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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111761, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896050

RESUMO

The combination of different colors from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may influence growth and production of secondary metabolites in plants. In the present study, the effect of light quality on morphophysiology and content of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), a phytoecdysteroid, was evaluated in accessions of an endangered medicinal species, Pfaffia glomerata, grown in vitro. Two accessions (Ac22 and Ac43) were cultured in vitro under three different ratios of red (R) and blue (B) LEDs: (i) 1R:1B, (ii) 1R:3B, and (iii) 3R:1B. An equal ratio of red and blue light (1R:1B) increased biomass accumulation, anthocyanin content, and 20E production (by 30-40%). Moreover, 1R:1B treatment increased the size of vascular bundles and vessel elements, as well as strengthened xylem lignification and thickening of the cell wall of shoots. The 1R:3B treatment induced the highest photosynthetic and electron transport rates and enhanced the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes. Total Chl content, Chl/Car ratio, and NPQ varied more by accession type than by light source. Spectral quality affected primary metabolism differently in each accession. Specifically, in Ac22 plants, fructose content was higher under 1R:1B and 1R:3B treatments, whereas starch accumulation was higher under 1R:3B, and sucrose under 3R:1B. In Ac43 plants, sugars were not influenced by light spectral quality, but starch content was higher under 3R:1B conditions. In conclusion, red and blue LEDs enhance biomass and 20E production in P. glomerata grown in vitro.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/efeitos da radiação , Ecdisterona/análise , Luz , Amaranthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos da radiação , Amido/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111768, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931383

RESUMO

In vitro callus cultures of Verbena officinalis L. were maintained on solid Murashige and Skoog medium, enriched with 1 mg dm-3 BA and 1 mg dm-3 IBA under LED lights (red, blue, red/blue 70%/30%), in darkness and under control fluorescent lamps. The measurements of 2 phenylpropanoid glycosides (verbascoside and isoverbascoside) and 23 phenolic acids were performed in methanolic extracts from the biomass collected after 2-, 3- and 4-week growth cycles using the HPLC-DAD method. The presence of verbascoside, isoverbascoside and additionaly 7 phenolic acids (protocatechuic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, ferulic, o-coumaric and m-coumaric acids) was confirmed in all extracts. Blue and red/blue lights stimulated the accumulation of verbascoside (max. of 6716 and 6023 mg 100 g-1 DW after a 4-week growth cycle) and isoverbascoside (max. 333 and 379 mg 100 g-1 DW also after 4 weeks). The maximum amounts of verbascoside and isoverbascoside were respectively 1.8- and 7.0-fold higher than under the control conditions. Phenolic acids were accumulated in different amounts, and the maximum total amounts ranged from 36 to 65 mg 100 g-1 DW. LED lights also stimulated their accumulation in comparison with darkness and control. The main phenolic acids included: m-coumaric acid (max. 39 mg 100 g-1 DW), ferulic acid (max. 12 mg 100 g-1 DW), and protocatechuic acid (max. 13 mg 100 g-1 DW). Additionally, the quantities of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) were estimated in acetonic extracts using spectrophotometry. Red/blue light stimulated the biosynthesis of pigments (max. total content 287 µg g-1 FW after 4-week growth cycles). This is the first study describing the effect of LED lights on the production of phenylpropanoid glycosides and phenolic acids in V. officinalis callus cultures. Very high amounts of verbascoside and isoverbascoside are interesting from a practical point of view.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Luz , Fenóis/metabolismo , Verbena/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosídeos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão , Espectrofotometria
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136176, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972914

RESUMO

The widespread use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has raised serious concerns regarding their potential ecotoxicological effects. We examined the photosynthetic toxicity of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. ibuprofen (rac-IBU and S-(+)-IBU), aspirin (ASA) and ketoprofen (KEP) on the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Our results showed that NSAIDs exerted inhibitory effects on algal growth; the IC50-24h of S-(+)-IBU, rac-IBU, ASA, and KEP was 123.29, 107.91, 103.05, and 4.03 mg/L, respectively. KEP was the most toxic, ASA was slightly more toxic than rac-IBU, and S-(+)-IBU was the least toxic. NSAIDs adversely affected the cellular ultrastructure, as evident from plasmolysis, chloroplast deformation and disintegration. NSAID treatments decreased the chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as minimum fluorescence yield (F0), maximum fluorescence yield (Fm), maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm), PSII (photosystem II) effective quantum yield [Y(II)], photosynthetic electron transfer rate (ETR), and the photochemical quenching (qP), were also adversely affected. Algal photosynthetic and respiratory rates decreased following NSAID treatments, and the expression of genes involved in photosynthetic electron transport (psaA, psaB, psbB, psbD, and rbcL) was down-regulated. Furthermore, the functioning of the photosynthetic electron transport chain from PSI (photosystem I) to PSII, carbon assimilation, and photorespiration were affected. Our results suggest that NSAIDs can exert considerable toxic effects on the photosynthetic system of S. obliquus. These results provide a basis for evaluating the environmental safety of NSAIDs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Scenedesmus/efeitos dos fármacos , Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 612-622, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903750

