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1.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669124

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental devastating disease. Current therapy suffers from various limitations including low efficacy and serious side effects. Thus, there is an urgent necessity to develop new antipsychotics with higher efficacy and safety. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (CS) commonly known as saffron, are used in traditional medicine for various purposes. It has been demonstrated that saffron and its bioactive components crocins and safranal exert a beneficial action in different pathologies of the central nervous system such as anxiety, depression, epilepsy and memory problems. Recently, their role as potential antipsychotic agents is under investigation. In the present review, I intended to critically assess advances in research of these molecules for the treatment of schizophrenia, comment on their advantages over currently used neuroleptics as well-remaining challenges. Up to our days, few preclinical studies have been conducted to this end. In spite of it, results are encouraging and strongly corroborate that additional research is mandatory aiming to definitively establish a role for saffron and its bioactive components for the treatment of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Crocus/química , Cicloexenos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Terpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antipsicóticos/química , Antipsicóticos/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Cicloexenos/química , Cicloexenos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
2.
Food Chem ; 339: 127818, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854038

RESUMO

Native extracts from orange peels were obtained by a conventional method using acetone and, an alternative method using ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl)). The bioaccessibilities and cellular uptakes of carotenoids, esters and chlorophylls were evaluated, since the influence of esterification on bioaccessibility and bioavailability is not well established. For this, the extracts were emulsified, submitted to in vitro simulated digestion model according to the INFOGEST protocol, followed by uptake by Caco-2 cells. Compounds were separated, identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS. After digestion, 22.0% and 26.2% of the total carotenoids and 45.9% and 68.7% of the chlorophylls were bioaccessible from the acetone and [C4mim]Cl extracts, respectively. The bioaccessibilities of xanthophylls and carotenes were significantly higher than those of the mono- and diesters. The uptake by Caco-2 cells varied from 130.2 to 131.9 ng/mg cell protein for total carotenoids and from 243.8 to 234.2 ng/mg cell protein for chlorophylls in the acetone and [C4mim]Cl extracts, respectively. In general, xanthophylls and esters were better absorbed than carotenes.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Clorofila/farmacocinética , Citrus sinensis/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Digestão , Ésteres/farmacocinética , Frutas/química , Humanos , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação , Xantofilas/farmacocinética
3.
Food Chem ; 346: 128742, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373823

RESUMO

The use of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an alternative polymer that can be considered environment friendly and renewable to prepare nanoparticles of carotenoids. This study aimed to develop and characterize aqueous dispersion nanoparticles and lyophilized nanoparticles of carotenoid extract obtained from Spirulina sp. LEB 18 by nanoprecipitation, using poly d,l-lactic acid (PLA)/poly d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) (75:25 w/w) or PHB as encapsulants. The samples were characterized for the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, apparent viscosity, pH, color parameters, ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry, carotenoid profile, encapsulation efficiency, morphology, and thermal analysis. Nanoparticles containing microalgae carotenoid extract showed average particle diameter on a nanoscale (<200 nm), high homogeneity and stability, high thermal stability, and encapsulation efficiency carotenoid (>80%) when compared to nanoparticles containing ß-carotene synthetic. PHB or PLA/PLGA as encapsulating material in the production of nanoparticles from microalgae carotenoids can be a polymeric alternative capable of promoting greater stability and application of carotenoids.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Hidroxibutiratos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Poliésteres/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Spirulina/química , beta Caroteno/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Excipientes , Tamanho da Partícula
4.
Food Chem ; 335: 127649, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738538

RESUMO

Rosa rugosa Thunb. seed oil (RR) extracted by supercritical CO2 was investigated. RR chemical composition, radical scavenging effect and oxidative stability were evaluated. RR aqueous emulsions were examined for cell cytotoxicity, proliferation, redox state and migration using mouse embryonic fibroblast Balb/3T3, human dermal fibroblast NHDF cell lines, and on neoplastic cell lines: acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 and lung adenocarcinoma A549. RR total contents of phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids and phenolics were 10115.23, 784.16, 40.32 and 10.30 mg/kg, respectively. Rich antioxidant composition of RR was reflected in its high antioxidant activity (2.1 mM/kg Trolox equivalent) as well as oxidative stability (activation energy 105.6 kJ/mol). The RR emulsions led to marked augmentation of the total cell protein content in BALB/3T3 and NHDF cultures, inhibited cancer cell migration and reduced ROS formation. The studied RR oil proved to have a remarkable combination of bioactive compounds and to exert an antioxidative and chemopreventive effects.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosa/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação , Tocoferóis/farmacologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7704, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382042

