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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(12): 1167-1170, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence, clinical and genetic characteristics of primary carnitine deficiency (PCD). METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2017, 720 667 newborns and their mothers were tested for PCD by tandem mass spectrometry. Potential mutations of carnitine transporter gene SLC22A5 among suspected PCD patients were analyzed. Dietary guidance and L-carnitine supplementation were provided to the parents. Growth and intelligence development were surveyed during follow-up. RESULTS: In total 21 neonates and 6 mothers were diagnosed with PCD, which yielded an incidence of 1 in 34 317. Eighteen SLC22A5 mutations were detected, which included 4 novel mutations, namely c.1484T>C, c.394-1G>T, c.431T>C and c.265-266insGGCTCGCCACC. Eighteen patients were found to carry compound heterozygous mutations and 3 have carried homozygous SLC22A5 mutations. Three mothers carried compound heterozygous mutations and 2 carried homozygous mutations. Common mutations included c.1400C>G (42.3%), c.760C>T (11.5%) and c.51C>G (7.7%). During the 8-42 month follow-up, neonates with PCD showed no clinical symptoms but normal growth. Blood level of free carnitine was raised in all mothers after the treatment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of neonatal PCD in Henan is 1 in 34 317, with the most common mutation being c.1400C>G. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of SLC22A5 gene mutations.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/genética , Carnitina/deficiência , Hiperamonemia/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto/genética , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/genética , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia , Mutação , Triagem Neonatal
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 134: 110851, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568849

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on carnitine levels, oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in the stomach, kidney, liver and testis tissues in adult rats. Rats were randomized to control and L-carnitine supplemented (LCAR) groups. Control group received distilled water for 7 months by intragastric gavage and the LCAR group was given 50 mg/kg/day L-carnitine via intragastric intubation for the same period. L-carnitine concentrations and caspase-3 activity were measured by fluorometric methods while cleaved caspase-3 was determined by Western blot analysis. Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot analysis. Oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were analyzed by colorimetric assay. Tissue L-carnitine concentrations were significantly increased in the LCAR group compared to controls. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 levels were significantly increased while pro-apoptotic Bax was significantly decreased in LCAR group rats compared to controls. Tissue caspase-3 was significantly alleviated in the LCAR group compared to controls. L-carnitine supplementation increased TAC and decreased ROS/RNS generation in the kidney, liver, stomach and testis tissues compared to controls. Obtained data suggests that L-carnitine supplementation can potentially be used to lessen both oxidative and apoptotic progression in peripheral organs.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carnitina/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180907, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644644

RESUMO

A total number of 300 (225 ducks and 75 drakes) Sudani ducks, 28-wk-old were divided into five groups to investigate the effects of dietary L-carnitine (LC) supplementation on productive, hatching and physiological performance as well as nutrients digestibility coefficients. The results indicated that the productive performance and Semen quality parameters (ejaculate volume, sperms concentration and advanced motility) were significantly improved by LC supplementation (150-450 mg /kg diet) as compared to the control. Hatchability of fertile eggs (%) was significantly improved, while total embryonic mortality was significantly decreased by supplementing 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Supplementing different dietary LC levels resulted in significantly high values of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells count and lymphocyte (L) cells percentage, while it decreased heterophils (H) cells and H/L ratio. Serum albumin, total cholesterol and AST enzyme values were significantly low in ducks fed diets supplemented with LC. Serum triglycerides were significantly the lowest by feeding 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Nutrients digestibility coefficients were significantly improved in drakes fed diet supplemented with 450 mg LC/kg diet. Conclusively, dietary LC supplementation at 300 or 450 mg/kg for duck breeders in summer could improve productive, hatching and physiological performance and nutrients digestibility coefficients.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Análise do Sêmen
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 1100-1110, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422179

