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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20181091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759949

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the subjective, chemical and sensorial meat characteristics of ½ Santa Inês (SI) x ½ No Defined Racial Standard (NDRS) and ½ Brazilian Somalis (BS) x ½ No Defined Racial Standard (NDRS) crossbred lambs, finished in confinement. Sixteen uncastrated male lambs with initial weight of 19.7 ± 2.03 kg and approximately 90 days of age. A randomized block design was used, with blocks represented by the initial weight of each genetic group, with eight animals per group. There was a higher degree and distribution of marbling, percentage of lipids and meat color for ½ BS x ½ NDRS lambs. The conjugated linoleic acid profile was higher for ½ SI x ½ NDRS lambs. Considering the meat quality of the evaluated genetic groups, Santa Inês crossbred lambs have a better nutritional value for meat, especially taking into account the production of foods that are beneficial to human health.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Carneiro Doméstico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/análise , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Somália
2.
Animal ; 15(3): 100136, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785184

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content affects eating and nutritional quality of lamb meat. Muscle density measured by computer tomography is an in vivo proxy measure of IMF content that affects eating and nutritional quality of lamb meat. Lambs sired by high muscle density (HMD) or low muscle density (LMD) rams, selected for slaughter on commercial criteria were measured for meat quality and nutritional traits. A restricted maximum likelihood model was used to compare lamb traits. Additionally, regression analysis of sire estimated breeding value (EBV) for muscle density was performed for each meat quality trait. Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with IMF content (P < 0.001). For each unit increase in muscle density EBV, there was a significant decrease in loin (-1.69 mg/100 g fresh weight) and topside IMF (-0.03 mg/100 g fresh weight). Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with grouped saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids concentration (and monounsaturated proportion P < 0.001). Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with loin sensory traits tenderness, juiciness and overall liking and many novel tenderness sensory traits measured (P < 0.05). Selecting for LMD EBV increased IMF content and favourable meat eating quality traits. In contrast, sire muscle density EBV had a positive regression with loin polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio and grouped polyunsaturated proportion traits (including total polyunsaturated proportion, total omega-6 (n-6) and total omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (P < 0.001). This is explained by the fact that as sire muscle density EBV increases, polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion increases and the proportion of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content decreases. Muscle density EBV had a positive regression with shear force and the novel toughness sensory traits (P < 0.05). Selection for HMD EBV's increased shear force and toughness traits, which is unfavourable for the consumer. Low muscle density sired meat had higher meat colour traits chroma/saturation (+0.64, SD 2.30, P = 0.012), redness (+0.52, SD 1.91, P = 0.012) and yellowness (+0.31, SD 1.49, P = 0.08) compared to HMD sired meat. Selection for LMD could be used within a breeding programme to increase IMF content and enhance both meat colour and improve eating quality parameters.


Assuntos
Carne , Músculo Esquelético , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Masculino , Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
3.
Animal ; 15(2): 100080, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573966

RESUMO

Lowland-type Racka is an indigenous sheep breed that beside Hungarian Grey cattle and Mangalitza pig is one of the national symbols of Hungary. However, the genetic description of Racka sheep has not yet been conducted based on whole-genome screening. By using the Geneseek Ovine SNP50 BeadChip, we have sampled the genome of 126 Black and 128 White Racka sheep. For comparative purposes, we used 134 Hungarian Merinos and further 3345 animals from 81 different breeds have been included from an available database. Performance of a multidimensional scaling plot showed that White and Black Rackas represent well-separated groups among other sheep breeds and clustered separately from each other. However, the number and total length of Runs of Homozygosity was similar to other sheep breeds, except Soay. The inbreeding coefficients (method-of-moments relatedness F coefficient) of Black and White Racka were 0.147 and 0.133, respectively. Based on multidimensional scaling and admixture analyses and on comparisons of genetic distances of the investigated 84 populations, we suggest considering the colour variants of Racka as genetically differentiated breeds. The most differentiated markers between Black and White Racka highlight several candidate genes including 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 5A, Insulin Induced Gene 1, Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 and Melanocortin 1 Receptor. The results of this study help the recognition of Racka as a unique genetic resource among sheep and pave the way of application of genome screens to guide the resolution of questions arising among breeders.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Hungria , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Suínos
4.
Aust Vet J ; 99(4): 124-129, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sheep producers reported elevated ewe mortality following a wetter-than-average season on the tablelands of New South Wales in 2010. We conducted a survey of local producers to determine the extent and cause of ewe losses, as well as associated risk factors. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and posted to sheep producers running at least 1000 sheep. Data from questionnaires were analysed using linear mixed models to identify risk factors associated with ewe mortality. Data on the likely causes of deaths, particularly those associated with foot abscess, were analysed by ordinal generalised linear mixed models to determine the most prevalent causes of ewe death. RESULTS: The mean annual ewe mortality was 5.4% (range 0.1%-28.6%). Higher mortality was associated with older ewes and lambing in paddocks with longer pastures. The two most important causes of ewe death reported by farmers were 'died during lambing' and 'foot abscess'. Mortality due to foot abscess was more commonly reported in adult ewes than maiden ewes (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 5.61; 3.52, 8.94), when lambing on pasture longer than 5 cm than ≤5 cm (2.96; 1.54, 5.70) and when lambing in spring than in autumn (4.87; 1.36, 17.41). CONCLUSIONS: The level of ewe mortality observed was at the upper end of that reported previously in Australia. Risk factor analysis suggested that, in wet years, losses due to foot abscess could be reduced by lambing older heavier ewes in autumn on pasture swards less than 5 cm high.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 82, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411066