RESUMO

Pink biofilms are multispecies microbial communities that are commonly found in moist household environments. The development of this pink stain is problematic from an aesthetic point of view, but more importantly, it raises hygienic concerns because they may serve as a potential reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. Although there have been several studies of pink biofilms using molecular analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy, little is known about the spatial distributions of constituent microorganisms within pink biofilms, a crucial factor associated with the characteristics of pink biofilms. Here we show that Raman spectroscopic signatures of intracellular carotenoids and polyenes enable us to visualize pigmented microorganisms within pink biofilms in a label-free manner. We measured space-resolved Raman spectra of a pink biofilm collected from a bathroom, which clearly show resonance Raman bands of carotenoids. Multivariate analysis of the Raman hyperspectral imaging data revealed the presence of typical carotenoids and structurally similar but different polyenes, whose spatial distributions within the pink biofilm were found to be mutually exclusive. Raman measurements on individual microbial cells isolated from the pink biofilm confirmed that these distributions probed by carotenoid/polyene Raman signatures are attributable to different pigmented microorganisms. The present results suggest that Raman microspectroscopy with a focus on microbial pigments such as carotenoids is a powerful nondestructive method for studying multispecies biofilms in various environments.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Polienos/isolamento & purificação , Rhodococcus/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/química , Humanos , Microbiota , Microscopia Confocal , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Polienos/química , Rhodococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise Espectral Raman
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5986, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249805

RESUMO

Halophilic archaea are a promising natural source of carotenoids. However, little information is available about the biological impacts of these archaeal metabolites. Here, carotenoids of Natrialba sp. M6, which was isolated from Wadi El-Natrun, were produced, purified and identified by Raman spectroscopy, GC-mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, LC-mass spectrometry and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin was found to be the predominant compound. Because cancer and viral hepatitis are serious diseases, the anticancer, anti-HCV and anti-HBV potentials of these extracted carotenoids (pigments) were examined for the first time. In vitro results indicated that the caspase-mediated apoptotic anticancer effect of this pigment and its inhibitory efficacy against matrix metalloprotease 9 were significantly higher than those of 5-fluorouracil. Furthermore, the extracted pigment exhibited significantly stronger activity for eliminating HCV and HBV in infected human blood mononuclear cells than currently used drugs. This antiviral activity may be attributed to its inhibitory potential against HCV RNA and HBV DNA polymerases, which thereby suppresses HCV and HBV replication, as indicated by a high viral clearance % in the treated cells. These novel findings suggest that the C50 carotenoid of Natrialba sp. M6 can be used as an alternative source of natural metabolites that confer potent anticancer and antiviral activities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Halobacteriaceae , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral Raman
7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 181: 113094, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927167

RESUMO

Saffron is one of the most expensive and valuable spice having tremendous commercial value in food industry and thus its quality check is of utmost importance. Crocins are unique group of extremely hydrophilic apocarotenoids which are main components of saffron. Crocetin is an aglycone of crocins which do occur naturally in saffron, and is produced in biological system as a bioactive metabolite via hydrolytic cleavage of crocins. Crocins are unstable and tend to undergo isomerisation/ inter-conversions, and therefore their quantitative estimation is difficult. Herein, we have established for the first time, a crocetin-based HPLC method to evaluate the total crocin content of saffron, and thereby analyze the quality of saffron. The present approach comprises alkali-mediated conversion of crocins to crocetin in raw material followed by quantitative estimation of in-situ formed crocetin by HPLC analysis. The unique and efficient protocol for preparation of high purity analytical grade 'crocetin' directly from saffron has also been established. It is simple and efficient way to check the quality of saffron/ saffron-containing products.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Corantes/isolamento & purificação , Crocus/química , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Carotenoides/normas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corantes/normas
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936544

