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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500552

RESUMO

The effect of singlet oxygen on light-harvesting (LH) complexes has been studied for a number of sulfur (S+) and nonsulfur (S-) photosynthetic bacteria. The visible/near-IR absorption spectra of the standard LH2 complexes (B800-850) of Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum (S+), Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides (S-), Rhodoblastus (Rbl.) acidophilus (S-), and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) palustris (S-), two types LH2/LH3 (B800-850 and B800-830) of Thiorhodospira (T.) sibirica (S+), and an unusual LH2 complex (B800-827) of Marichromatium (Mch.) purpuratum (S+) or the LH1 complex from Rhodospirillum (Rsp.) rubrum (S-) were measured in aqueous buffer suspensions in the presence of singlet oxygen generated by the illumination of the dye Rose Bengal (RB). The content of carotenoids in the samples was determined using HPLC analysis. The LH2 complex of Alc. vinosum and T. sibirica with a reduced content of carotenoids was obtained from cells grown in the presence of diphenylamine (DPA), and LH complexes were obtained from the carotenoidless mutant of Rba. sphaeroides R26.1 and Rps. rubrum G9. We found that LH2 complexes containing a complete set of carotenoids were quite resistant to the destructive action of singlet oxygen in the case of Rba. sphaeroides and Mch. purpuratum. Complexes of other bacteria were much less stable, which can be judged by a strong irreversible decrease in the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) absorption bands (at 850 or 830 nm, respectively) for sulfur bacteria and absorption bands (at 850 and 800 nm) for nonsulfur bacteria. Simultaneously, we observe the appearance of the oxidized product 3-acetyl-chlorophyll (AcChl) absorbing near 700 nm. Moreover, a decrease in the amount of carotenoids enhanced the spectral stability to the action of singlet oxygen of the LH2 and LH3 complexes from sulfur bacteria and kept it at the same level as in the control samples for carotenoidless mutants of nonsulfur bacteria. These results are discussed in terms of the current hypothesis on the protective functions of carotenoids in bacterial photosynthesis. We suggest that the ability of carotenoids to quench singlet oxygen (well-established in vitro) is not well realized in photosynthetic bacteria. We compared the oxidation of BChl850 in LH2 complexes of sulfur bacteria under the action of singlet oxygen (in the presence of 50 µM RB) or blue light absorbed by carotenoids. These processes are very similar: {[BChl + (RB or carotenoid) + light] + O2} → AcChl. We speculate that carotenoids are capable of generating singlet oxygen when illuminated. The mechanism of this process is not yet clear.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacterioclorofilas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Luz , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 72(3): 173-181, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587668

RESUMO

Some mycotoxins such as beauvericin (BEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) can cross the blood brain barrier, which is why we tested the anti-inflammatory action of a pumpkin carotenoid extract (from the pulp) against these mycotoxins and their combinations (OTA+ZEA and OTA+ZEA+BEA) on a blood brain barrier model with co-cultured ECV304 and C6 cells using an untargeted metabolomic approach. The cells were added with mycotoxins at a concentration of 100 nmol/L per mycotoxin and pumpkin carotenoid extract at 500 nmol/L. For control we used only vehicle solvent (cell control) or vehicle solvent with pumpkin extract (extract control). After two hours of exposure, samples were analysed with HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Metabolites were identified against the Metlin database. The proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolite eoxin (14,15-LTE4) showed lower abundance in ZEA and BEA+OTA+ZEA-treated cultures that also received the pumpkin extract than in cultures that were not treated with the extract. Another marker of inflammation, prostaglandin D2-glycerol ester, was only found in cultures treated with OTA+ZEA and BEA+OTA+ZEA but not in the ones that were also treated with the pumpkin extract. Furthermore, the concentration of the pumpkin extract metabolite dihydromorelloflavone significantly decreased in the presence of mycotoxins. In conclusion, the pumpkin extract showed protective activity against cellular inflammation triggered by mycotoxins thanks to the properties pertinent to flavonoids contained in the pulp.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Micotoxinas , Ocratoxinas , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361727