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of plantain herb (Plantago lanceolata L.) supplementation on growth, plasma metabolites, liver enzymatic activity, hormonal status, gastrointestinal parasites, and carcass characteristics of lambs. A total of 24 lambs, aged 6 months weighing 8.0 ± 0.5 kg were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: (1) CL diet-roadside grass and concentrate mixture; (2) PL diet-CL diet + 5% fresh plantain supplementation on a DM basis. The PL diet group exhibited 23% higher (P = 0.01) average daily gain and 15% improved (P = 0.03) feed conversion efficiency. Circulating cholesterol concentrations were suppressed by 9% (P = 0.03), and liver enzyme activity was improved by 5-25% (P < 0.05) in the lamb fed PL diet, compared with CL diet only. The inclusion of plantain in the diet was highly effective at suppressing the parasites, Paramphistomum spp. (P = 0.003) and coccidial parasites (P = 0.04), but not stomach worms. Moreover, plantain supplementation increased growth hormone and insulin concentrations in plasma level, whereas decreased carcass fat by 32.7%. Therefore, supplementation of the lambs' diet with plantain showed some beneficial effects on productivity and parasitic infection, while it led to a leaner carcass.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Carne/análise , Plantago/química , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Hormônios/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Plasma/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico/sangue , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 85, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411085

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the use of wet brewery residue (WBR) silage additives on carcass characteristics and sheep meat quality. Thirty-two Santa Inês male sheep uncastrated with initial body weight of 22.61 ± 7.2 kg were allocated to a completely randomized design with four treatments: (1) WBR silage without additive (WBRS), (2) WBR silage with milled corn (WBRS + MC), (3) WBR silage with wheat bran (WBRS + WB), and (4) WBR silage with cassava flour (WBRS + CF) and eight replicates. WBRS + WB resulted in lower cold carcass weight than WBRS + CF; however, this reduction was not sufficient to alter the carcass commercial yield or loin-eye area. The leg cut of animals fed WBRS + WB showed less value than those animals fed with WBRS + CS. The meat lightness of WBRS was higher that of WBRS + MC, WBRS + WB, and WBRS + CF. The cooking loss for WBRS + WB was less than those animals fed with WBRS + CS. However, meat protein, meat cholesterol, and shear force were similar among treatments (17.69%, 42.46 mg/100 g of meat, and 2.48 kgf/cm2, respectively). The use of additives in wet brewery residue silage does not improve carcass characteristics or the quality of sheep meat, and it is therefore recommended to use WBR silage without additives.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Carne/análise , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Silagem/análise , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 93, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415651