RESUMO

Over recent years, many authors discussed the effects of different natural compounds on glioblastoma (GBM). Due to its capacity to impair survival and progression of different cancer types, saffron extract (SE), named crocetin (CCT), is particularly noteworthy. In this work, we elucidated the antitumor properties of crocetin in glioma in vivo and in vitro models for the first time. The in vitro results showed that the four tumor cell lines observed in this study (U251, U87, U138, and U373), which were treated with increasing doses of crocetin, showed antiproliferative and pro-differentiative effects as demonstrated by a significant reduction in the number of viable cells, deep changes in cell morphology, and the modulation of mesenchymal and neuronal markers. Indeed, crocetin decreased the expression of Cluster of Differentiation CD44, CD90, CXCR4, and OCT3/4 mesenchymal markers, but increased the expression of ßIII-Tubulin and neurofilaments (NFH) neuronal linage-related markers. Epigenetic mechanisms may modulate these changes, since Histone Deacetylase, HDAC1 and HDAC3 were downmodulated in U251 and U87 cells, whereas HDAC1 expression was downmodulated in U138 and U373 cells. Western blotting analyses of Fatty Acid Synthase, FASN, and CD44 resulted in effective inhibition of these markers after CCT treatment, which was associated with important activation of the apoptosis program and reduced glioma cell movement and wound repair. The in vivo studies aligned with the results obtained in vitro. Indeed, crocetin was demonstrated to inhibit the growth of U251 and U87 cells that were subcutaneously injected into animal models. In particular, the Tumor To Progression or TTP values and Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that crocetin had more major effects than radiotherapy alone, but similar effects to temozolomide (TMZ). An intra-brain cell inoculation of a small number of luciferase-transfected U251 cells provided a model that was able to recapitulate recurrence after surgical tumor removal. The results obtained from the orthotopic intra-brain model indicated that CCT treatment increased the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates, inducing a delay in appearance of a detectable bioluminescent lesion. CCT showed greater efficacy than Radio Therapy (RT) but comparable efficacy to temozolomide in xenograft models. Therefore, we aimed to continue the study of crocetin's effects in glioma disease, focusing our attention on the radiosensitizing properties of the natural compound and highlighting the ways in which this was realized.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Crocus/química , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Injeções Subcutâneas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Medições Luminescentes , Mesoderma/patologia , Camundongos Nus , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1614: 460732, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836308

RESUMO

Differences in the characteristics of seventeen commercial C-30 liquid chromatographic columns were studied for the separation of carotenoid isomers. A mixture consisting of nine xanthophyll and hydrocarbon carotenoids were separated under conditions carefully chosen to reveal changes in selectivity. The influence of the mobile phase composition, column temperature, and mobile phase flow rate were evaluated. Shape selectivity was characterized with Standard Reference Material (SRM) 869b Column Selectivity Test Mixture, for correlation with carotenoid retention behavior. Regular changes were observed across a broad spectrum of shape selectivity characteristics as indicated by SRM 869b. Better separations of carotenoid isomers were achieved with C-30 columns than were possible with C-18 columns, even after optimization of separation conditions.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida/instrumentação , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Resinas de Troca Iônica/normas , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Isomerismo
10.
Phytother Res ; 34(4): 825-835, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769107

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a disorder of the pancreas marked by profound inflammation and oxidative stress. Phytoconstituents presents an important toolbox of preventive strategies to combat inflammatory disorders. To this end, we selected the active constituent of Crocus sativus, crocin for evaluation against cerulein-induced AP, owing to its promising antiinflammatory activity in acute as well as chronic inflammatory conditions. The animals were randomly divided into five groups comprising of normal control, cerulein control, crocin low dose (30 mg/kg), crocin high dose (100 mg/kg), and crocin control (100 mg/kg). Various biochemical parameters and the levels of inflammatory cytokines and p65-NFκB were measured. The mechanism was investigated by histology and immunohistochemistry. We found that crocin significantly reduced the pancreatic edema, amylase, and lipase levels. It abrogated the oxidative stress incurred by cerulein challenge. We found that crocin modulated the pancreatic inflammatory cytokine levels. Crocin perturbed the nuclear translocation of p65-NFκB. Crocin reverted the pancreatic histology associated with AP. Furthermore, it upregulated the expression of Nrf-2 and downregulated the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, nitrotyrosine, and NFκB. Cumulatively, these results indicate that crocin has promising potential to prevent cerulein induced AP and regular intake of saffron can prove beneficial for the pancreatic health.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Ceruletídeo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/prevenção & controle , Doença Aguda , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Crocus/química , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Pancreatite/patologia , Fitoterapia
11.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 61: 104833, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669840