RESUMO

Corn (Zea mays L.) growth and development is often limited by the availability of phosphate. We thus hypothesized that phosphate fertilization may increase the contents of (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols (vitamin E) in corn grains. Corn plants cultivated on a soil fertilized with 44 kg phosphorus/ha were compared to plants grown on soil with low plant-available phosphate (1.6 mg CAL-P/100 g of soil), each sown early (April) and late (May) in a randomized field experiment. HPLC-DAD-(HR)-ESI-MSn revealed 19 soluble and 10 insoluble (poly)phenols, comprising phenolic acids, phenolic amines, diferulic, and triferulic acids in corn grains. Contents of individual (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols in whole grains were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by sowing time, but not by phosphate fertilization. In conclusion, low phosphate availability did not impair the biosynthesis of (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols in corn grains.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Vitamina E/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(6): 1335-1342, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900534

RESUMO

The presence of carotenoids in human colostrum has been reported in the literature, and xanthophyll esters in human colostrum were recently detected for the first time. However, no published studies have reported whether apocarotenoids, which are metabolites derived from carotenoid enzymatic or nonenzymatic oxidative cleavage, are present in human colostrum. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to search for the possible occurrence of apocarotenoids, including apocarotenoid esters, in human colostrum for the first time by applying an online supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methodology. Recent evidence related to apocarotenoid transcriptional activity has suggested that they may have beneficial health properties superior to those of their parent carotenoids. Three different apocarotenoids, namely apo-8'-ß-carotenal, apo-8'-lycopenal, and ß-citraurin, were identified in intact human colostrum samples, with average concentrations of 85 nmol L-1, 54.6 nmol L-1, and 75.4 nmol L-1, respectively. The overall detection of 16 different free apocarotenoids and 10 different apocarotenoid fatty acid esters in human colostrum was achieved here for the first time. Their occurrence in human colostrum certainly has implications for newborn health status, since colostrum is the only form of food for the newborn during the very first days of life. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Colostro/química , Carotenoides/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Ésteres , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112195, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743799

RESUMO

In plant spores and pollen, sporopollenin occurs as a structural polymer with remarkable resistance to chemical degradation. This recalcitrant polymer is well-suited to analysis by non-destructive infrared spectroscopy. However, existing infrared characterization of sporopollenin has been limited in scope and occasionally contradictory. This study provides a comprehensive structural analysis of sporopollenin in the Pinus ponderosa pollen exine using infrared spectroscopy, including detailed band assignments, descriptions of chemical reactivity, and comparison to multiple reference substances. We observe that the infrared spectral characteristics of sporopollenin prepared by enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharide-based intine are largely consistent with a copolymer of aliphatic lipids and trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, without distinct contributions from α-pyrone or carotenoid substructures.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Pinus ponderosa/química , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
7.
Food Chem ; 310: 125784, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816534

RESUMO

Bioactive compounds demonstrating antioxidant activity were analyzed in berries and leaves of nine cultivars of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) of various ripening times. Total polyphenols were ranging between 0.70-3.62 g GAE.kg-1 (berries) and 1.88-3.72 g GAE.kg-1 (leaves). Leaves were significantly richer source of total flavonoids (14.40-49.44 mg RE.kg-1) in comparison with berries (0.55-4.11 mg RE.kg-1). Phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detection. The content of vitamin C was 0.98-3.65 g.kg-1 in berries and 22.81-46.32 g.kg-1 in leaves, vitamin E content was 6.98-29.91 g.kg-1 in berries and 71.54-153.99 g.kg-1 in leaves. Distribution of individual phenolic compounds varied, their total content in berries was considerably lower (76.1-205.2 mg.kg-1) than in leaves (1477.7-8709.0 mg.kg-1). Regarding antioxidant activity, Raisa and Slovan (berries) and Bojan and Maslicnaja (leaves) were evaluated as the best cultivars.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Frutas/química , Hippophae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Vitamina E/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , República Tcheca , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/fisiologia , Hippophae/fisiologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Polifenóis/análise , Vitamina E/química
8.
Food Chem ; 309: 125585, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708344