RESUMO

Tall- and dwarf-sized elephant grass cultivars have been developed for cut-and-carry system. Dwarf clones have better digestibility; on the other hand, tall-sized cultivars are more productive. The aim was to verify which grass would be most recommended for cut-and-carry: tall-sized (Elephant B and IRI-381) or dwarf (Taiwan A-146 2.37 and Mott) elephant grass cultivars to feed 24 male sheep, aged between 4 and 5 months, uncastrated, weighing approximately 24.08 ± 1.76 kg body weight which were sampled on intake, digestibility, performance, ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance, microbial protein synthesis, metabolic parameters, and ruminal degradability. This research was divided into two experiments: experiment 1 lasted 38 days, seven for adaptation and 31 for data collection. Elephant grass cultivars were supplied with a mineral mixture. Data collected were intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, metabolic parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and performance submitted to a completely randomized design. For experiment 2, three rumen fistulae animals were sampled, lasting 20 days. In this case, a randomized block in split-plot design was applied. Both designs were with P < 0.05 and analyzed through SAS statistical software. Mott and Taiwan A-146 2.37 cultivars provided greater intake, digestibility, weight gain, feeding time, nitrogen retention, production and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability, and DM, crude protein, and NDF, but shorter rumination time rather than Elephant B and IRI-381. There was also a significant difference for glucose, triglycerides, plasma urea, total serum protein, urinary urea (mg/L), and urea excretion in urine (mg/day). Dwarf elephant grass cultivars as Mott and Taiwan A-146 2.37 have greater nutritional value than tall-sized Elephant B and IRI-381. Dwarf elephant grass is recommended for cut-and-carry system.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Pennisetum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rúmen/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Pennisetum/química
8.
Animal ; 15(3): 100157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454276

RESUMO

The common practice of artificially rearing lambs from prolific meat breeds of sheep constitutes a welfare issue due to increased mortality rates and negative health issues. In this multidisciplinary study, we investigated the possible short- and mid-term advantages of artificially feeding fresh ewe's milk instead of commercial milk replacer on lambs' growth, health and welfare. Romane lambs were either separated from their mothers on D3 and fed with Lacaune ewes' milk (LAC, n = 13) or milk replacer (REP, n = 15), or they were reared by their mothers (MOT, n = 15). On D45, they were weaned, gathered in single-sex groups until the end of the study on D150. Lamb performance and biomarkers of overall health were assessed by measuring: growth, dirtiness of the perianal area, enteric pathogens in the faeces, total antioxidant status and redox status assessed by plasma reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione ratio, and immune response after vaccination against chlamydiosis. As an exploratory approach, blood cell transcriptomic profiles were also investigated. Last, qualitative behaviour assessment (QBA) was performed as an integrated welfare criterion. Lacaune ewes' milk and REP never differed in their average daily gain but grew less than MOT lambs in the early suckling period and just after weaning. No effect was detected afterwards. On D30, LAC and REP lambs had lower total antioxidant and higher redox status than MOT lambs but did not differ among themselves. Lacaune ewes' milk and MOT had a cleaner perianal area than REP lambs on D21, while faecal pathogen infection did not vary between the treatment groups. After vaccination, LAC also had a stronger immune response on D90 compared to REP lambs. Transcriptome analysis performed on D150 showed differential gene expression, mainly in relation to inflammatory, immune and cell cycle response, between male lambs of the LAC group and those of the MOT and REP groups. Based on QBA, LAC lambs never differed from MOT lambs in their general activity and varied from REP only on D21; REP lambs were always more agitated than MOT lambs. In conclusion, artificial milk feeding impaired early growth rate, health and emotional state mainly during the milk feeding period and at weaning. Feeding artificially reared lambs with fresh ewe's milk partly mitigated some of the negative effects induced by milk replacer but without achieving the full benefit of being reared by the mother.


Assuntos
Leite , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ovinos , Desmame
9.
Gene ; 775: 145444, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484760

RESUMO

In a previous study, the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) gene, which is likely involved in the regulation of fat metabolism in sheep adipose tissue, was identified using RNA sequencing. CREB1 is a transcription factor that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival as well as energy metabolism. Therefore, based on preliminary studies, this study aimed to reveal the correlation between the insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism of the CREB1 gene and sheep growth traits. One insertion variation of the ovine CREB1 gene, C3-ins-26 bp, was investigated in 1847 Chinese and Mongolian sheep breeds. The minor allele frequencies in the CREB1 gene varied from 0.021 to 0.938. Further, statistical analyses indicated that the C3-ins-26 bp indel in the CREB1 gene was significantly related to various body measurements (body length, height, and index; chest width, depth, and width index; cannon circumference index; and height at the hip cross) in a Tan sheep population (p < 0.05). Collectively, these findings may provide important insights into marker-assisted selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Mutação INDEL , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cruzamento , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/veterinária
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 51, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387072