RESUMO

The extraction of Rhodotorula glutinis carotenoids by ultrasound under pressure (manosonication) in an aqueous medium has been demonstrated. The influence of treatment time, pressure, and ultrasound amplitude on R. glutinis inactivation and on the extraction of carotenoids was evaluated, and the obtained data were described mathematically. The extraction yields were lineal functions of those three parameters, whereas inactivation responded to a more complex equation. Under optimum treatment conditions, 82% of carotenoid content was recovered. Extraction of carotenoids in an aqueous medium was attributed to the capacity of ultrasound for cell disruption and emulsification. Cavitation caused the rupture of cell envelopes and the subsequent formation of small droplets of carotenoids surrounded by the phospholipids of the cytoplasmic membrane that would stabilize the emulsion. Analysis of the dispersed particle size of the extracts demonstrated that a fine, homogeneous emulsion was formed after treatment (average size: 230 nm; polydispersity <0.22). This research describes an innovative green process for extracting carotenoids from fresh biomass of R. glutinis in which only two unit operations are required: ultrasonic treatment, followed by a centrifugation step to discard cell debris. The extract obtained thanks to this procedure is rich in carotenoids (25 mg/L) and could be directly incorporated as a pigment in foods, beverages, and diet supplements; it can also be utilized as an ingredient in drugs or cosmetics.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Rhodotorula/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Biomassa , Solventes/química
12.
Food Chem ; 309: 125705, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670122

RESUMO

Red-peeled huyou has a distinct red peel color due mainly to the presence of red apocarotenoid ß-citraurin as well as the increase in amount of total carotenoids. The expression level of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4b1 (CCD4b1) accounted for 99.0% of total transcript abundance of CCD4s in red-peeled huyou peel and was nearly 100 times higher than that in ordinary huyou. ß-Citraurin accumulation and peel coloration was mostly favored at 15 °C but strongly inhibited at moderately high temperatures 20 °C and 25 °C. Exogenous ethylene application for 3 d had no obvious effect on ß-citraurin accumulation in red-peeled huyou but holding fruit at moderately higher temperatures (20 °C and 25 °C) for 3 d had a significant adverse effect on ß-citraurin accumulation. The expression of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and CCD4b1 was higher at 10 °C and 15 °C and significantly lower at 20 °C and 25 °C. The mechanisms governing the accumulation of ß-citraurin are discussed.


Assuntos
Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Etilenos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Citrus/química , Citrus/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/metabolismo , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura , beta Caroteno/análogos & derivados , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/isolamento & purificação
13.
Food Chem ; 302: 125334, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419773

RESUMO

Carotenoids, natural pigments, are a group of chemically heterogeneous molecules, present in numerous taxonomical clusters. Because of their various bioactivities, carotenoids are day-by-day applied in numerous fields. The present work aimed to investigate an efficient extraction process of carotenoids from blue crab shells and their identification by HR-ESI-MS technique. In this context, different methods (enzymatic, maceration, Soxhlet, etc.) and solvents (variable polarity index) were tested. Maceration using the binary system hexane/isopropanol (50/50) was found to be the most efficient process, producing high carotenoids content and low total phenolic and soluble protein amounts (p < 0.05). When combined with an enzymatic pretreatment, this procedure was found to be remarkably (p < 0.05) more efficient and selective especially towards astaxanthin (p < 0.05). The HR-ESI-MS identified 23 compounds, depending on the adopted extraction approach. The compounds identified may have potential for applications in food or pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Braquiúros/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , 2-Propanol/química , Animais , Carotenoides/análise , Hexanos/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação
14.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(4): 502-507, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732260

RESUMO

Industrial scale microalgal cell disruption requires low cost, high efficiency and structural conservation of biomolecules for biorefinery. Many cultivated microalgae have thick walls and these walls are barriers for efficient cell disruption. Until recently, despite the high biodiversity of microalgae, little attention has been paid to thin-wall microalgal species in the natural environment for the production and recovery of valuable biomolecules. Instead of developing high power cell disruption devices, utilization of thin-wall species would be a better approach. The present paper describes a simple device that was assembled to evaluate the viability and effectiveness of biomolecule extraction from both thin- and thick-wall species as a proof of concept. This device was tested with high-pressure gases including N2, CO2 plus N2, and air as the disruption force. The highest nitrogen pressure, 110 bar, was not able to disrupt the thick-wall microalgal cells. On the other hand, the thin-wall species was disrupted to different degrees using different pressures and treatment durations. In the same treatment duration, higher nitrogen pressure gave better cell disruption efficiency than the lower pressure. However, in the same pressure, longer treatment duration did not give better efficiency than the shorter duration. High pressure CO2 treatments resulted in low soluble protein levels in the media. The best conditions to disrupt the thin-wall microalgal cells were 110 bar N2 or air for 1 min among these tests. In these conditions, not only were the disruption efficiencies high, but also the biomolecules were well preserved.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Celular/métodos , Parede Celular/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Gases/farmacologia , Microalgas/química , Pressão , Biomassa , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica , Estresse Mecânico , Frações Subcelulares/química , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112392, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739107