RESUMO

Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is associated with oxidative stress. l-carnitine is currently under preclinical evaluation as a antioxidant, but the use of l-carnitine in aquaculture has been poorly evaluated and so far no mechanism has been demonstrated. Here, we explored the effects of l-carnitine in vitro and in vivo and discussed the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Firstly, Nrf2-siRNA significantly knocked down the mRNA level of Nrf2 in FHM cells. Thus, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (T-SOD, CAT, GSH-PX) and the level of antioxidant substance (GSH) and the level of MDA showed that Nrf2-siRNA pretreatment weakened the protective effect of l-carnitine. Moreover, the mRNA levels of Keap1, Nrf2, Maf and HO-1 indicated that l-carnitine regulated Nrf2/Keap1 activation. Furthermore, oxidized fish oil remarkably suppressed growth in Rhynchocypris lagowski Dybowski, and the lower antioxidant capacity was also observed in liver. According to the results of immune related indexes (the levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, LZM, AKP) in serum and the mRNA levels of immune related genes (NF-κB, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10 and TGF-ß) in liver, oxidized fish oil also induced inflammatory response in fish. Also, l-carnitine supplementation can relieve this bad condition. In conclusion, l-carnitine regulated Nrf2/Keap1 activation in vitro and in vivo and protected oxidized fish oil-induced inflammation response by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway in Rhynchocypris lagowski Dybowski.


Assuntos
Carnitina/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
5.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(2): 40-49, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233687

RESUMO

Nowdays, much attention is paid to the study of disorders of immune regulation and methods of effective immune correction in athletes. In this regard, the use of specialized sport foods (SSF), containing nutrients with immunomodulatory properties, is of particular relevance in youth sports. The aim of the work is to study the immunomodulating activity of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in junior athletes during the training period. Material and methods. The object of the study were 30 junior athletes (masters of sports and candidates for masters of sports in swimming) aged 14-18 years, including 9 girls and 21 boys. Athletes were divided into 3 groups of 10 people each. Athletes of the 1st and 2nd main groups received L-carnitine (600 mg per day) and coenzyme Q10 (60 mg/day), respectively, for 4 weeks in addition to the basic diet. The dosage of SSF used in the study was 200% of the adequate level of consumption and did not exceed the upper permissible level of consumption. Athletes of the 3rd group (control) received only basic diet without sports' nutrition. Examination of athletes of all groups was performed at the beginning and after 4 weeks of the observation period. Results and discussion. As a result of a comprehensive survey of junior athletes, the positive effect of L-carnitine intake on erythrocyte hemoglobin content (30.2±0.4 vs 28.3±0.3 pg at the beginning) was observed. The relative content of basophilic leukocytes in athletes of the main groups statistically significantly decreased by the end of the observation period: in the L-carnitine group, from 0.64±0.05 to 0.45±0.04%, in the coenzyme Q10 group, from 0.66±0.07 to 0.50±0.04%, which indicated an increase in the body's resistance to allergic reactions. Conclusion. The biomarkers of the immunotropic effect of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 are a decrease in the expression of the apoptotic marker CD95/Fas on peripheral blood lymphocytes and suppression of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesized by Th1-lymphocytes with switching the response to humoral immunity. An evidence base for the effectiveness of the use of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in sports nutrition for restoring immune dysfunction and adaptive potential of junior athletes has been provided.


Assuntos
Atletas , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1 , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Receptor fas , Adolescente , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/imunologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Natação , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Receptor fas/sangue , Receptor fas/imunologia
6.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 59(5): 258-263, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061301

RESUMO

A 79-year-old female was diagnosed with epilepsy because she experienced loss of consciousness twice in January and February and then had a seizure in June 2016. She was treated with 800 mg sodium valproate (sustained release). After 3 days, she experienced loss of appetite, and more than 3 days later, disturbance of consciousness. Serum valproic acid (VPA) concentration was 128.3 µg/ml and serum ammonia was 404 µmol/l. Cerebral edema and status epilepticus occurred. Severe neurological dysfunction remained, even after treatment with continuous hemodiafiltration and levocarnitine. VPA is widely used for the treatment of generalized epilepsy. VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare but serious adverse event of VPA. Thus, we must pay attention to serum ammonia levels when using VPA, even VPA monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Carnitina/deficiência , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperamonemia/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Amônia/sangue , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/sangue , Hiperamonemia/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/etiologia , Ácido Valproico/administração & dosagem
7.
Seizure ; 69: 20-24, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953957