RESUMO

The feeding experiment was conducted at Ofla district, southern Tigray, North Ethiopia, to investigate feed utilization, diet digestibility, and its economic feasibility under different supplementation options. Twenty-four yearling intact growing lambs were used in randomized complete block design with three treatments and eight replications. The treatment diets were T1 (molasses 15% + wheat bran 48% + cotton seed cake 35%), T2 (maize grain 20% + wheat bran 43% + noug seed cake 35%) and T3 (maize grain 20% + wheat bran 33% + dried brewers' grain 45%). The diet was formulated as iso-nitrogenous and each animal has taken daily nutrient requirements according to their body weight. The collected data were analyzed using SAS (2007) statistical software. Economic analysis was done using standard partial budget analysis guidelines of CIMMIT (1988). The crude protein contents of the three treatment rations were comparable across treatments. There was a higher total dry matter intake recorded in animals fed on T3 as compared to the other treatments. The barley straw intake was higher and significant (P < 0.05) for the animals' group in T3 than that of T1 and T2. Animals fed with T3 had significantly (P < 0.05) higher organic matter intake as compared to those fed with T1 and T2. However, there was no significant (P > 0.05) differences in crude protein intake between treatments. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein had no significant differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. Similarly, the apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among T1, T2, and T3. In general, animals that fed on T3 achieved better feed utilization and economic return as compared to the others.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Etiópia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 68, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394174

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii, an intracellular zoonotic bacterium, causes query (Q) fever in ruminants. Its role has never been elucidated in small ruminants from Pakistan. The current study is designed to (a) determine the prevalence of coxiellosis in small ruminants, (b) evaluate the association of various potential risk factors and biomarkers in the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, (c) and determine phylogeny and genetic variability of its various isolates identified during the study. For this purpose, 320 blood samples from sheep (n = 160) and goats (n = 160) were collected from 9 Union Councils of district Kasur, Punjab, and processed for DNA extraction. C. burnetii was confirmed by amplification of IS1111 transposase gene with an amplicon size of 294 bp. The results showed that the overall positive percentage of C. burnetii is 36.87% (sheep: 46.9% and goats: 30%). The phylogenetic tree was also constructed which described the possible origin of this pathogen from environment. Besides, after translation into amino acid, the resultant alignment showed several unique changes at position numbers 18 and 27 in the isolates from goats and at 27 and 66 from those of sheep. These mutations can have major impact on the infectious characteristics of this pathogen. Furthermore, different potential risk factors and clinical biomarkers like age, tick infestation, abortion, mastitis, and infertility were also studied and found that these are significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the occurrence of coxiellosis. It is concluded from the study that C. burnetii is endemic in small ruminants in Punjab, Pakistan. The outcomes of this study are alarming for scientific community as well as for policy makers because coxiellosis is an emerging threat to both humans and animals in this region due to its interspecies transmission ability.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Coxiella burnetii/classificação , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Estudos Transversais , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Epidemiologia Molecular , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Carneiro Doméstico
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 70, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398462

RESUMO

Animal's well-being, growth, and production are modulated by environmental conditions, and managemental practices and can be deleteriously affected by global warming phenomenon. In the recent years, unprecedented climatic fluctuations like sustained higher temperatures and humidity, heat waves, and solar flares have led to economic losses in $ billions to both milk and meat industry. It is estimated that by 2050, the US dairy industry alone will borne more than $1.7 billion loss. As human dependency on animal products like milk, meat, and eggs for nutrition is exponentially rising, there is urgency for maximum production. The high yielding animals are already under tremendous metabolic pressure making them more susceptible to adverse climatic conditions. When exposed to heat stress, livestock display a variety of behavioral and physiological acclimatization as essential survival strategies, but at the cost of decreased milk, meat, or egg production. Most of the studies have explored the heat stress in animals and its effect on different milk productions in a specific region or country. A clear understanding of the impact of global warming on dairy enterprise is yet to be comprehended. So this exploratory study will analyze impact of global warming on current milk production trends, economics, and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Cabras/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Leite/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Laticínios/tendências
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 181-185, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388615