RESUMO

Enzymatic pretreatment of seeds is a novel approach that enhances the health benefits of the extracted oil. The study investigated the influence of the enzymatic pretreatment of seeds on the quality of oil from different pomegranate cultivars. The quality of the ultrasound-assisted (and ethanol-extracted) oil was studied, with respect to the refractive index (RI), yellowness index (YI), conjugated dienes (K232), peroxide value (PV) ρ-anisidine value (AV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic compounds (TPC), fatty acid composition, phytosterol composition, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The seeds of three different pomegranate cultivars ('Wonderful', 'Herskawitz', and 'Acco') were digested with an equal mixture of Pectinex Ultra SPL, Flavourzyme 100 L, and cellulase crude enzymes, at a concentration, pH, temperature, and time of 1.7%, 4.5, 40 °C, and 5 h, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment of PS increased oil yield, PV, TPC, TCC, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity, but decreased the YI. The levels of K232, AV and TOTOX, fatty acids, phytosterols, RI, and FRAP, were not significantly affected by enzymatic pretreatment of PS. Principal component analysis (PCA) established that oil extracted from the 'Acco' seed after enzymatic pretreatment had higher yield, TPC, TCC, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Therefore, enzyme-pretreated 'Acco' pomegranate fruit seed is a source of quality seed oil with excellent antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Romã (Fruta)/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Solventes/química , Sonicação/métodos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371951

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy, which was primarily regarded as a microvascular disease, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. With obesity at epidemic proportions, diabetes-related ocular problems are exponentially increasing in the developed world. Oxidative stress due to hyperglycemic states and its associated inflammation is one of the pathological mechanisms which leads to depletion of endogenous antioxidants in retina in a diabetic patient. This contributes to a cascade of events that finally leads to retinal neurodegeneration and irreversible vision loss. The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are known to promote retinal health, improve visual function in retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration that has oxidative damage central in its etiopathogenesis. Thus, it can be hypothesized that dietary supplements with xanthophylls that are potent antioxidants may regenerate the compromised antioxidant capacity as a consequence of the diabetic state, therefore ultimately promoting retinal health and visual improvement. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the National Library of Medicine and Web of Science databases, resulting in 341 publications meeting search criteria, of which, 18 were found eligible for inclusion in this review. Lutein and zeaxanthin demonstrated significant protection against capillary cell degeneration and hyperglycemia-induced changes in retinal vasculature. Observational studies indicate that depletion of xanthophyll carotenoids in the macula may represent a novel feature of DR, specifically in patients with type 2 or poorly managed type 1 diabetes. Meanwhile, early interventional trials with dietary carotenoid supplementation show promise in improving their levels in serum and macular pigments concomitant with benefits in visual performance. These findings provide a strong molecular basis and a line of evidence that suggests carotenoid vitamin therapy may offer enhanced neuroprotective effects with therapeutic potential to function as an adjunct nutraceutical strategy for management of diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Luteína/uso terapêutico , Zeaxantinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Luteína/farmacologia , Pigmento Macular/análise , Zeaxantinas/farmacologia
5.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153676, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in research on neurodegenerative diseases, the pathogenesis and treatment response of neurodegenerative diseases remain unclear. Recent studies revealed a significant role of carotenoids to treat neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to systematically review the neuroprotective potential of carotenoids in vivo and in vitro and the molecular mechanisms and pathological factors contributing to major neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke). HYPOTHESIS: Carotenoids as therapeutic molecules to target neurodegenerative diseases. RESULTS: Aggregation of toxic proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, the excitotoxic pathway, and neuroinflammation were the major pathological factors contributing to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies supported the beneficiary role of carotenoids, namely lycopene, ß-carotene, crocin, crocetin, lutein, fucoxanthin and astaxanthin in alleviating disease progression. These carotenoids provide neuroprotection by inhibition of neuro-inflammation, microglial activation, excitotoxic pathway, modulation of autophagy, attenuation of oxidative damage and activation of defensive antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, studies conducted on humans also demonstrated that dietary intake of carotenoids lowers the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. CONCLUSION: Carotenoids may be used as drugs to prevent and treat neurodegenerative diseases. Although, the in vitro and in vivo results are encouraging, further well conducted clinical studies on humans are required to conclude about the full potential of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Antioxidantes , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361067