RESUMO

Seed samples from 117 genetically diverse pea breeding lines were used to determine the robustness of Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) for the rapid nutritional profiling of seeds. The FT-MIR results were compared to wet chemistry methods for assessing the concentrations of total protein, starch, fiber, phytic acid, and carotenoids in pea seed samples. Of the five partial least square regression models (PLSR) developed, protein, fiber and phytic acid concentrations predicted by the models exhibited correlation coefficients greater than 0.83 when compared with data obtained using the wet chemistry methods for both the calibration and validation sets. The starch PLSR model had a correlation greater than 0.75, and carotenoids had correlation of 0.71 for the validation sets. The methods implemented in this research show the novelty and usefulness of FT-MIR as a simple, fast, and cost-effective technique to determine multiple seed constituents simultaneously.


Assuntos
Ervilhas/química , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Carboidratos/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Amido/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 309: 125779, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704074

RESUMO

Germinated edible seeds and sprouts are becoming increasingly common in the human diet because they are rich in bioactive compounds and antioxidants and are highly nutritious. In this study, the effects of NaCl stress and supplemental CaCl2 on carotenoid accumulation, antioxidant capacity and expression of key enzymes in yellow maize kernels were investigated. The results showed that the lutein and zeaxanthin contents increased with NaCl treatment, and further increased with supplemental CaCl2. Additionally, germinated yellow maize kernels showed increased antioxidant capacity in response to NaCl and CaCl2. The transcript levels of carotenogenic genes ZmPSY and ZmCYP97C were upregulated and the expression levels of ZmLCYB and ZmBCH1 were downregulated under NaCl stress. The expression of all key carotenogenic genes was upregulated by CaCl2 supplementation. These results suggested that NaCl and CaCl2 contribute to carotenoid accumulation via increased expression of related carotenogenic genes and increased antioxidant capacity in germinated yellow maize kernels.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Germinação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 309: 125705, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670122

RESUMO

Red-peeled huyou has a distinct red peel color due mainly to the presence of red apocarotenoid ß-citraurin as well as the increase in amount of total carotenoids. The expression level of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4b1 (CCD4b1) accounted for 99.0% of total transcript abundance of CCD4s in red-peeled huyou peel and was nearly 100 times higher than that in ordinary huyou. ß-Citraurin accumulation and peel coloration was mostly favored at 15 °C but strongly inhibited at moderately high temperatures 20 °C and 25 °C. Exogenous ethylene application for 3 d had no obvious effect on ß-citraurin accumulation in red-peeled huyou but holding fruit at moderately higher temperatures (20 °C and 25 °C) for 3 d had a significant adverse effect on ß-citraurin accumulation. The expression of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and CCD4b1 was higher at 10 °C and 15 °C and significantly lower at 20 °C and 25 °C. The mechanisms governing the accumulation of ß-citraurin are discussed.


Assuntos
Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Etilenos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Citrus/química , Citrus/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/metabolismo , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , beta Caroteno/análogos & derivados , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/isolamento & purificação
11.
Food Chem ; 309: 125706, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677450

RESUMO

Electrochemistry of carotenoids has attracted a lot of interest because it provides an understanding of their oxidative properties. We report the application of electrochemistry in the analysis of carotenoids. Voltammetry of microdroplets immobilized on paraffin impregnated graphite electrode in 0.1 mol dm-3 HClO4 and KNO3 aqueous electrolytes using square-wave voltammetry was applied. Previous studies have shown that carotenoids undergo complex oxidation process when characterized in aqueous media. In this research, the electrooxidation of carotenoid astaxanthin was confirmed. The obtained response allowed the development of an electroanalytical method with a limit of detection of 15.77 µmol dm-3, the limit of quantification of 47.80 µmol dm-3 and acceptable relative standard deviations for current (3.69%) and potential (0.41%). Extraction using DMSO and acetone has shown to be appropriate for voltammetric analysis. Astaxanthin content was determined electrochemically in shrimp and soft-shell crab samples (20.63 and 6.59 µg g-1, respectively), yielding recoveries above 90%.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Crustáceos/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Animais , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Dieta , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Oxirredução , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Água/química , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/química
12.
Food Chem ; 309: 125713, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708345

RESUMO

The effect of cultivar and nutrient solution macrocation proportions (SK, SCa, SMg) on the bioactive content of hydroponically cultivated lettuce was evaluated on two lettuce cultivars (red and green-pigmented Salanova®) grown in a fully controlled Fitotron® chamber. Fresh weight and color attributes were superior in green Salanova and in SK-treated plants, while elevated macrocation proportions (SK, SCa, and SMg) affected the corresponding minerals, P and Na content. SCa and SMg treatments raised ascorbate concentration and reduced nitrate levels in treated plants. Chicoric and chlorogenic acids were higher in red over green Salanova. Chlorogenic acid was higher in SCa and SMg plants and chicoric acid levels were SMg > SCa > SK. The SMg-treated red Salanova contained higher concentrations of target carotenoids. In conclusion, nutrient solution management constitutes an effective cultural practice to increase bioactive properties and functional quality of hydroponically grown lettuce.