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of hyperammonemia secondary to valproic acid treatment in status epilepticus and to describe the characteristics of the patients. METHODS: All patients with established status epilepticus during 2014 to 2016 at Ryhov County Hospital were identified in a retrospective case series. Clinical and laboratory findings were collected from electronic medical files and the Metavision database at the intensive care unit (ICU). Hyperammonemia was defined as a concentration of at least 50 µmol/L. RESULTS: 11 of 40 patients developed hyperammonemia. These patients had a significantly longer stay at the ICU (12.6 vs 2.5 days) and at the hospital (22 vs 11 days). All patients with hyperammonemia were treated at the ICU and all received antibiotics. 12 patients were treated with intravenous valproic acid outside the ICU. Hyperammonemia was not related to Body Mass Index, time to initiation of therapy or laboratory abnormalities except anemia (Hemoglobin 104 vs 122 g/l). There was no difference in mortality between groups. CONCLUSION: The risk of hyperammonemia is almost 40% in patients receiving intravenous valproic acid in the ICU setting. The underlying mechanisms are probably either individual susceptibility or high metabolic demands. A high vigilance should be recommended. These data require further research via prospective designs in which multiple variables are controlled to explore the effects of individual factors on treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Hiperamonemia/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Valproico/administração & dosagem
8.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 4172-4181, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001634

RESUMO

Precise natural anti-oxidative compounds have facilitated the research of infertile gametes and the development of novel bio-therapeutics, especially the molecules that are based on the reduction of oxidative stress, such as L-carnitine (LC). In addition to, the defect in the functioning of sperm mitochondrial and the decreasing seminal antioxidant ability due to aging, its essential role in permitting the mitochondrial import and oxidation of long chain fatty acids is worthy. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary LC on semen quality, seminal antioxidant activity, and their implications for the fertility in aged cocks for 12 wk. Supplementation of the feed with two different doses of LC (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day) for 12 wk showed significantly increased in the reproductive activity of cock, in comparison to the control group. Seminal analysis showed that supplementation of LC significantly increased (P < 0.05) the sperm motility, concentration, livability, semen quality factor, seminal malondialdehyde concentration, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. In addition, addition of LC significantly increased (P < 0.05) the plasma concentration of testosterone and prostaglandin E2 but posed no significant effect on the concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, the findings of artificial insemination showed significant increased (P < 0.05) in the percentage of fertility in LC groups, while the percentage hatchability and mortality remained unchanged. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that LC significantly increased (P < 0.05) the testicular immunopositivity of MT1 and MT2. Moreover, the administration of LC to the aged cocks enhanced (P < 0.05) GnRH1 and GnRHR mRNA levels when compared with untreated cocks. The results of the present study suggest that LC treatment of aged cocks increases the seminal antioxidant enzymes and sexual hormones levels, which may improve the semen quality by increasing the expression of GnRH1 and melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) activities. Collectively, LC could be a suitable feed supplementation to increase reproductive activities through enhancing semen quality in aging cocks.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Carnitina/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/genética , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/metabolismo , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/genética , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/metabolismo , Receptores LHRH/genética , Receptores LHRH/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(4): 1207-1217, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994244

RESUMO

This study examined the influence of adding different amounts of maternal dietary l-carnitine and two fat types on fatty acid (FA) composition and the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial with two fat types (3.5% soyabean oil, SO, and 3.5% fish oil, FO) and two levels of l-carnitine (0 and 100 mg/kg) added to the sows' diets. A higher proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a lower ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in sow milk and piglet tissues were observed in the FO groups than in the SO groups. Adding l-carnitine increased the proportion of C16:1 in sow milk and decreased n-3 PUFA in piglet subcutaneous fat. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) was more abundantly expressed in piglets from the FO groups than from the SO groups (p < 0.05), whereas stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) and ∆6-desaturase (D6D) genes were less expressed in the FO groups compared with piglets from the SO groups. The expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) genes was decreased in the SO groups with l-carnitine compared to that of the other dietary treatments. No differences among dietary treatments were observed with regard to the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In conclusion, FO and l-carnitine supplementation in sows affect FA composition and hepatic gene expression in piglets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Carnitina/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite/química , Gravidez
10.
Andrologia ; 51(6): e13267, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873633