RESUMO

Abomasal hypomotility is one of the important causes of neonatal mortality in small ruminants. Various pharmaceutical agents have been studied to address this problem in large ruminants. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral administration of tylosin and ivermectin on abomasal emptying rate in neonatal suckling lambs. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed using nuclear scintigraphic method in 10 healthy female Iranian fat tailed Ghezel lambs. Each lamb was tested three times, once as a control (1 ml of saline 0.9%, IM) and twice after the injection of tylosin (17.6 mg/kg, IM) and ivermectin (200 µg/kg, SC) in a crossover study. Based on radiopharmaceutical counts, remnant activity in abomasums at 90 min were 48.3 ± 3.5, 45.6 ± 7.5 and 41.6 ± 2.9% in control, tylosin and ivermectin groups, respectively. Administration of tylosin (p = 0.049) and ivermectin (p = 0.045) to lambs, significantly caused faster abomasal emptying rate compared to control. Evaluating the ROIs revealed that the half emptying time (T1/2) in control, tylosin and ivermectin groups were 67.1 ± 8.6, 62.6 ± 14.2 and 54.3 ± 9.9 min, respectively. These difference between all groups, statistically were significant (p = 0.026). However, the clinical efficacy of abomasal emptying rate facilitating by tylosin or ivermectin administration in lambs remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Abomaso/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Tilosina/farmacologia , Abomaso/diagnóstico por imagem , Abomaso/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Cintilografia/veterinária , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340044

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate wool (Dorset and Rambouillet) and hair (Dorper, Katahdin, and White Dorper) breeds for their ability to complement Romanov germplasm in an annual fall lambing system by estimating direct maternal grandsire and sire breed effects on economically important lamb and ewe traits. After 3 yr of evaluation under spring lambing, ewes of the five F1 types were transitioned to spring mating, exposed to composite terminal sires, and evaluated under a barn lambing system at 4, 5, and 6 yr of age. A total of 527 first generation crossbred (F1) ewes produced 1,151 litters and 2,248 lambs from 1,378 May exposures. After accounting for differences in dam age, birth type, and sex, lamb survival to weaning was unaffected by maternal grandsire breed (P = 0.30). However, lambs born to 50% Dorset (16.8 ± 0.21 kg) or 50% White Dorper ewes (16.8 ± 0.28 kg) were heavier at weaning than those born to 50% Katahdin dams (13.8 ± 0.32 kg; P < 0.001). Additionally, lambs born to 50% Dorset ewes were heavier than those born to 50% Rambouillet (16.0 ± 0.22 kg) and 50% Dorper ewes (15.7 ± 0.33; P ≤ 0.03), but no other pairwise maternal grandsire breed differences were observed (P ≥ 0.06). Ewe body weight (n = 3,629) was recorded prior to each of six possible mating seasons and, across ages, was greatest for Dorset- and Rambouillet-sired ewes (56.7 ± 0.44 and 56.5 ± 0.45 kg, respectively), intermediate for Dorper- and White Dorper-sired ewes (54.7 ± 0.78 and 54.1 ± 0.64 kg, respectively), and least for Katahdin-sired ewes (51.5 ± 0.45 kg). Fertility after spring mating (0.80 ± 0.03 to 0.87 ± 0.02), litter size at birth (1.46 ± 0.09 to 1.71 ± 0.07), and litter size at weaning (1.25 ± 0.06 to 1.46 ± 0.06) were not impacted by sire breed (P ≥ 0.16). Ewe longevity, assessed as the probability of being present after 6 production years, was also not affected by sire breed (0.39 ± 0.03 to 0.47 ± 0.03; P = 0.44). Rambouillet-sired ewes weaned more total weight of lamb (21.5 ± 0.94 kg) than Katahdin-sired ewes (17.8 ± 0.94 kg; P = 0.05), but no other sire breed differences were detected (P ≥ 0.07). Results demonstrated that incorporating the Romanov into a crossbreeding system is a practical means of improving out-of-season ewe productivity.


Assuntos
Longevidade , , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Feminino , Longevidade/genética , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico , Desmame
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111052, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378958