Assuntos
Alface/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Cátions/química , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cor , Genótipo , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/genética , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Minerais/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
Food Chem ; 308: 125648, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670191

RESUMO

The tenderness of the fresh tea leaves can affect the quality of tea products. It is important to develop a mechanized, accurate way to evaluate the quality of fresh leaves that avoids the uncertainty of a subjective evaluation. Herein, an in-situ, ultra-rapid Raman microscopy strategy to quantify carotenoids in tea leaves was established. The Raman microscopy of carotenoids distribution in leaves from new branches of 22 representative tea varieties showed that the average carotenoid signals increased from a low level in the bud to a high level in the fourth leaf, which represent different developmental stages. The concentration of carotenoids in the bud to fourth leaf, which were from 69.1 ng mg-1 to 199.5 ng mg-1, respectively. These results demonstrate that Raman imaging can serve as an in-situ, non-destructive and ultra-rapid technology for determining the tenderness of fresh tea leaves and be used in quality control for tea processing.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Chá/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Food Chem ; 307: 125551, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648173

RESUMO

Postharvest wounding stress in carrots induces the accumulation of phenolics, whereas extrusion generates modifications in the nutritional profiles of food matrixes. In the present study, the sequential application of wounding stress and extrusion on total free and bound phenolics as well as on carotenoid profiles of carrots was evaluated. Wounding was applied by shredding carrots and storing the tissue (48 h, 15 °C). The stressed-tissue was dehydrated and extruded at 63 °C or 109 °C and at continuous or expansion screw configurations. Extrudates were milled and sieved before phytochemical analysis. Wounding increased total free (288.1%) and bound (407.6%) phenolic content, whereas the carotenoid content was unaltered. The free and bound phenolics that showed the highest increase due to wounding were the chlorogenic (579.8%) and p-coumaric (390.9%) acids. Extrusion, at 109 °C under expansion screw configuration, further increased the wound-induced accumulation of total free (296.6%) and bound (22.1%) phenolics and induced trans-cis isomerization of ß-carotene.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/química , Fenóis/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Food Chem ; 309: 125766, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718836

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify by UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS and quantify by UPLC-PDA phenolic compounds (26 flavonols and 2 phenolic acids) and carotenoids (16) from berries of different cultivars of Hippophaë rhamnoides and determine correlations between these variables and in vitro anticholinergic and on-line antioxidant potential. Isorhamnetin derivatives presented over 65% of total flavonols, but quercetin and kaempferol derivatives were also determined. Carotenes accounted for 19 to 47%, xanthophylls 16 to 81% of total carotenoids. Pearson's correlations between AChE and BuChE inhibition and phenolic acid content were low (r = 0.388 and 0.355), moderate for carotenoids (0.504 and 0.437) and high for flavonols (0.851 and 0.614). The PCA biplot showed the highest correlation between anticholinergic activity and all-trans-ß-cryptoxanthin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-hexoside-7-O-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6-rhamnosyl)hexoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside concentrations. The results obtained can be used to identify sea buckthorn cultivars, develop crops and production, and design functional products rich in flavonols and carotenoids with anticholinergic properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hippophae/química , Fenóis/análise , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Flavonóis/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal
16.
Food Chem ; 309: 125763, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787393

RESUMO

The study was conducted to confirm the effects of selenium biofortification on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of wheat microgreen extract. The microgreens were cultivated in the DFT hydroponic system with different concentrations of Se (0 [control], 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mg/L from sodium selenite) in a growth chamber by controlling temperature (25/20 °C, day/night), light (12 h light/dark; intensity 150 µmol‧m-2‧s-1 with white fluorescence lamp), and humidity (60%) for 10 days. Se biofortification increased the germination rate and decreased microgreen length and yield. Chlorophyll and carotenoid levels increased in the Se-biofortified microgreen extract. Bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C, and anthocyanin significantly increased in 0.25-0.50 mg/L of Se-biofortified microgreen extracts. Antioxidant (ABTS, DPPH, NSA and SOD-like) activity also increased at moderate levels (0.25-0.50 mg/L) of Se biofortification. Therefore, Se biofortification may be useful for the industrial manufacture of new products from wheat microgreen extract.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triticum/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Biofortificação/métodos , Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Food Chem ; 307: 125525, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639577