RESUMO

Carnitine is essential for energy metabolism and spermatozoa maturation. Combining L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine with micronutrients has been investigated as a treatment for infertility in men. We evaluated the effects of a therapeutic formulation, Proxeed Plus, on sperm parameters in oligoasthenozoospermic men. This prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involved 175 males (19-44 years) with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia who failed to impregnate their partners (12 months). Males received Proxeed Plus or placebo for 3 and 6 months. Sperm volume, progressive motility and vitality significantly (p < 0.001) improved after 6 months compared to baseline. Sperm DNA fragmentation index significantly decreased compared to baseline (p < 0.001) and the 3-month therapy (p = 0.014) in treated men. Increased seminal carnitine and α-glucosidase concentration also positively correlated with improved progressive motility. Decreased DNA fragmentation index was the good predictor of progressive sperm motility >10%, and simultaneous measurement of changes in sperm vitality and DNA fragmentation index gave the highest probability of sperm motility 10% (AUC = 0.924; 95% CI = 0.852-0.996; p < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses revealed DNA fragmentation index decrease as the only independent predictor of sperm motility 10% (OR = 1.106; p = 0.034). We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of carnitine derivatives on progressive motility, vitality and sperm DNA fragmentation. Combining metabolic and micronutritive factors is beneficial for male infertility.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Oligospermia/tratamento farmacológico , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Maturação do Esperma/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 75(8): 1037-1046, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915521

RESUMO

AIM AND BACKGROUND: Reducing inflammation by nutritional supplements may help to reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. Our aim in this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of L-carnitine on inflammatory mediators including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). METHODS: Our systematic search to find relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was performed up to October 2018 using ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, and SCOPUS. In this meta-analysis, the weighted mean differences (WMD) with standard errors (SE) were used to pool the data. WMD was calculated by subtracting change-from-baseline mean values in the control group from change-from-baseline mean values in the intervention group in each study. To identify heterogeneity among studies, the I2 statistic was employed. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42019116695). RESULTS: Thirteen articles were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that L-carnitine supplementation was significantly associated with lower levels of CRP in comparison to controls (WMD = -1.23 mg/L; 95% CI: -1.73, -0.72 mg/dL; P < 0.0001). Also, a slight but statistically significant decrease was observed in IL-6 and TNF-α levels (WMD = -0.85 pg/dL; 95% CI: -1.38, -0.32 pg/dL; P = 0.002 and WMD = -0.37 pg/dL; 95% CI: -0.68, -0.06 pg/dL; P = 0.018, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that L-carnitine reduced inflammatory mediators, especially in studies with a duration of more than 12 weeks. Further studies with different doses and intervention durations and separately in men and women are necessary.


Assuntos
Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
12.
Ir Med J ; 112(1): 858, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719899

RESUMO

Hyperammonaemia is a metabolic disturbance characterized by accumulation of ammonia in the blood. Entry of ammonia into the brain via the blood-brain barrier leads to hyperammonaemic encephalopathy. The causes of hyperammonaemia in paediatric patients vary. We present 3 cases of hyperammonaemia in critically ill children in whom an inborn metabolic disorder was identified and provide insights into the phenotypes, diagnostic approaches and management. In children with acute overwhelming illness and progressive neurological deterioration plasma ammonia measurement should be included in the urgent diagnostic work-up. We here raise the awareness that hyperammonaemia is a metabolic emergency requiring prompt recognition and treatment to avoid subsequent complications.