RESUMO

Carotenoids and phenylpropanoids play a dual role of limiting and countering photooxidative stress. We hypothesize that their "antioxidant" function is prominent in plants exposed to summer drought, when climatic conditions exacerbate the light stress. To test this, we conducted a field study on Phillyrea latifolia, a Mediterranean evergreen shrub, carrying out daily physiological and biochemical analyses in spring and summer. We also investigated the functional role of the major phenylpropanoids in different leaf tissues. Summer leaves underwent the most severe drought stress concomitantly with a reduction in radiation use efficiency upon being exposed to intense photooxidative stress, particularly during the central hours of the day. In parallel, a significant daily variation in both carotenoids and phenylpropanoids was observed. Our data suggest that the morning-to-midday increase in zeaxanthin derived from the hydroxylation of ß-carotene to sustain non-photochemical quenching and limit lipid peroxidation in thylakoid membranes. We observed substantial spring-to-summer and morning-to-midday increases in quercetin and luteolin derivatives, mostly in the leaf mesophyll. These findings highlight their importance as antioxidants, countering the drought-induced photooxidative stress. We concluded that seasonal and daily changes in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments may allow P. latifolia leaves to avoid irreversible photodamage and to cope successfully with the Mediterranean harsh climate.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Oleaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Estações do Ano , Estresse Fisiológico , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Secas , Luz , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oleaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oleaceae/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
7.
Theriogenology ; 173: 241-248, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399388

RESUMO

Oxidative stress, caused by extreme accumulation of un-scavenged reactive oxygen species, plays an integral role in the Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R) injury to the testicles following testicular torsion. The current research aimed to examine the protective effects of crocin as a natural antioxidant on testicular I/R injury in rats. Animals were divided randomly into five groups (seven each): (1) sham group, (2) torsion/detorsion (T/D) group, (3) intact group with 100 mg/kg crocin, (4) and (5) T/D groups followed by treatment with two different doses of crocin (50 and 100 mg/kg (IP)). I/R injury was induced by 720° clockwise torsion of the left testicles for 2 h. After 24 h of reperfusion, blood samples and epididymal sperms were collected to measure biochemical (GPx, SOD, and MDA), hormonal (testosterone), and sperm parameters (total sperm recovery, motility, viability, and morphology). Moreover, affected testicles were subjected to histopathology examination. I/R injury caused a significant reduction in sperm characteristics (except for morphology) (P < 0.05), which could not be significantly improved by crocin administration at either dose (P > 0.05). Johnsen's testicular score, mean seminiferous tubular diameter, and germinal epithelial cell thickness were significantly decreased in the T/D group compared to the intact and sham groups. However, crocin could significantly improve the histopathological parameters in both treatment groups compared to the T/D group (P < 0.05). T/D reduced SOD and GPx activity and testosterone level significantly (except for GPx) compared to the sham group (P < 0.05). However, crocin administration could significantly reverse them. Also, crocin reduced the amount of MDA significantly in the high-dose treatment group in comparison to T/D group (P < 0.05). The results of the current study revealed that crocin could be a promising agent to protect against I/R injury following surgical correction of the testicular torsion.


Assuntos
Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Doenças dos Roedores , Torção do Cordão Espermático , Animais , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/veterinária , Torção do Cordão Espermático/tratamento farmacológico , Torção do Cordão Espermático/veterinária , Testículo
8.
Andrologia ; 53(9): e14176, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309867

RESUMO

Exposure to acrylamide (Ac) through food is almost inevitable and this kind of toxicity may cause lifelong harm. In present study, we researched effects of Crocin (Cr) on testis histopathology in Ac-induced testis of rats. Adult male rats were grouped as: group 1, 1 ml saline only; group 2, 50 mg/kg Cr only; group 3, 25 mg/kg Ac only and group 4, 25 mg/kg Ac + 50 mg/kg Cr. All administrations were given as 1 ml/day by gavage for 21 days. It was found that Ac adversely influenced the levels of FSH, testosterone and LH in the blood serum; malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI)/ glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAS) oxidant/antioxidant parameters in testis tissue (p < .01) and the histopathological parameters like Johnson's score, seminiferous tubule diameter, seminiferous epithelial height and H-score for caspase-3 immunoreactivity. In contrary, Cr treatment resulted in increase in testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizan hormone (LH) levels and SOD, CAT, GSH, TAS levels (p < .01) and improved all the histopathological changes. In conclusion, Cr has a promising protective potential against Ac-caused toxic damages in testicular tissue.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Testículo , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
Gene ; 799: 145811, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224829

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. α-Synuclein is an aggregation-prone neural protein that plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD. In our previous paper, we found that saffron; the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae), and its constituents (crocin and crocetin) suppressed aggregation of α-synuclein and promoted the dissociation of α-synuclein fibrils in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary saffron and its constituent, crocetin, in vivo on a fly PD model overexpressing several mutant α-synuclein in a tissue-specific manner. Saffron and crocetin significantly suppressed the decrease of climbing ability in the Drosophila overexpressing A30P (A30P fly PD model) or G51D (G51D fly PD model) mutated α-synuclein in neurons. Saffron and crocetin extended the life span in the G51D fly PD model. Saffron suppressed the rough-eyed phenotype and the dispersion of the size histogram of the ocular long axis in the eye of A30P fly PD model. Saffron had a cytoprotective effect on a human neuronal cell line with α-synuclein fibrils. These data showed that saffron and its constituent crocetin have protective effects on the progression of PD disease in animals in vivo and suggest that saffron and crocetin can be used to treat PD.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Crocus/química , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mutação , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Vitamina A/farmacologia , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/toxicidade
10.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208810

