging features, especially with exposure to swine.


Assuntos
Gânglios da Base/patologia , Cérebro/patologia , DNA Viral/genética , Encefalite Viral/patologia , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/genética , Carne/virologia , Pseudorraiva/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Gânglios da Base/virologia , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Cérebro/virologia , China , DNA Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/patogenicidade , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pseudorraiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pseudorraiva/diagnóstico , Pseudorraiva/virologia , Suínos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 593, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local people's interaction with bats render them vulnerable to Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). This paper examines perceptions of risk involved in the hunting, handling, processing and consumption of bat meat in the Mount Cameroon region of Southwest Cameroon. It focuses on the myriad cultural beliefs, gendered patterns of activity and institutional arrangements in which the bat meat production chain is embedded. METHODS: We conducted 30 ethnographic interviews with a sample of purposively selected men and women involved in the bat meat trade. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and inductive analysis was performed on the data. FINDINGS: The findings suggests that more urban men than villagers and hunters consume bat meat. Different practices and behaviours expose the mostly uneducated, young, single men and women to the risk of Ebola infection depending on their differential level of intervention in the human-bat interaction and value chain linking hunters, sellers and customers. The killing of bats with the mouth during hunting expose hunters (young men) while the preparation of bat carcasses for consumption also put women, (mostly young and unmarried) at risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the complexity and nuances of gender, poverty and Ebola outcomes predispose some marginal groups to the risk of infection with zoonotic diseases. There is the need to improve public health intervention and health education among the rural masses in the Mount Cameroon region.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Carne/virologia , Adulto , Animais , Camarões , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Zoonoses/transmissão
14.
Food Environ Virol ; 12(2): 167-173, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193766

RESUMO

Highly sensitive detection of pathogens is effective for screening meat during quarantine inspection and export. The "micro-amount of virion enrichment technique" (MiVET) was recently developed, which is a new method combining virus concentration with immunomagnetic beads and simple RNA extraction with sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) for the specific and sensitive detection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). AIV subtypes H3N2 and H4N2 were used to spike the surface of chicken breast meat samples. The modified MiVET protocol was tested by comparing it against three different homogenate preparation conditions, as well as in samples with added α-amylase and collagenase to digest inhibitors. The performance of the modified MiVET was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene. Compared with conventional RNA extraction, the modified MiVET reproducibly concentrated AIVs in chicken meat samples with 100-1000-fold improvement by 60 s-hand homogenization. The 30 s- and 60 s-stomacher homogenizations resulted 100-fold and 10-100-fold improvement, respectively. The modified MiVET required < 60 min from homogenate preparation to final RNA elution. Further, use of the modified MiVET also decreased the rate of false-negative results. The modified MiVET is effective for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of AIVs in chicken meat samples, and can be applied to quarantine and export inspection at airports and seaports.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Carne/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Virologia/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírion/classificação , Vírion/genética , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Virologia/instrumentação
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008088, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies lyssavirus (RABV) is the aetiologic agent of rabies, a disease that is severely underreported in Nigeria as well as elsewhere in Africa and Asia. Despite the role that rabies diagnosis plays towards elucidating the true burden of the disease, Nigeria-a country of 180 million inhabitants-has a limited number of diagnostic facilities. In this study, we sought to investigate two of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)-recommended diagnostic assays for rabies-viz; the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA) and the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) in terms of their relative suitability in resource-limited settings. Our primary considerations were (1) the financial feasibility for implementation and (2) the diagnostic efficacy. As a case study, we used suspect rabies samples from dog meat markets in Nigeria. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By developing a simple simulation framework, we suggested that the assay with the lowest cost to implement and routinely use was the dRIT assay. The costs associated with the dRIT were lower in all simulated scenarios, irrespective of the number of samples tested per year. In addition to the cost analysis, the diagnostic efficacies of the two assays were evaluated. To do this, a cohort of DFA-positive and -negative samples collected from dog meat markets in Nigeria were initially diagnosed using the DFA in Nigeria and subsequently sent to South Africa for diagnostic confirmation. In South Africa, all the specimens were re-tested with the DFA, the dRIT and a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In our investigation, discrepancies were observed between the three diagnostic assays; with the incongruent results being resolved by means of confirmatory testing using the heminested reverse transcription polymerase reaction and sequencing to confirm that they were not contamination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data obtained from this study suggested that the dRIT was not only an effective diagnostic assay that could be used to routinely diagnose rabies, but that the assay was also the most cost-effective option among all of the OIE recommended methods. In addition, the results of our investigation confirmed that some of the dogs slaughtered in dog markets were rabies-positive and that the markets posed a potential public health threat. Lastly, our data showed that the DFA, although regarded as the gold standard test for rabies, has some limitations-particularly at low antigen levels. Based on the results reported here and the current challenges faced in Nigeria, we believe that the dRIT assay would be the most suitable laboratory test for decentralized or confirmatory rabies diagnosis in Nigeria, given its relative speed, accuracy, cost and ease of use.