RESUMO

The irrational use of medications has increased the incidence of microbial infections, which are a major threat to public health. Moreover, conventional therapeutic strategies are starting to become ineffective to treat these infections. Hence, there is a need to develop and characterize novel antimicrobial compounds. Phytochemicals are emerging as a safe and accessible alternative to conventional therapeutics for treating infectious diseases. Curcumin is extracted from the dried rhizome of the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae)). However, the bioavailability of curcumin is low owing to its lipophilic property and thus has a low therapeutic efficacy in the host. A previous study synthesized structural variants of curcumin, which are called monocurcuminoids (CNs). CNs are synthesized based on the chemical structure of curcumin with only one methyl bridge. The biological activities of four previously synthesized CNs (CN59, CN63, CN67, and CN77), curcumin, and turmeric powder were examined in this study. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of curcumin and turmeric powder revealed similar peaks, which indicated the presence of curcumin in turmeric powder. The antioxidant activity of the test compounds was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assays. The ABTS radical scavenging activities of the test compounds were similar to those of vitamin C. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the test compounds against seven microbial strains were in the range of 4.06-150 µg/mL. The MIC value was equal to minimum bactericidal concentration value for CN63 (150 µg/mL) and CN67 (120 µg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment combination of CN77 (8.75 or 4.37 µg/mL) and turmeric powder (9.37 or 4.68 µg/mL) exerted synergistic growth-inhibiting effects on Aeromonas hydrophila, Candida albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Photodynamic therapy using 2X MIC of CN59 decreased the growth of Enterococcus faecalis by 4.18-fold compared to the control group and completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. The results of the hemolytic assay revealed that the test compounds were not cytotoxic with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 49.65-130.9 µM. The anticoagulant activity of most compounds was comparable to that of warfarin but higher than that of heparin. This indicated that these compounds target the intrinsic coagulation pathway. These results demonstrated that these CNs are a safe and promising alternative for curcumin.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioprospecção , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diarileptanoides/síntese química , Diarileptanoides/toxicidade , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/toxicidade , Picratos/química , Carneiro Doméstico , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
16.
Food Chem ; 338: 127832, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818868

RESUMO

Food-borne carbon dots (CDs) may cause health risks due to their unique properties. However, previous efforts were mainly focused on the characterization of their physicochemical properties, their effects on cellular metabolism are not entirely revealed. Herein, the features and potential toxicity of CDs from lamb baked for 15, 30, and 45 min were evaluated, their cytotoxicity increased with the extension of baking time. Furthermore, the metabolic responses of PC12 cells after exposure to CDs from lamb baked for 45 min were investigated. The CDs perturbed purine metabolism, causing reactive oxygen species accumulation. Meanwhile, the CDs down-regulated glycolysis and TCA cycle, led to a significant decrease in ATP. Additionally, the CDs induced triglyceride accumulation, mainly through enhanced fatty acid biosynthesis. The adverse effects of CDs from baked lamb involved the perturbation of energy production, purine metabolism, and triglyceride biosynthesis, which provided additional information about the risks of CDs from food items.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Carbono/toxicidade , Culinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Purinas/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos/química , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 112-119, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360571

RESUMO

Ovis aries papillomavirus 3 (OaPV3) is an epidermotropic PV reported in sheep cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The presence of OaPV3 DNA and its transcriptional activity in cutaneous SCC, as well as its in vitro transforming properties, suggest a viral etiology for this neoplasm. Nevertheless, the reactome associated with viral-host interaction is still unexplored. Here, we investigated and compared the proteomic profiles of OaPV3-positive SCCs, OaPV3-negative SCCs, and non-SCC samples by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, bioinformatics tools, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). OaPV3-positive SCCs (n = 3), OaPV3-negative SCCs (n = 3), and non-SCCs samples (n = 3) were subjected to a shotgun proteomic analysis workflow to assess protein abundance differences among the three sample classes. Proteins involved in epithelial cell differentiation, extracellular matrix organization, and apoptotic signaling showed different abundances in OaPV3-positive SCCs tissues (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to the other tissues. Cytokeratin 13 (CK 13) was among the most increased proteins in OaPV3-positive SCC and was validated by immunohistochemistry on 10 samples per class, confirming its potential as a biomarker of OaPV3 infection in SCC. Collectively, results provide a preliminary insight into the reactome associated with viral-host interaction and pave the way to the development of specific biomarkers for viral-induced sheep SCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária , Queratina-13/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/veterinária , Proteoma , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Cromatografia Líquida/veterinária , DNA Viral , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313796