Assuntos
Hiperamonemia/diagnóstico , Hiperamonemia/terapia , Amônia/sangue , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/complicações , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Diagnóstico Precoce , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenilbutiratos/administração & dosagem , Benzoato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 35(8): 701-705, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806102

RESUMO

To evaluate the reproductive and metabolic effects of L-carnitine plus metformin in clomiphene citrate (CC) resistant obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. A double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial, clomiphene-citrate resistant obese women were allocated randomly to receive CC plus metformin and L-carnitine (n = 138) or CC plus metformin and placebo (n = 136). The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. The secondary outcomes were hormonal and metabolic profile changes in addition to ovulation and first trimester (13 weeks) miscarriage rates. Clomiphene-citrate, L-carnitine, and metformin group showed significant improvement in the menstrual regularity, ovulation rate, and pregnancy rate compared to CC plus metformin and placebo group (29% vs. 9%, 34.7% vs.11%, and 28.2% vs. 6.6%, respectively). No statistically significant difference in the miscarriage rate between the two groups (p = .08). After three months of treatment, the reduction in body mass index (BMI) was non-significant (p = .061) between both groups. The hormonal and metabolic parameters were more significantly improved in the L-carnitine group compared with the placebo group. l-Carnitine may act synergistically with metformin for improvement of reproductive performance, insulin resistance, and lipid profile in clomiphene-resistant obese PCOS women.


Assuntos
Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Clomifeno/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Infertilidade Feminina/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/uso terapêutico , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/complicações , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Ther ; 26(3): e344-e349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although rare, symptomatic hyperammonemia is sometimes associated with valproic acid (VPA), especially in children. L-carnitine (levocarnitine), sometimes classified as an essential amino acid, is vital to mitochondrial utilization of fatty acids and can be helpful in treating this condition. The data supporting this, however, are limited. STUDY QUESTION: The aim of the study was to illustrate the role of L-carnitine in the treatment of patients with VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VPE) at 2 different institutions. METHODS: Medical records of affected patients were reviewed; data collected included exposure history, clinical manifestations, physical examination, and laboratory values. RESULTS: There were 13 cases of VPE; 12 were associated with therapeutic dosing and 1 with an overdose. The maximum ammonia concentration was 557 µmol/L, and blood concentrations of VPA ranged from 68 to 600 µg/mL (therapeutic range 50-100 µg/mL). In all cases, liver function tests were normal or only mildly increased. In this study, 12 patients received a daily dose of L-carnitine 100 mg/kg, and 1 received 200 mg/kg (intravenous infusion over 30 minutes) divided every 8 hours until clinical improvement. All patients made a full recovery. None developed adverse effects or reactions, and no cases of toxicity were reported. CONCLUSION: Our series suggests that intravenous L-carnitine, at a dose of 100 mg·kg·d in 3 divided doses each over 30 minutes until clinical improvement occurs, is a safe and effective treatment in the management of VPE in children.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/envenenamento , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperamonemia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/envenenamento , Adolescente , Amônia/sangue , Encefalopatias/sangue , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Carnitina/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Overdose de Drogas/sangue , Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperamonemia/complicações , Lactente , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(1): e12778, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371981

RESUMO

Hair loss is a common aesthetic disorder that can be triggered by genetic, inflammatory, hormonal, and environmental factors acting on hair follicles and their life cycle. There are several types of hair loss that differ in causes, symptoms, and spatial and temporal progression. Androgenic alopecia, a common form of hair loss, is the consequence of a decreased microcirculation of the scalp as well as the toxic action of elevated dihydrotestosterone levels on the hair bulbs. In the present study, the lotions TRINOV Lozione Anticaduta Uomo and TRINOV Lozione Anticaduta Donna, containing dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), S-equol, and propionyl-l-carnitine, were tested on 30 men and 30 women (mean age of men was 46.6 ± 6.4 years; mean age of women was 49.5 ± 9.0) with signs of androgenic alopecia, respectively. DGLA is a precursor of the prostaglandin PGE1, which acts by improving microcirculation; S-equol inhibits 5α-reductases, thus preventing the transformation of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone; and propionyl-l-carnitine promotes lipid metabolism, stimulating energy production. These three molecules are loaded into liposomes for their effective transdermal delivery. Daily topical applications of the lotions resulted in a hair count that significantly increased for women and marginally increased for men after 6 months of treatment. Furthermore, significant increase in anagen hair and a significant decrease in telogen hair were observed starting from 3 months in male and 1 month in female patients. Thus, the formulations under investigation were effective in attenuating androgenic alopecia-related hair loss in men and women.