RESUMO

Currently, on an industrial scale, synthetic colorants are used in many fields, as well as those extracted with conventional organic solvents (COSs), leading to several environmental issues. Therefore, we developed a sustainable extraction and purification method mediated by ionic liquids (IL), which is considered an alternative high-performance replacement for COSs. Carotenoids are natural pigments with low bioaccessibility (BCT) and bioavailability (BV) but with huge importance to health. To investigate if the BCT and cellular uptake of the carotenoids are modified by the extraction method, we conducted a comparison assay between both extraction procedures (IL vs. COS). For this, we used the Amazonian fruit Bactris gasipaes, a rich source of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, to obtain the extract, which was emulsified and subjected to an in vitro digestion model followed by the Caco-2 cell absorption assay. The bioaccessibility of carotenoids using IL was better than those using COS (33.25%, and 26.84%, respectively). The cellular uptake of the carotenoids extracted with IL was 1.4-fold higher than those extracted using COS. Thus, IL may be a feasible alternative as extraction solvent in the food industry, replacing COS, since, in this study, no IL was present in the final extract.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/química , Carotenoides , Frutas/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Humanos
11.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(10): 2839-2847, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191112

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Because of its complex pathogenesis, the prevention and therapies of AD still are a severe challenge. Evidence suggested that crocin, the major component of saffron, exhibited neuroprotective effects in AD. As such, in this study, N2a/APP695swe cells were enrolled to investigate the effects of crocin on endogenous Aß-induced neurotoxicity. Crocin (100 and 200 µM) could ameliorate cytotoxicity according to CCK-8 assay and reduce apoptosis in line with Hoechst 33,342 staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining in N2a/APP695swe cells. Reduced ROS generation and elevated MMP were found in N2a/APP695swe cells treated with crocin (100 and 200 µM). Additionally, crocin at concentrations of 100 and 200 µM inhibited the release of cytochrome and attenuated caspases-3 activity in N2a/APP695swe cells. Furthermore, succinylation, crotonylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, malonylation, and phosphorylation were significantly reduced, while a slight increase of acetylation was found in 100-µM crocin treated N2a/APP695swe cells. Taken together, crocin may be a promising natural product candidate for the effective cure of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Apoptose , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fosforilação
12.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073936

RESUMO

Crocins are highly valuable natural compounds for treating human disorders, and they are also high-end spices and colorants in the food industry. Due to the limitation of obtaining this type of highly polar compound, the commercial prices of crocins I and II are expensive. In this study, macroporous resin column chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to purify crocins I and II from natural sources. With only two chromatographic steps, both compounds were simultaneously isolated from the dry fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, which is a cheap herbal medicine distributed in a number of countries. In an effort to shorten the isolation time and reduce solvent usage, forward and reverse rotations were successively utilized in the HSCCC isolation procedure. Crocins I and II were simultaneously obtained from a herbal resource with high recoveries of 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, and high purities of 98.7% and 99.1%, respectively, by HPLC analysis. The optimized preparation method was proven to be highly efficient, convenient, and cost-effective. Crocins I and II exhibited inhibitory activity against ATP citrate lyase, and their IC50 values were determined to be 36.3 ± 6.24 and 29.7 ± 7.41 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Gardenia/química , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Análise Espectral/métodos
13.
Life Sci ; 279: 119672, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097971

RESUMO

AIMS: Intestinal nutrient absorption plays a vital role in developing obesity, and nutrient transporters expressed in the enterocytes facilitate this process. Moreover, previous studies have shown that specific foods and diets can affect their cell levels. Herein, we investigated the effects of pequi oil (PO), which is high in several bioactive compounds, on intestinal nutrient transporter levels as well as on intestinal morphology and metabolic biomarkers. MAIN METHODS: Groups of male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard (C) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and pequi oil (CP and HFDP with PO by gavage at 150 mg/day) for eight weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored, serum metabolic biomarkers, intestinal transporter levels and histological analyses were performed. KEY FINDINGS: PO increased caloric intake without increasing body or fat mass regardless of diet. The HFD group treated with PO reduced fasting blood glucose and villus width. PO did not affect GLUT2, L-FABP, FATP4, NPC1L1, NHE3 or PEPT1 content in CP or HFDP groups. GLUT5 and FAT/CD36 levels were reduced in both CP and HFDP. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that PO attenuated monosaccharide and fatty acid absorption, contributing to lower fasting glycemia and higher food intake without affecting body weight or visceral fat of high-fat feed mice.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 5/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Energia , Ericales/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Controle Glicêmico , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/complicações
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112261, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015425