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline content in germinated maize kernels. MeJA treatment promoted carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline accumulation, while salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM) reduced carotenoids accumulation. There was a significant increase of 42.5% in lutein content when treated with 0.5 µM MeJA. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of seven carotenogenic genes were explored by MeJA and SHAM. The results showed that 0.5 µM MeJA significantly increased the gene expression levels of PSY, PDS, ZDS, LCYB, LCYE, BCH1, CYP97C, and their transcript levels, which were strongly associated with carotenoids content. Treatment of MeJA affected the carotenoids biosynthesis gene and led to the accumulation of carotenoids. These new findings would help to develop innovative approach for enrichment of lutein in germinated maize kernels for further development of functional food materials.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Germinação , Luteína/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/análise , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 634-647, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Unlike in developed countries, where the main source of vitamin A comes from meat, the diet of poor populations in SSA is largely plant based. It is thus important to identify local / popular plants with higher vitamin A content for combating VAD. Banana (including plantains) is an important staple food crop in this region. The identification and promotion of vitamin A-rich banana cultivars could contribute significantly to the alleviation of VAD in areas heavily dependent on the crop. We assessed pro-vitamin A carotenoid (pVACs) content in the fruit pulp of 48 local plantains from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, to identify cultivars that could help reduce VAD, especially among young children and women of reproductive age. RESULTS: Mean pVACs content varied from 175-1756 µg/100 gfw in ripe fruits. Significant increases (P < 0.001) in total pVACs content occurred after ripening in all cultivars except 'UCG II'. Retinol activity equivalents (RAE) in ripe fruits ranged from 12-113 µg/100 gfw. Fifteen plantain cultivars, including 'Adili II', 'Nzirabahima', 'Mayayi', 'Buembe', and 'Sanza Tatu' (associated with RAE values of 44 µg/100 gfw and above) can be considered as good sources of pVACs. Modest consumption (250 or 500 gfw) of the fruit pulp of the five best plantain cultivars at ripening stage 5 meets between 39-71% and 44-81% of vitamin A dietary reference intake (DRI) respectively, for children below 5 years old and women of reproductive age. CONCLUSION: The 15 best plantain cultivars (especially the top 5) could potentially be introduced / promoted as alternative sources of pro-vitamin A in banana-dependent communities, and help to reduce cases of VAD substantially. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Musa/química , Vitamina A/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Musa/classificação , Musa/metabolismo , Provitaminas/análise , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina A/dietoterapia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Chem ; 302: 125342, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416002

RESUMO

Cereal crops are the rich source of nutritional components that play an important role in micronutrient malnutrition. Biofortification is one of the most successful approaches to enhance the level of micronutrients, mainly targeted in bread wheat. Bread wheat is one of main sources of calories and proteins in the developing countries. In the present study, 50 bread wheat genotypes characterized for the zinc and iron content, the most important micronutrients. On the basis of the results, the nineteen genotypes were selected and evaluated for biochemical as well as quality parameters. The protein content, gluten quantity and quality found to be reduced in high zinc containing genotypes, whereas the total soluble sugars, total carotenoids, proline and grain hardness found to be in positive relation with high micronutrient content. These results could be useful to generate bread wheat varieties rich in micronutrients as well as better nutritional and quality traits.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Pão , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética , Carotenoides/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Genótipo , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/genética , Prolina/análise , Prolina/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Açúcares/análise , Zinco/análise , Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 302: 125334, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419773

RESUMO

Carotenoids, natural pigments, are a group of chemically heterogeneous molecules, present in numerous taxonomical clusters. Because of their various bioactivities, carotenoids are day-by-day applied in numerous fields. The present work aimed to investigate an efficient extraction process of carotenoids from blue crab shells and their identification by HR-ESI-MS technique. In this context, different methods (enzymatic, maceration, Soxhlet, etc.) and solvents (variable polarity index) were tested. Maceration using the binary system hexane/isopropanol (50/50) was found to be the most efficient process, producing high carotenoids content and low total phenolic and soluble protein amounts (p < 0.05). When combined with an enzymatic pretreatment, this procedure was found to be remarkably (p < 0.05) more efficient and selective especially towards astaxanthin (p < 0.05). The HR-ESI-MS identified 23 compounds, depending on the adopted extraction approach. The compounds identified may have potential for applications in food or pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Braquiúros/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , 2-Propanol/química , Animais , Carotenoides/análise , Hexanos/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação
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