Assuntos
Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/administração & dosagem , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Equol/administração & dosagem , Folículo Piloso/efeitos dos fármacos , Couro Cabeludo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/efeitos adversos , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Alopecia/diagnóstico , Alopecia/fisiopatologia , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Equol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lipossomos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Couro Cabeludo/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Animal ; 13(7): 1448-1457, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466497

RESUMO

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation because DDGS contain about 10% crude fat, which is largely composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids. l-carnitine serves an important function in fatty acids ß-oxidation, and also has antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of l-carnitine in the DDGS diet of gestating and lactating sows on reproductive performance, milk composition and antioxidant status of sows and their offspring. One hundred and twenty sows (Landrace×Large white, mean parity 4.2, initial BW 230 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n=30 sows/treatment). Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial with two levels of dietary DDGS (0 v. 250 g/kg in gestating diets and 400 g/kg in lactating diets) and two levels of dietary l-carnitine (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Distillers dried grains with solubles had no significant effect on litter size but significantly reduced the birth weights and weaning weights of piglets (P0.05). Supplementing the diets with l-carnitine had no significant effect of total litter size (P>0.05) but increased the number of piglets born alive and piglets weaned, birth weight and weaning weight of piglets and litter weight at birth and weaning (P<0.05). l-carnitine supplementation also increased the concentration of l-carnitine in milk and l-carnitine status of piglets (P<0.05). The antioxidant enzyme activities of new born and weaning piglets were increased (P<0.05) by maternal dietary l-carnitine but this did not extend to finishing pigs. In conclusion, including DDGS in the sows diet could induce oxidative stress, which may be associated with the reduced individual birth and weaning weight of piglets. Dietary l-carnitine supplementation improved the antioxidant and l-carnitine status of sows, which may be associated with the improved reproduction and piglet performance and the antioxidant status of piglets at birth and weaning. There were no interactions between DDGS and l-carnitine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carnitina/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 18(4): 1037-1043, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Topical aminophylline, caffeine, yohimbe, l-carnitine, and gotu kola (Centella asiatica) may aid in reducing body fat. Lipoxyderm™ contains these ingredients and was used to test if fat loss of the thigh, in conjunction with a low intensity exercise program and restricted calorie intake, was enhanced via the topical application of this lotion. METHODS: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-group study that investigated the effects of Lipoxyderm™ on thigh fat mass, circumference, and skinfold thickness. Seven participants underwent pre/post-exercise testing for weight, bilateral thigh circumference/skinfold thickness, and body composition/thigh fat mass assessment via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants followed a hypocaloric diet, walked 150 minutes/wk, and were randomly assigned to apply a placebo to one leg and Lipoxyderm™ to their other leg for 28 days. Separate two-way mixed factorial repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare the effects of Lipoxyderm™ to the placebo on thigh circumference, skinfold thickness, and fat mass. RESULTS: A significant time x group interaction was found for thigh circumference (F1,6  = 18.2, P = 0.005), skinfold thickness (F1,6  = 14.6, P = 0.009), and fat mass (F1,6  = 37.1, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A twice-daily topical application of Lipoxyderm™ for 28 days compared to a placebo combined with a walking program and a restricted caloric intake is more effective at reducing thigh circumference (1.2 vs 0.8 cm), thigh skinfold thickness (3.7 vs 2.0 mm), and thigh fat mass (100.0 g vs 57.3 g).