RESUMO

Food and feed are daily exposed to mycotoxin contamination which effects may be counteracted by antioxidants like carotenoids. Some mycotoxins as well as carotenoids penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB) inducing alterations related to redox balance in the mitochondria. Therefore, the in vitro BBB model ECV304 was subcultured for 7 days and exposed to beauvericine, enniatins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone (100 nM each), individually and combined, and pumpkin extract (500 nM). Reactive oxygen species were measured by fluorescence using the dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe at 0 h, 2 h and 4 h. Intracellular ROS generation reported was condition dependent. RNA extraction was performed and gene expression was analyzed by qPCR after 2 h exposure. The selected genes were related to the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and mitochondrial activity. Gene expression reported upregulation for exposures including mycotoxins plus pumpkin extract versus individual mycotoxins. Beauvericin and Beauvericin-Enniatins exposure significantly downregulated Complex I and pumpkin addition reverted the effect upregulating Complex I. Complex IV was the most downregulated structure of the ETC. Thioredoxin Interacting Protein was the most upregulated gene. These data confirm that mitochondrial processes in the BBB could be compromised by mycotoxin exposure and damage could be modulated by dietary antioxidants like carotenoids.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cucurbita/química , Depsipeptídeos/toxicidade , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Genes Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo Enxofre/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(7): 166150, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892079

RESUMO

The present study investigated the efficacy of cationic liposome-encapsulated carotenoids (lutein or beta-carotene) as a treatment in an animal model of fibromyalgia (FM). Preparation and characterization of the nano-sized cationic liposomal carotenoids have been carried out. FM has been induced in the experimental animals via successive subcutaneous reserpine injection (1 mg/kg). Animals were divided into four groups; control, reserpinized (Res), reserpinized and cationic liposomal lutein-treated (Res + CL-Lut), and reserpinized and liposomal beta-carotene-treated (Res + CL-Bc). Levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), and oxidative stress markers (MDA, H2O2, NO, and GSH) were determined in the brain's cortical tissue of the different groups of animals. Furthermore, the spectral analysis of the electrocorticogram (ECoG) was carried out. Animal behavior was tested for different animal groups. Results showed a significant reduction in monoamines, an elevation of oxidative stress markers, a shift in the ECoG frequency band power, and a change in pain threshold of the reserpinized animals. A return to a non-significant difference from the control values of all the measured parameters has been obtained after two weeks of cationic liposomal carotenoid preparations treatment. The present findings shed more light on the validity of the reserpine model of FM and provide evidence for the antidepressant, antioxidant, and anti-nociceptive potential of the cationic liposomal carotenoids. The present results proofed that the natural product preparations on a nano-sized scale could be a good alternative to the pharmacological interventions for FM treatment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Fibromialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Luteína/química , Dor/prevenção & controle , Reserpina/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Feminino , Fibromialgia/etiologia , Fibromialgia/patologia , Lipossomos/química , Dor/etiologia , Dor/patologia , Ratos
17.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(9): 3341-3351, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929675

RESUMO

Metastatic breast cancer remains a serious health concern and numerous investigations recommended medicinal plants as a complementary therapy. Crocin is one of the known anticancer bio-component. Recently, the inhibitory effect of metformin has been studied on the various aspects of cancer. However, no study reported their combination effects on metastatic breast cancer. In the present study, we have assessed their anti-metastatic effects on in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models. Using MTT assay, scratch, and adhesion tests, we have evaluated the cytotoxic, anti-invasive and anti-adhesion effects of crocin and metformin on 4T1 cell line, respectively. Their protective effects and MMP9 as well as VEGF protein expression levels (Western blotting) investigated in the 4T1 murine breast cancer model. Our results showed that both crocin and metformin reduced cell viability, delayed scratch healing and inhibited the cell adhesion, in vitro. While crocin alone restored the mice's weight reduction, crocin, metformin, and their combination significantly reduced the tumor volume size and enhanced animal survival rate in murine breast cancer model, responses that were associated with VEGF and MMP9 down-regulation. These findings suggest that a combination of crocin and metformin could serve as a novel therapeutic approach to enhance the effectiveness of metastatic breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/química , Metformina/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 444-452, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812287