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, still remains as one of the major threat to mankind, despite the availability of a live attenuated vaccine and effective antibiotics. Marine microalgae, at all times, act as a key resource for valuable therapeutic compounds with limited side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present explorative attempt is to isolate the biomolecules of pharmacological importance from the marine microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, and to evaluate its effect on the ever dreadful disease, Tuberculosis. The study is also aimed to develop an economically feasible methodology for by-products extraction from microalgae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fatty acids-carotenoid complexes (FACC), namely, FACC-1 (red oil) and FACC-2 (brown oil) were isolated, in addition to lipid and lutein from the Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF, a protein fraction enriched with vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates)-extracted spent biomass through column chromatography. RESULTS: FACC-1 is a complex of fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids, and carotenoids such as canthaxanthin and neoxanthin. FACC-2 is a complex of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids and carotenoids (cryptoxanthin and echinenone). Initial screening for evaluation of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of FACC-1 and -2 was performed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains such as H37Rv, SHRE sensitive clinical isolate and SHRE resistant clinical isolate. MBC was noted at 10 µg/mL by FACC-1 and at 5 µg/mL by FACC-2, determined using colony forming and Lucipherase Reporter Mycobacteriophages (LRP) assay. Testing in the PAN sensitive isolates indicated that the MBC was noted at 5 µg/mL by FACC-1 and at 2.5 µg/mL by FACC-2. Complete inhibition (100%) was observed at 100 µg/mL by FACC-1 and at 50 µg/mL by FACC-2. Testing of FACC-1 and FACC-2 individually as well as in combination on two different types of MDR strains confirmed the efficacy of the algal oils, wherein in MDR-strain 1, FACC-1 revealed 50% inhibition at 10 µg/mL, while FACC-2 exhibited the same at 5 µg/mL. Conversely, in the case of MDR strain-2, MBC of FACC-1 was at 500 µg/mL and MBCof FACC-2 to be at 250 µg/mL. No significant synergistic effect was observed on combining both the oils. CONCLUSION: The study signifies the development of a potent therapeutic agent comprising of a complex of anti-TB agent (fatty acids) and antioxidants (carotenoids) from the CGF-extracted spent biomass of C. vulgaris.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Biomassa , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
16.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783600

RESUMO

Multiple reviews have been published on various aspects of carotenoid extraction. Nevertheless, none of them focused on the discussion of recent green chemistry extraction protocols, especially for the carotenoids extraction from Daucus carota L. This group of bioactive compounds has been chosen for this review since most of the scientific papers proved their antioxidant properties relevant for inflammation, stress-related disorders, cancer, or neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, such as stroke and Alzheimer's Disease. Besides, carrots constitute one of the most popular sources of carotenoids. In the presented review emphasis has been placed on the supercritical carbon dioxide and enzyme-assisted extraction techniques for the relevant tetraterpenoids. The detailed descriptions of these methods, as well as practical examples, are provided. In addition, the pros and cons of each method and comparison with the standard solvent extraction have been discussed.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Daucus carota/química , Química Verde/métodos , Carotenoides/química , Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Polissacarídeo-Liase/administração & dosagem , Solventes/química
17.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766228

RESUMO

Microalgae produce a variety of compounds that are beneficial to human and animal health. Among these compounds are carotenoids, which are microalgal pigments with unique antioxidant and coloring properties. The objective of this review is to evaluate the potential of using microalgae as a commercial feedstock for carotenoid production. While microalgae can produce some of the highest concentrations of carotenoids (especially astaxanthin) in living organisms, there are challenges associated with the mass production of microalgae and downstream processing of carotenoids. This review discusses the synthesis of carotenoids within microalgae, their physiological role, large-scale cultivation of microalgae, up- and down-stream processing, commercial applications, natural versus synthetic carotenoids, and opportunities and challenges facing the carotenoid markets. We emphasize legal aspects and regulatory challenges associated with the commercial production of microalgae-based carotenoids for food/feed, nutraceutical and cosmetic industry in Europe, the USA, the People's Republic of China, and Japan. This review provides tools and a broad overview of the regulatory processes of carotenoid production from microalgae and other novel feedstocks.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Microalgas/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Corantes/isolamento & purificação , Corantes/farmacologia , Humanos
18.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703456