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Caminhada , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminofilina/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Centella/química , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Pausinystalia/química , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Creme para a Pele/química , Pregas Cutâneas , Coxa da Perna , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 86: 785-793, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553889

RESUMO

Dietary α-lipoic acid (LA), ß-glucan (Gluc) and l-carnitine (L-Ca) are commonly used additives to promote fish growth and stress resistance in aquaculture production. However their mechanisms and efficiencies in helping fish to resist diseases have not been compared before. In this study, we fed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with diets containing appropriate doses of LA, Gluc and L-Ca for five weeks and further intraperitoneally injected the fish with Aeromonas hydrophila. After dietary treatment, none of the additives affected the fish growth, but dietary Gluc and L-Ca reduced protein and lipid body contents in fish, respectively. After A. hydrophila challenge, all fish treated with the three dietary additives showed higher survival rate, but those fed on dietary L-Ca had lower survival than those fed on LA and Gluc diets, indicating high protection efficiency of LA and Gluc. The protective mechanisms of the three feed additives were quite different under A. hydrophila infection. Dietary LA induced higher total antioxidant capacity and higher mRNA expression of anti-oxidative genes than other additives in liver and also activated partly the immune function in serum and spleen. Gluc largely increased the immune function by activating the immunity enzymes in serum, inducing inflammation in liver and increasing the expression of immune genes in spleen and head kidney. Gluc also increased partly the antioxidant capacity in serum and liver and lipid catabolism in liver. L-Ca largely increased lipid catabolism in liver while it increased partly the antioxidant capacities in serum and liver. Taken together, these results indicate that, dietary LA, Gluc and L-Ca have various protective mechanisms and differ in their efficiencies on resisting A. hydrophila infection in Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Carnitina/farmacologia , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tióctico/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
19.
Am J Nephrol ; 48(5): 349-356, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of L-carnitine has been proposed in haemodialysis (HD) when deficiency is present to improve anaemia resistant to erythropoietin stimulating agent, intradialytic hypotension or cardiac failure. We tested the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on parameters of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder. METHODS: CARNIDIAL was a randomized, double-blinded trial having included 92 incident HD subjects for a 1-year period to receive L-carnitine versus placebo. Determinant factors of C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 (cFGF23) and intact FGF23 were studied including Klotho level. The L-carnitine effect on mineral metabolism was analyzed between groups by mixed linear models for repeated measurements. RESULTS: Klotho was below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in 55% of the 163 samples. In multivariate analysis, cFGF23 was positively correlated with calcium and phosphate and was higher in subjects having Klotho > LLOQ. No correlation existed between Klotho and phosphate and phosphate was even higher in subjects having Klotho > LLOQ (p < 0.001). Both forms of FGF23 were not related to iron markers nor to IV iron dose. No L-carnitine effect was detected on parathyroid hormone (PTH) or FGF23 during the study period where PTH slightly decreased over time, whereas FGF23 increased. But calcium and phosphate increased more in the L-carnitine group. CONCLUSION: L-carnitine supplementation increased calcium and phosphate plasma concentrations with no detected downregulation effect on PTH and FGF23. (Clinical Trial 00322322, May 5, 2006).


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio/metabolismo , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/sangue , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Glucuronidase/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fosfatos/sangue , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Toxicon ; 153: 62-71, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171931

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin A (OA), in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (LC) and vitamin E (VE), on the humoral immune responses of White Leghorn cockerels (WLC). One-day old white male Leghorn chicks were divided into 12 groups, having 20 birds each and were offered ration contaminated with OA (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg feed) alone and concurrently with LC (1.0 g/kg) and/or VE (0.2 g/kg), for 42 days. The humoral immune responses were accessed by lymphoproliferative response to avian tuberculin, in-vivo phagosomes activity to carbon particles and antibody response to the sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). The dietary addition of OA alone suppressed the humoral immune responses, however, the exposure of birds to 1.0 mg/kg OA in the presence of LC and/or VE showed a significant reduction in OA induced immunotoxicity. This protective response was absent in the birds fed 2.0 mg/kg OA in the presence and absence of LC and/or VE. Histopathological and morphometric examination of the bursa of Fabricius exhibited a decrease in the severity and frequency of OA induced lesions in the presence of dietary LC and/or VE. The use of LC and VE as dietary supplement, can effectively overcome OA (≤1.0 mg/kg) induced immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/imunologia , Ocratoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bolsa de Fabricius/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos
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