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate wool (Dorset and Rambouillet) and hair (Dorper, Katahdin, and White Dorper) breeds for their ability to complement Romanov germplasm in two distinct production systems by estimating direct sire and grandsire effects on lamb growth, survival, and ewe productivity traits. Rams of the five breeds (n = 75) were mated to Romanov ewes (n = 459) over a 3-yr period to produce five types of crossbred lambs (n = 2,739). Sire breed (P > 0.06) did not impact body weight or survival traits of the first-generation crossbred (F1) lambs. The productivity of retained crossbred ewes (n = 830) mated to Suffolk and Texel terminal sires was evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 yr of age in each production system. In the intensive production system, labor and harvested feed were provided for sheep that lambed in March in barns, and ewes were limited to rearing two lambs with additional lambs reared artificially. Ewes in the extensive production system lambed in May on pasture and were responsible for rearing all lambs born with no labor or supplemental feed provided before weaning. A total of 1,962 litters and 4,171 lambs from 2,229 exposures to two terminal sire breeds (Suffolk and Texel) were produced in the experiment. Crossbred ewes in the intensive production system were mated in October, resulting in larger litter sizes than crossbred ewes mated in December for the extensive production system. However, single- and twin-born lamb mortality was similar between the two systems that differed greatly in labor, feed, and facilities. Lambs produced in the intensive system received concentrate feed from an early age and were heavier at 24 wk of age than lambs produced in the extensive system. These outcomes resulted in greater 24-wk litter weight in the intensive than in the extensive system (P < 0.0001). Unexpectedly, the relative performance of crossbred types did not differ importantly between production systems. White Dorper × Romanov crossbred ewes had numerical advantages in productivity in each system; however, differences between ewe types were not significant. In the extensive system, without labor and shelter at lambing or supplemental feed until weaning, 3-yr-old crossbred ewes of all types averaged 1.78 lambs marketed per ewe lambing, and 40% of the ewes that gave birth to triplets weaned their entire litters. These results document that prolific sheep and extensive systems can be successfully combined if appropriate crossbred types are used.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Reprodução , Carneiro Doméstico , , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Ovinos
19.
Elife ; 92020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320094

RESUMO

Over 1.6 million Americans suffer from significant tricuspid valve leakage. In most cases this leakage is designated as secondary. Thus, valve dysfunction is assumed to be due to valve-extrinsic factors. We challenge this paradigm and hypothesize that the tricuspid valve maladapts in those patients rendering the valve at least partially culpable for its dysfunction. As a first step in testing this hypothesis, we set out to demonstrate that the tricuspid valve maladapts in disease. To this end, we induced biventricular heart failure in sheep that developed tricuspid valve leakage. In the anterior leaflets of those animals, we investigated maladaptation on multiple scales. We demonstrated alterations on the protein and cell-level, leading to tissue growth, thickening, and stiffening. These data provide a new perspective on a poorly understood, yet highly prevalent disease. Our findings may motivate novel therapy options for many currently untreated patients with leaky tricuspid valves.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hemodinâmica , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/etiologia , Valva Tricúspide/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Colágenos Fibrilares/genética , Colágenos Fibrilares/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Carneiro Doméstico , Transdução de Sinais , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239622, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052903

RESUMO

A scale with robust statistical validation is essential to diagnose pain and improve decision making for analgesia. This blind, randomised, prospective and opportunist study aimed to develop an ethogram to evaluate behaviour and validate a scale to assess acute ovine postoperative pain. Elective laparoscopy was performed in 48 healthy sheep, filmed at one preoperative and three postoperative moments, before and after rescue analgesia and 24 hours after. The videos were randomised and assessed twice by four evaluators, with a one-month interval between evaluations. Statistical analysis was performed using R software and differences were considered significant when p <0.05. Based on the multiple association, a unidimensional scale was adopted. The intra- and inter-observer reliability ranged from moderate to very good (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.53). The scale presented Spearman correlations > 0.80 with the numerical, simple descriptive, and visual analogue scales, and a correlation of 0.48 with the facial expression scale. According to the mixed linear model, the scale was responsive, due to the increase and decrease in pain scores of all items after surgery and analgesic intervention, respectively. All items on the scale demonstrated an acceptable Spearman item-total correlation (0.56-0.76), except for appetite (0.25). The internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.81) and all items presented specificity > 0.72 and sensitivity between 0.61-0.90, except for appetite. According to the Youden index, the cut-off point was ≥ 4 out of 12, with a diagnostic uncertainty zone of 4 to 5. The area under the curve > 0.95 demonstrated the excellent discriminatory capacity of the instrument. In conclusion, the Unesp-Botucatu pain scale in sheep submitted to laparoscopy is valid, reliable, specific, sensitive, with excellent internal consistency, accuracy, discriminatory capacity, and a defined cut-off point.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/veterinária , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Carneiro Doméstico/cirurgia , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Laparoscopia/veterinária , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Animais , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Gravação em Vídeo
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