Assuntos
Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Carne/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/economia , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/métodos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/economia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 319: 108507, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981930

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infects humans and many animal species. The rabbit HEV has been found in farmed, wild and pet rabbits as well as in human patients suggesting zoonotic transmission. Although the routes of human infection with rabbit strains are unclear a foodborne transmission is suggested especially when asymptomatically infected animals could enter the food chain. The aims of the study were an evaluation of the prevalence of HEV infections in slaughtered rabbits, identification of the virus genotype(s) and assessment of their genetic relatedness to other zoonotic HEV strains. A pair of blood and liver samples (n = 482) were collected from meat rabbits of different breeds slaughtered at the age of 2.8 to 6 months. The animals originated from 20 small-scale and 4 large-scale commercial farms operating in Poland. The presence of anti-HEV antibodies in animals was detected by the use of a recomWell HEV IgG (human) ELISA kit (Mikrogen Diagnostik) adapted to rabbit sera. The isolation of HEV and sample process control virus (feline calicivirus) RNA from homogenates of liver destined for food and virus-positive sera was performed using a QIAamp® Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). A one-step real-time reverse transcription PCR method containing a target-specific internal amplification control was used for detection of HEV. The (sub)genotype of detected rabbit HEV strains was identified based on sequence analysis of the ORF2 and ORF2/3 virus genome fragments. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 29 (6%) out of 482 rabbit sera samples collected from animals raised only on the small-scale rabbit farms. Four sera were also positive for HEV RNA. Viral RNA was detected in 72 (14.9%) animal livers. Analysing ELISA and PCR results using Student's t-test, there were significant differences observed in the frequency of HEV infections between rabbits from small-scale and commercial farms (t = 2.675, p = 0.015 < 0.05 for ELISA and t = 2.705, p = 0.014 < 0.05 for PCR). All detected virus strains were identified as HEV gt3 ra subtype. The results of this study provide data on the occurrence of HEV infections in rabbits entering the food chain, suggesting that a risk of foodborne HEV infection due to consumption of contaminated meat and liver exists. In this light, the presence of rabbit HEV in food animals is pertinent as an issue of food safety and the surveillance of these animals for emerging or re-emerging viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Carne/virologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fazendas , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polônia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Coelhos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Virais/genética
17.
J Neurovirol ; 26(3): 442-448, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898060

RESUMO

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) primarily infects swine but can infect cattle, dogs, and cats. Several studies have reported that PRV can cross the specie barrier and induce human encephalitis, but a definitive diagnosis of human PRV encephalitis is debatable due to the lack of PRV DNA detection. Here, we report a case of human PRV encephalitis diagnosed by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) of PRV sequences in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient. A male pork vendor developed fever and seizures for 6 days. NGS results showed PRV sequences in his CSF and blood. Sanger sequencing showed that PRV DNA in the CSF and PRV antibodies in both the CSF and blood were positive. MRI results revealed multiple inflammatory lesions in the bilateral hemisphere. Based on the clinical and laboratory data, we diagnosed the patient with PRV encephalitis. This case suggests that PRV can infect humans, causing severe viral encephalitis. People at risk of PRV infection should improve their self-protection awareness.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/líquido cefalorraquidiano , DNA Viral/genética , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/genética , Carne/virologia , Pseudorraiva/diagnóstico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Eletroencefalografia , Encefalite Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/patogenicidade , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pseudorraiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pseudorraiva/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudorraiva/virologia , Suínos
19.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 420-426, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512058

RESUMO

Hepatitis E is an emerging threat in industrialized countries. The foodborne transmission linked to consumption of pork and game meat is considered the main source of autochthonous infection. In Europe, small outbreaks have been reported linked to the consumption of pork liver sausages and wild boar meat. Based on previous findings and on increasing evidence of pork and game meat as a vehicle for HEV infections, the present study investigated the occurrence of HEV in 99 pork and 63 wild boar sausages and salami sold in Southern Italy. The HEV genome was detected in four wild boar sausages. Sequencing from 2 wild boar sausages confirmed that the HEV strains detected belonged to HEV-3 genotype, not assigned to any defined subtype. Data obtained confirmed the possible occurrence of HEV in pork products and in game. Although the detection rate is low, these products are frequently consumed raw after curing, whose effect on virus viability is still unknown.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Genótipo , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Itália , Carne/virologia , Produtos da Carne/análise , Filogenia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13281, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527758

RESUMO

Bacteriophages can package part of their host's genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), contributing to a rapid dissemination of resistances among bacteria. Phage particles containing ARGs were evaluated in meat, pork, beef and chicken minced meat, and ham and mortadella, purchased in local retailer. Ten ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9, blaOXA-48, blaVIM, qnrA, qnrS, mecA, armA and sul1) were analyzed by qPCR in the phage DNA fraction. The genes were quantified, before and after propagation experiments in Escherichia coli, to evaluate the ability of ARG-carrying phage particles to infect and propagate in a bacterial host. According to microbiological parameters, all samples were acceptable for consumption. ARGs were detected in most of the samples after particle propagation indicating that at least part of the isolated phage particles were infectious, being sul1the most abundant ARG in all the matrices followed by ß-lactamase genes. ARGs were also found in the phage DNA fraction of thirty-seven archive chicken cecal samples, confirming chicken fecal microbiota as an important ARG reservoir and the plausible origin of the particles found in meat. Phages are vehicles for gene transmission in meat that should not be underestimated as a risk factor in the global crisis of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Carne/virologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Galinhas/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/virologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes/virologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genes Virais/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
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