RESUMO

Semen cryopreservation is routine in cattle, but the results of artificial insemination need improvement. A strategy to these aims is the supplementation of the freezing extender with novel antioxidants. This study aimed at testing the natural antioxidants curcumin and crocin as supplements to the commercial extender BIOXcell for freezing semen from 8 Holstein bulls. We tested curcumin at 0.05 and 0.1 mM (CU0.05, CU0.1) and crocin at 0.5 and 1.5 mM (CR0.5, CR1.5), with 0.5 mM reduced glutathione (GSH0.5) as reference, and a control (CTL, without supplementation). The samples were evaluated post-thawing and after 5 h at 38 °C by CASA for motility and flow cytometry for viability, apoptotic, capacitation, acrosomal status, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and chromatin status (SCSA). Control and GSH0.5 showed similar results, possibly because of the good protection from BIOXcell. CU0.05 and CU0.1 showed little effects but increased cytoplasmic ROS production and motility ALH. CR0.5 and CR1.5 decreased viability and increased apoptotic features significantly post-thawing and after the incubation, resulting in lower motility (significant after the incubation) but decreasing SCSA %HDS (loose chromatin). Whereas crocin at these concentrations seems incompatible with BIOXcell, maybe because of a prooxidant activity, curcumin use merits further research, considering the elevation of ROS with no significant negative effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Curcumina/farmacologia , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Meios de Cultura , Glutationa/farmacologia , Masculino , Motilidade Espermática
19.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806806

RESUMO

In diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), developed obesity is referred to as diabesity. Implementation of a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean, prevents diabesity. Saffron is frequently used in this diet because of its bioactive components, such as crocetin (CCT), exhibit healthful properties. It is well known that obesity, defined as an excessive accumulation of fat, leads to cardiometabolic pathology through adiposopathy or hypertrophic growth of adipose tissue (AT).This is related to an impaired adipogenic process or death of adipocytes by obesogenic signals. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the pathogenic microenvironment and CCT, activating differentiation of healthy preadipocytes (PA). For this, we used human cryopreserved PA from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) depots obtained from healthy and obese-DM2 donors. We studied the effect of a metabolically detrimental (diabesogenic) environment, generated by obese-DM2 adipocytes from VAT (VdDM) or SAT (SdDM), on the viability and accumulation of intracellular fat of adipocytes differentiated from healthy PA, in the presence or absence of CCT (1 or 10 µM). Intracellular fat was quantified by Oil Red O staining. Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay. Our results showed that diabesogenic conditions induce cytotoxicity and provide a proadipogenic environment only for visceral PA. CCT at 10 µM acted as an antiadipogenic and cytoprotective compound.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipogenia , Adipocinas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Gordura Subcutânea , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados
20.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807056

RESUMO

Kashmir saffron (Crocus sativus L.), also known as Indian saffron, is an important Asian medicinal plant with protective therapeutic applications in brain health. The main bioactive in Kashmir or Indian Saffron (KCS) and its extract (CSE) are apocarotenoids picrocrocin (PIC) and safranal (SAF) with carotenoids, crocetin esters (crocins), and crocetins. The ultra-fast liquid chromatography(UFLC)- photodiode array standardization confirmed the presence of biomarkers PIC, trans-4-GG-crocin (T4C), trans-3-Gg-crocin (T3C), cis-4-GG-crocin (C4C), trans-2-gg-crocin (T2C), trans-crocetin (TCT), and SAF in CSE. This study's objectives were to develop and validate a sensitive and rapid UFLC-tandem mass spectrometry method for PIC and SAF along T4C and TCT in rat plasma with internal standards (IS). The calibration curves were linear (R2 > 0.990), with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) as 10 ng/mL. The UFLC-MS/MS assay-based precision (RSD, <15%) and accuracy (RE, -11.03-9.96) on analytical quality control (QC) levels were well within the acceptance criteria with excellent recoveries (91.18-106.86%) in plasma samples. The method was applied to investigate the in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters after oral administration of 40 mg/kg CSE in the rats (n = 6). The active metabolite TCT and T4C, PIC, SAF were quantified for the first time with T3C, C4C, T2C by this validated bioanalytical method, which will be useful for preclinical/clinical trials of CSE as a potential neuroprotective dietary supplement.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Crocus/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacocinética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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