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the potential of four sea water microalgae, isolated and cultivated at M'diq Bay in Morocco, as a new source of natural antioxidants. These microalgae belong to different classes, including Phaedactylium tricornitum (Bacillariophyceae), Nannochloropsis gaditana (Eustigmatophyceae), Nannochloris sp (Trebouxiophyceae), and Tetraselmis suecica (Chlorodendrophycea). The antioxidant properties were screened by the use of in vitro assays, namely 2,2-difenil-1-picrylhydrazyl, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Ferrous ions chelating activity, and compoundidentification was carried out in methanol and acetone extracts of both dried and fresh microalgae biomass by HPLC-PDA-MS analysis. Among the investigated microalgae, Phaedactylium tricornutum was the richest one regarding its carotenoid (especially all-E-fucoxanthin) and phenolic (especially protocatechuic acid) contents, as well as antioxidant activity (65.5%), followed by Nannochloris sp, Tetraselmis suicica, and Nannochloropsis gaditana, with antioxidant activity of 56.8%, 54.9%, and 51.1%, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Carotenoides , Diatomáceas/química , Microalgas/química , Fenóis , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Marrocos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
19.
Food Res Int ; 126: 108653, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732025

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a new method for carotenoid extraction from orange peel, using ionic liquid (IL) to replace conventional organic solvents, assisted by ultrasound. Four different IL were tested: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([HMIM][Cl]). Response surface methodology was applied in order to optimize the carotenoid extraction conditions, and Amberlite XAD-7HP resin was used to separate the carotenoids from the IL, allowing their recovery. Determination of carotenoids was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MSn). Thermal stability at different temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C) and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of the carotenoid extracts obtained with acetone and IL were evaluated. [BMIM][Cl] was the most effective IL, leading to a total carotenoid content of 32.08 ±â€¯2.05 µg/g, while 7.88 ±â€¯0.59 µg/g of dry matter was obtained by acetone extraction. IL and carotenoid recoveries using XAD-7HP resin were in the range of 59.5-63.8% and 52.2-58.7%, respectively. A carotenoid extract was successfully obtained with IL, finally isolated just by using ethanol, besides being more stable and presenting higher antioxidant activity than that obtained with acetone.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Citrus sinensis/química , Frutas/química , Líquidos Iônicos , Acetona , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Temperatura Alta , Imidazóis , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ondas Ultrassônicas
20.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698797

RESUMO

The present study describes the variation in lipid components from 15 species of seaweeds belonging to the Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta, and Rhodophyta phyla collected in tropical (Indonesia) and temperate (Japan) areas. Analyses were performed of multiple components, including chlorophylls, carotenoids, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alpha tocopherol (α-Toc). Chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid contents varied among phyla, but not with the sampling location. Chl a and b were the major chlorophylls in Chlorophyta. Chl a and Chl c were the main chlorophylls in Ochrophyta, while Chl a was the dominant chlorophylls in Rhodophyta. ß-Carotene and fucoxanthin were detected as major seaweed carotenoids. The former was present in all species in a variety of ranges, while the latter was mainly found in Ochrophyta and in small quantities in Rhodophyta, but not in Chlorophyta. The total lipids (TL) content and fatty acids composition were strongly affected by sampling location. The TL and n-3 PUFAs levels tended to be higher in temperate seaweeds compared with those in tropical seaweeds. The major n-3 PUFAs in different phyla, namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) in Ochrophyta, α-linolenic acid (ALA) and SDA in Chlorophyta, and EPA in Rhodophyta, accumulated in temperate seaweeds. Chlorophylls, their derivatives, and carotenoids are known to have health benefits, such as antioxidant activities, while n-3 PUFAs are known to be essential nutrients that positively influence human nutrition and health. Therefore, seaweed lipids could be used as a source of ingredients with health benefits for functional foods and nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/química , Lipídeos/química , Rodófitas/química , Alga Marinha/química , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/isolamento & purificação , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Indonésia , Japão , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação
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